Anatomy of Radial, Median and Ulanar nerve

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ANATOMY OF RADIAL,MEDIAN &ULNAR NERVE:

ANATOMY OF RADIAL,MEDIAN &ULNAR NERVE PRESENTER: Dr ANKUR MITTAL MODERATOR: Dr M.O.KRISHNAMURTHY BSc M.B.B.S M.S (ORTHO)

RADIAL NERVE:

RADIAL NERVE The radial nerve arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and receives contribution from the fifth to eighth cervical roots and sometimes T1 It is primarily a motor nerve It commences its decent into the arm by passing anterior to the latissimus insertion and dives into the triceps to lie on the posterior surface of the humerus approx 97 to 142 mm distal to the acromion .

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It lies on the surface of the medial head of the triceps, rather than the bony surface –of the humerus and does not do so until it crosses to the lateral aspect of the humerus along the spiral groove . The lower portion of the radial nerve crosses the midline at an average of 15 cm from the distal articular surface and pierces the lateral intermuscular septum at approximately 122 mm (range, 88–152 mm) from the lateral epicondyle . The radial nerve is relatively safe during a posterior approach to the humerus (splitting the triceps). In the posterior approach, the radial nerve islocated 13 to 15 cm proximal to the joint line. For lateral approaches to the humerus , the radial nerve is located approximately 7.5 to 10 cm proximal to the lateral epicondyle

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Above the elbow, the radial nerve innervates the long, lateral, and medial heads of the triceps One to 3 cm distal to the lateral epicondyle and deep to the brachioradialis , the radial nerve splits into the superficial radial nerve and the posterior interosseous nerve. The superficial radial nerve continues down the forearm along the lateral border of the brachioradialis and becomes subcutaneous at its middle 1⁄3, innervating the skin on the radial aspect of the forearm and the dorsal aspects of the radial three and one half digits3 . The posterior interosseous nerve continues down the forearm diving into the supinator and then emerging to split into several branches that supply the extensors of the wrist and hand

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The order of innervation of the musculature (proximal to distal) is important in assessing entrapment syndromes of the radial nerve However, variability exists

CLINICAL APPLICATION OF RADIAL NERVE:

CLINICAL APPLICATION OF RADIAL NERVE Causes of injury of radial nerve : In axilla Saturday night palsy , crutch palsy fracture shaft of humerus (Most common) Gunshot wounds (2 nd most common) Laceration of arm or forearm Injection injuries Prolonged local pressure Entrapment syndromes

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Entrapment syndrome.. In arm : Fibrous arch of lateral head of triceps. The posterior interosseous nerve is prone to entrapment at several levels by various structures . Classically posterior interosseous nerve entrapment is known as radial tunnel syndrome The radial tunnel begins shortly after the bifurcation of the radial nerve

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The posterior interosseous nerve passes deep to fibrous bands that are confluent with the brachialis, brachoradialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis and superficial head of the supinator , which forms the most proximal roof of the radial tunnel. These fibrous bands are the first structures that may compress the posterior interosseous nerve. Proximally, the floor : capsule of the radiocapitellar joint. As the posterior interosseous nerve continues through the tunnel and reaches the level of the radial neck, the roof is made of recurrent vessels of the radial artery (Leash of Henry). The Leash of Henry is the second structure that may entrap the nerve . Radial tunnel

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The posterior interosseous nerve then encounters the extensor carpi radialis brevis and gives off a branch to it . The extensor carpi radialis brevis may compress the nerve at this location. The posterior interosseous nerve passes beneath the sharp proximal edge of the supinator (Arcade of Frohse ), which is the final location where it may be compressed. Other causes of entrapment of PIN Fracture dislocation or dislocation of elbow Volchemic ichaemic contracture Neoplasm Enlarged bursae Anurysm Rheumatoid synovitis of elbow

MEDIAN NERVE :

MEDIAN NERVE The median nerve has contributions from essentially the entire brachial plexus (C5-T1), and is formed by portions of the lateral and medial cord. The median nerve does not provide motor or sensory innervation until it reaches the elbow. The median nerve courses down the arm within the lateral intermuscular septum, deep to the short head of the biceps and lateral to the brachial artery .

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At the midbrachium , it crosses to the medial side of the brachial artery and descends to the antecubital fossa . In the antecubital fossa , the median nerve lies deep to the bicipital aponeurosis , medial to the antecubital vein, and medial to the brachial artery, Although the median nerve is anterior to the trochlea and superficial to the brachialis , it occasionally can be found medial to the trochlea , such that it lies anterior to the medial epicondyle . This is of clinical importance in elbow dislocations.

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Distal to the elbow, the median nerve courses down the forearm deep to the flexor digitorum superficialis and superficial to the flexor digitorum profundus . In the distal 1⁄3 of the forearm, the median nerve emerges from beneath the flexor digitorum superficialis to lie medial to the flexor carpi radialis and lateral to the palmaris longus , before entering the carpal tunnel At the level of the junction of the two heads of the pronator teres , the median nerve gives off the anterior interosseous nerve

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The most consistent order of branches off the median nerve is The innervation to the pronator teres is proximal to the elbow, whereas the remaining muscles are innervated distal to the elbow . The anterior interosseous nerve quickly dives deep to the flexor and pronator mass and travels with the anterior interosseous artery (a branch of the ulnar artery) to travel on the volar surface of the interosseous membrane

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The median nerve gives a palmar cutaneous branch that provides sensation to thenar skin of the palm, and is most commonly branches 4 to 5 cm proximal to the wrist, lying on the ulnar side of the flexor carpiradialis Within the carpal tunnel, the median nerve divides into three terminal branches. The lateral branches : thumb and radial side of the index finger Terminal branches of the medial division: middle finger and radial aspect of the ring finger.

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The lateral-most division gives off the terminal motor innervation of the median nerve, the recurrent motor branch, that innervates the abductor pollicis brevis , flexor pollicis brevis , opponens pollicis , and the lateral two lumbricals before to dividing into its terminal sensory branches. The recurrent motor branch is of particular interest because it has been observed to have a variable location of origin. Three variations, the most common of which had the nerve originating beyond the carpal tunnel (46%), within the tunnel but traversing to the thenar eminance distal to the tunnel (31%), a finally, one that originated within the tunnel and pierced the transverse carpal ligament (23%).

CLINICAL APPLICATION OF MEDIAN NERVE :

CLINICAL APPLICATION OF MEDIAN NERVE CAUSES OF INJURY OF MEDIAN NERVE: Near axilla : injury occur along with ulnar nerve , musculocutaneous nerve and brachial artery. Arm : Ligament of struthers : It is seen 5 cm proximal to the medial epicondyle and is a fibrous band that interconnects a bony spur on the distal humerus to the medial epicondyle Elbow : supracondylar fracture Posterior dislocation of elbow Forearm and wrist: lacerations

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Entrapment syndrome pronator syndrome Lacertus fibrosus fibrous flexor digitorum Carpel tunnel syndrome

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Compression of anterior interroseus nerve Tentinous origin of flexor digitorum Pronater teres Tendons from flexor digitorum to flexor policis longus Accessory head of flexor policis longus ( gantzer muscle) Aberrant radial artery Thrombosis of ulnar colleteral artery VIC

ULNAR NERVE:

ULNAR NERVE It composed of fibers from C8 and T1 coming from medial cord of brachial plexus. Above the axilla : It courses with axillary A. and vein and lie deep to pectoralis minor In the axilla : It crosses medial to brachial artery and lii deep to pectoralis major

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At the level of the distal attachment of the coracobrachialis to the humerus (average 10 cm proximal to the medial epicondyle ), the ulnar nerve pierces the medial intermuscular septum to enter the posterior compartment of the brachium. Here it lies on the anterior border of the medial head of the triceps Then it passes through the ligament of Struthers and then behind the medial epicondyle through cubital tunnel

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As the ulnar nerve exists the cubital tunnel, it courses between the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris and enters the anterior compartment of the forearm Shortly after exiting the cubital tunnel, the ulnar nerve gives off motor branches to the flexor carpi ulnaris . It then lies on the anterior surface of the flexor digitorum profundus . At approximately 5 cm distal to the medial epicondyle , the ulnar nerve gives off branches to the ulnar aspect of the flexor digitorum profundus providing innervation to the long flexors of the ring and small fingers. In the middle of the forearm, at approximately 12 cm distal to the medial epicondyle , the ulnar nerve becomes superficial and meets with the ulnar artery as it travels toward the wrist.

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Before the flexor carpi ulnaris becomes tendinous , the ulnar nerve divides. The more superficial of the two branches courses dorsally toward the distal ulna and dorsum of the hand and becomes the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve. Near the wrist the ulnar nerve rises superficial to the flexor retinaculum and lies under the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris before its attachment to the pisiform . The ulnar nerve then turns radial to the pisiform to lie in a fibrous tunnel known as Guyon’s Canal

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Within the canal, the ulnar nerve divides into motor and sensory branches. Branches of nerve here shows many variations so surgeon should be very cautious will disecting here. Within Guyon’s canal there are three locations where the nerve may be entrapped: Zone I : proximal in the canal, before the division of the deep and superficial nerve. A patient with a Zone I entrapment will have motor weakness of all intrinsics , and numbness in the ulnar ring and entire small finger.

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Zone III also is distal, but the compression occurs more medially in the canal, compressing the superficial branch and presents as numbness in the ring and small fingers Zone II : at the distal radial aspect after the superficial and deep branches of the ulnar nerve have divided. In Zone II entrapment, the superficial branch is spared and there is no loss of sensation in the ring and small fingers, but the intrinsics are weak, with the exception of some of the hypothenar muscles, particularly the palmaris brevis . . Finally, there are two well described connections between the median and ulna nerves that should be mentioned: Riche- Cannieu anastomosis .: It occurs distally as a communication between the palmar cutaneous branches of the median and ulnar nerves.

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It is of 4 types: Type I, anterior interosseous nerve to the ulnar ; Type II, median to the ulnar ; Type III, branches to flexor digitorum profundus and to the ulnar ; and Type IV, a combination of Types I, II, and III. The significance of these findings is the crossover contributions from the median nerve that may lead to an underestimation of an injury to the ulnar nerve clinically and electrodiagnostically The Martin-Gruber or proximal anastomosis : It is an anastomotic connection between the median and ulnar nerve in the forearm.

CLINICAL APPLICATION OF ULNAR NERVE:

CLINICAL APPLICATION OF ULNAR NERVE Causes of injury of ulnar nerve according to level: Upper arm : it get injured along with other structures like median N and brachial A. Middle arm : Relatively protected Distal arm or elbow : Dislocation of elbow Supracondylar or condylar fracture Distal forearm and wrist : ( Most commonly injured) Gunshot wounds Laceration Fractures Dislocation

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Tardy ulnar palsy : Malunited fracture of lateral humeral epicondylein children Displaced fracture of meial humeral epicondyle Dislocation of elbow Contusion Shallow ulnar groove Hypoplasis of humeral trochlea Recurrent subluxation or dislocation of ulnar nerve Entrapment syndrome: Arcade of struthers : A thick fascial band that connects the medial head of the triceps to the intermuscular septum crosses the ulnar nerve at approximately 8 cm proximal to the medial epicondyle Cubital tunnel: A fibrous sheath (Osborne’s ligament) laterally, and the head of the flexor carpi ulnaris posteromedially

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Guyon’s canal: floor: the transverse carpal ligament, and also the flexor digitorum profundus, pisohamate and pisometacarpal ligaments, and the opponents digiti minimi . The roof : the palmar carpal ligament and the palmaris brevis , and distally passes ulnar to the hook of the hamate Tight fascia or ligament Neoplasms Rheumatoid synovitis Aneurysm Vascular thromboses Anomolous muscles Prologed direct pressure during surgery

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SENSORY DISTRIBUTION

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