logging in or signing up Disaster management by Dr mitra bhattara mitrapd Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 1268 Category: Education License: Some Rights Reserved Like it (5) Dislike it (0) Added: May 02, 2010 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 1 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... By: priarora (25 month(s) ago) v nice presentation.can u plz mail it to firstname.lastname@example.org? Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: hrajendran (28 month(s) ago) good and useful Saving..... 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Great changes happen deep inside the Earth and on its surface. The changes on the outer part of the Earth happen because of different kinds of weather. 5/2/2010 3 What is Disaster ? : What is Disaster ? A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. 5/2/2010 4 What is mean by Hazard ? : What is mean by Hazard ? A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. 5/2/2010 5 What is mean by vulnerability ? : What is mean by vulnerability ? The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards. 5/2/2010 6 What is Risk ? : What is Risk ? The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environmental damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions. Conventionally risk is expressed by the notation Risk = 'Hazards' x 'Vulnerability'. Some disciplines also include the concept of exposure to refer particularly to the physical aspects of vulnerability. A disaster is a function of the risk process. It results from the combination of hazards, conditions of vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential negative consequences of risk. 5/2/2010 7 What is mean by resilience/resilient ? : What is mean by resilience/resilient ? The capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. It is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase its capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures. 5/2/2010 8 What is mean by Disaster Risk Reduction ? : What is mean by Disaster Risk Reduction ? The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development. 5/2/2010 9 Types of disaster : Types of disaster ①Natural Volcanic eruption Earthquake Cyclone or Hurricanes Avalanche Floods Drought Forest fire or Bushfire Tidal waves Snow storms Land-slides Typhoons Epidemic disease 5/2/2010 10 ②Human-Induced : ②Human-Induced fire Industrial accidents or chemical accidents Road accidents Bomb blast or explosions Nuclear accidents Warfare 5/2/2010 11 Volcanic eruption : Volcanic eruption 5/2/2010 12 A volcanic eruption is the spurting out of gases and hot lava from an opening in the Earth’s crust. Earthquake : Earthquake 5/2/2010 13 An earthquake is a violent shaking of the ground. Sometimes it is so strong that the ground splits apart. When parts of the earth, called plates, move against each other giant shock waves move upwards towards the surface causing the earthquake. Cyclone or Hurricane : Cyclone or Hurricane A Cyclone is a fierce storm with storm winds that spin around it in a giant circle. During a cyclone trees can be uprooted, buildings can be destroyed and cars can be overturned. 5/2/2010 14 Avalanche : Avalanche An Avalanche is a movement of snow, ice and rock down a mountainside. Avalanches happen very suddenly and can move as fast as a racing car up to 124mph. Avalanches can be caused by – snow melting quickly snow freezing, melting then freezing again someone skiing a loud noise or an earth tremor 5/2/2010 15 Flood : Flood A flood is caused by an overflow of water which covers the land that is usually dry. Floods are caused by heavy rain or by snow melting and the rivers burst their banks and overflow. 5/2/2010 16 Drought : Drought A drought is the lack of rain for a long time. In 1968 a drought began in Africa. Children born during this year were five years old before rain fell again. 5/2/2010 17 Forest fire or Bushfire : Forest fire or Bushfire Fires can burn out of control in areas of forest or bush land. Fires are caused by lightning, sparks of electricity or careless people. Wind may blow a bushfire to areas where people live. 5/2/2010 18 landslides : landslides landslip is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. 5/2/2010 19 Tidal wave : Tidal wave which is a large movement of water formed by the funneling of the incoming tide into a river or narrow bay 5/2/2010 20 typhoons : typhoons Typhoon are regionally specific names for a strong "tropical cyclone" 5/2/2010 21 Snow storms : Snow storms Snowstorms are storms where large amounts of snow fall. It may occur in the late autumn and early spring as well. Very rarely, they may form in summer. 5/2/2010 22 Epidemic Disease : Epidemic Disease Outbreaks of Disease ,Many diseases occur naturally. that affects a much greater number of people than is usual for the locality or that spreads to regions. they can create epidemics. A biological agents are used in attacks because they cause the most illness and death among humans, they include: -Anthrax,Botulism,Plaque, Smallpox, Cholera, and H1N1. It could be hours or even days . 5/2/2010 23 Fire : Fire Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. 5/2/2010 24 Industrial accidents or chemical accidents : Industrial accidents or chemical accidents The terms “chemical accident” or “chemical incident” refer to an event resulting in the release of a substance or substances hazardous to human health and/or the environment in the short or long term. Such events include fires, explosions, leakages or releases of toxic or hazardous materials that can cause people illness, injury, disability or death. 5/2/2010 25 Slide 26: 5/2/2010 26 Bomb blast : Bomb blast Blast bomb is a term used for a type of improvised explosive device. 5/2/2010 27 Slide 28: 5/2/2010 28 Road accidents : Road accidents A traffic collision (motor vehicle collision, motor vehicle accident, or car crash) is when a road vehicle collides with another vehicle 5/2/2010 29 Slide 30: 5/2/2010 30 Slide 31: 5/2/2010 31 Earthquakes have highest mortality as a result of people being crushed by falling objects & at night they are deadly Slide 32: 5/2/2010 32 Slide 33: 5/2/2010 33 Disaster management : Disaster management Disaster management (or Emergency management) is the discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks. It is a discipline that involves preparing for disaster before it occurs, disaster response (e.g., emergency evacuation, quarantine, mass decontamination, etc.), and supporting, and rebuilding society after natural or human-made disasters have occurred. In general, any Emergency management is the continuous process by which all individuals, groups, and communities manage hazards in an effort to avoid or ameliorate the impact of disasters resulting from the hazards. Actions taken depend in part on perceptions of risk of those exposed. 5/2/2010 34 Disaster management cont__ : Disaster management cont__ There are three fundamental aspects of disaster management disaster response disaster preparedness; and disaster mitigation 5/2/2010 35 Disaster cycle : Disaster cycle 5/2/2010 36 Risk reduction phase Before a disaster Recovery phase After a disaster Disaster impact Slide 37: 5/2/2010 37 Disaster response : Disaster response Disaster response is a phase of the disaster management cycle. Its preceding cycles aim to reduce the need for a disaster response, or to avoid it altogether. 5/2/2010 38 Need for efficient disaster response system : Need for efficient disaster response system Disaster victims need immediate, efficient and effective rescue and relief services . Provide relief and rescue workers with a platform easy to use, fast to search, retrieve and access information. Prevent duplication of relief works. Overall, proper co-ordination among the existing organization seems to be lacking due to the shortage of effective information dissemination system 5/2/2010 39 Disaster impact and response : Disaster impact and response Search,rescue and first aid Field care Triage Tagging Identification of dead 5/2/2010 40 Disaster Impact & Response cont… : Disaster Impact & Response cont… Search Rescue & First-aid- most immediate help comes from uninjured survivors. Field care- Proper care , beds, surgical services, food , shelter , inquiry Centre establishment, Victim’s identification & provision of adequate mortuary space. Triage Tagging regarding name age address, diagnosis & treatment Identification of dead & shifting to mortuary & reception of bereaved relatives. 5/2/2010 41 Triage : Triage Triage consists of rapidly classifying the injured on the basis of the severity of their injuries & the likelihood of their survival with prompt medical intervention. Highest priority is granted to victims whose immediate or long term prognosis can be dramatically affected by simple intensive care. Moribund patients who require a great deal of attention , with questionable benefit have the lowest priority. 5/2/2010 42 Slide 43: 5/2/2010 43 Red indicates highest priority of t/t. Yellow signals medium priority Green indicates ambulatory patients Black for Dead or Moribund patients Slide 44: 5/2/2010 44 Slide 45: 5/2/2010 45 Disaster mitigation : Disaster mitigation Steps taken to contain or reduce the effects of an anticipated or already occurred disastrous event. Disaster mitigation measures are those that eliminate or reduce the impacts and risks of hazards through proactive measures taken before an emergency or disaster occurs. 5/2/2010 46 Disaster mitigation cont….. : Disaster mitigation cont….. Mitigation efforts attempt to prevent hazards from developing into disasters altogether, or to reduce the effects of disasters when they occur. The mitigation phase differs from the other phases because it focuses on long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk.The implementation of mitigation strategies can be considered a part of the recovery process if applied after a disaster occurs. Mitigative measures can be structural or non-structural. Structural measures use technological solutions, like flood levees. Non-structural measures include legislation, land-use planning (e.g. the designation of nonessential land like parks to be used as flood zones), and insurance. Mitigation is the most cost-efficient method for reducing the impact of hazards, however it is not always suitable. Mitigation does include providing regulations regarding evacuation, 5/2/2010 47 Relief Phase : Relief Phase This phase begins when assistance from outside starts to reach the disaster area. The needed supplies will include food , blankets , clothings , shelter , sanitary engineering Equipment & construction material. Four principal components in managing humanitarian supplies: a) Acquisition of supplies b)Transportation c)Storage D) Distribution 5/2/2010 48 Slide 49: 5/2/2010 49 Epidemiological surveillance & Disease Control : Epidemiological surveillance & Disease Control Disasters can increase the transmission of Communicable diseases by Overcrowding & poor sanitation Population displacement Contaminated water supply Disruption of routine control programmes Breeding of vectors Displacement of domestic & wild animals who carry zoonoses e.g. Leptospirosis in Orissa cyclone 5/2/2010 50 After Disaster : After Disaster There may be Gastroenteritis outbreak Acute respiratory infections Vector Borne diseases Zoonoses 5/2/2010 51 Epidemiological surveillance & Disease Control………………. : Epidemiological surveillance & Disease Control………………. Implement all public health measure as soon as possible Organize a reliable disease reporting system to identify outbreaks and to promptly initiate disease control measures Investigate rapidly 5/2/2010 52 Rehabilitation : Rehabilitation It starts from very first moment of disaster. Water supply – increase residual chlorine level to about 0.2-0.5mg per litre. Keep safe the water resources by fencing & restricting access of animals. Prevent every possible means of contamination 5/2/2010 53 Slide 54: Food safety personal hygiene & kitchen sanitation must be ensured. Basic Sanitation & personal Hygiene Safe excreta disposal should be ensured. Vector Control must be Intensified. 5/2/2010 54 Other Sector components : Other Sector components Rescue and medical assistance for the affected Water and sanitation Food and nutrition Information, Communication, Logistics and transport Health and nutrition Shelter, Infrastructural and Physical Planning Search and reunification of families Livehood Protection and security Other domestic needs 5/2/2010 55 Disaster preparedness : Disaster preparedness 5/2/2010 56 Disaster preparedness refers to measures taken to prepare for and reduce the effects of disasters. That is, to predict and—where possible—prevent them, mitigate their impact onvulnerable populations, and respond to and effectively cope with their consequences. Disaster preparedness is best viewed from a broad perspective and is more appropriately conceived of as a goal, rather than as a specialised programme or stage that immediately precedes disaster response. Disaster preparedness measures : Disaster preparedness measures Disaster preparedness, is a broad concept that describes a set of measures that minimises the adverse effects of a hazard including loss of life and property and disruption of livelihoods. Disaster preparedness is achieved partially through readiness measures that expedite emergency response, rehabilitation and recovery and result in rapid, timely and targeted assistance. It is also achieved through community-based approaches and activities that build the capacities of people and communities to cope with and minimise the effects of a disaster on their lives. 5/2/2010 57 Disaster preparedness include the followingelements:- : Disaster preparedness include the followingelements:- Hazard, risk and vulnerability assessments Response mechanisms and strategies Preparedness plans Coordination 5. Information management Early warning systems Resource mobilisation Public education, training, & rehearsals Community-Based disaster preparedness 5/2/2010 58 Slide 59: 5/2/2010 59 Slide 60: 5/2/2010 60 Slide 61: 5/2/2010 61 Slide 62: 5/2/2010 62 Slide 63: 5/2/2010 63 Slide 64: 5/2/2010 64 Slide 65: 5/2/2010 65 Slide 66: 5/2/2010 66 Slide 67: 5/2/2010 67 Slide 68: 5/2/2010 68 Slide 69: 5/2/2010 69 Slide 70: 5/2/2010 70 Slide 71: 5/2/2010 71 Slide 72: 5/2/2010 72 Slide 73: 5/2/2010 73 Slide 74: 5/2/2010 74 Slide 75: 5/2/2010 75 Daily life after Disaster Slide 76: 5/2/2010 76 Daily activity Slide 77: 5/2/2010 77 Slide 78: 5/2/2010 78 Happy new year : Happy new year 5/2/2010 79 Slide 80: 5/2/2010 80 Thank you for your kind attention You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.