FEVER PPT BY MITESH BHINGARADIYA

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ABOUT FEVER

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FEVER:

FEVER

DEFINITION OF FEVER:

DEFINITION OF FEVER Fever is an elevation of body temperature that exceeds the normal daily variation, in conjunction with an increase in hypothalamic set point

VARIATION IN TEMPERATURE:

VARIATION IN TEMPERATURE Anatomic variation Physiologic variation: Age Sex Exercise Circadian rhythm Underlying disorders

NORMAL BODY TEMPERATURE:

NORMAL BODY TEMPERATURE Maximum normal oral temperature At 6 AM : 37.2 At 4 PM : 37.7

PHYSIOLOGY OF FEVER:

PHYSIOLOGY OF FEVER Pyrogens: Exogenous pyrogens: Bacteria, Virus, Fungus, Allergen,… Endogenous pyrogen Immune complex, lymphokine,… Major EPs: IL1, TNF, IL6

PHYSIOLOGY OF FEVER:

PHYSIOLOGY OF FEVER Exogenous pyrogen Activated leukocytes Endogenous pyrogen(IL1,TNF,…) Acute Phase Response Preoptic area of anterior hypothalamus ( PGE2 ) increase of set point => Brain cortex Vasoconstriction heat conservation Muscle contraction heat production FEVER

ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE:

ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE Metabolic changes Negative nitrogene balance Loss of body weight Altered synthesis of hormones Hematologic alterations Leukocytosis Thrombocytosis Decreased erythrocytosis Altered hepatocyte function ( Acute phase reactants ) C reactive protein(increased) Serum amyloid A(increased) Fibrinogen(increased) Fibronectin(increased) Haptoglobin(increased) Ceruloplasmin(increased) Ferritin(increased) Albumin(decreased) Transferrin(decreased)

HYPERTHERMIA:

HYPERTHERMIA Heat production exceeds heat loss, and the temperature exceeds the individuals set point

CAUSES OF HYPERTHERMIA SYNDROME:

CAUSES OF HYPERTHERMIA SYNDROME Heat stroke: Exercise, Anticholinergic Drug induced: Cocaine, Amphetamine,MAO inh . Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: Phenothiazine Malignant hyperthermia: Inhalational anesthetics Endocrinopathy: throtoxicosis, pheochromocytoma

DIAGNOSIS OF HYPERTHERMIA:

DIAGNOSIS OF HYPERTHERMIA History Antipyretics are not effective Skin is hot but dry

TREATMENT OF FEVER :

TREATMENT OF FEVER Most fevers are associated with self-limited infections, most commonly of viral origin.

TREATMENT OF FEVER:

TREATMENT OF FEVER Reasons not to treat fever: The growth and virulance of some organisms Host defense-related response Fever is an indicator of disease Adverse effect of antipyretic drugs Iatrogenic stress Social benefits

DISCOMFORT DUE TO FEVER:

DISCOMFORT DUE TO FEVER For each 1 °C elevation of body temperature: Metabolic rate increase 10-15% Insensible water loss increase 300-500ml/m2/day O2 consumption increase 13% Heart rate increase 10-15/min

TREATMENT OF FEVER:

TREATMENT OF FEVER Reasons to treat fever: The elderly individual with pulmonary or cardiovascular disease The patient at additional risk from the hypercatabolic state (Poor nutrition, Dehydration) The young child with a history of febrile convulsions Toxic encephalopathy or delirium Pregnant women (contraversy) For the patient comfort Hyperpyrexia

Treatment Strategies :

Treatment Strategies Acetaminophen is generally a first-line antipyretic due to being well tolerated with minimal side effects. Pediatric dose: 10-15mg/kg q4-6h (2400mg/day); adult: 650mg q 4 h(4000mg) Can be hepatotoxic in high doses; can upset stomach

Clinical Pearls:

Clinical Pearls Don’t give aspirin to children under 18 years (Reye’s Syndrome) Try water sponge bath; remove blankets and heavy clothing; keep room at comfortable temp

ATTENUETED FEVER RESPONSE:

ATTENUETED FEVER RESPONSE Fever may not be present despite infection in: Newborn Elderly Uremia Significant malnourished individual Taking corticosteroids

DRUG FEVER:

DRUG FEVER PATHOGENEGIS Contamination of the drug with a pyrogen or microorganism Pharmacologic action of the drug itself Allergic (hypersensitivity) reaction to the drug

DRUG FEVER:

DRUG FEVER Fever out of proportion to clinical picture Associated findings: Rigor (43%), Myalgia (25%), Rash (18%), Headache (18%), Leukocytosis (22%), Eosinophilia (22%), Serum sickness,Proteinuria Abnormal liver function test

DRUG FEVER:

DRUG FEVER Onset and duration: Onset: 1-3 weeks after the start of therapy Duration: remits 2-3 days after therapy is stoped

APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH FEVER:

APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH FEVER ACUTE FEBRILE ILLNESS

APPROACH TO FEVER:

APPROACH TO FEVER Personal History: Age Occupation Place of origin,Travel History Habits Sexual Practices Injection Drug Abuse Excessive Alcohol Use Consumption of Unpasteurized Dairy Products

APPROACH TO FEVER:

APPROACH TO FEVER Underlying Diseases: Splenectomy Surgical Implantation of Prosthesis Immunodeficiency Chronic Diseases: Cirrhosis Chronic Heart Diseases Chronic Lung Diseases

APPROACH TO FEVER:

APPROACH TO FEVER Drug History: Antipyretics Immunosuppressants Antibiotics Family History: TB in the Family Recent Infection in the Family

APPROACH TO FEVER:

APPROACH TO FEVER Associated Symptoms: Shaking chills Ear pain,Ear drainage,Hearing loss Visual and Eye Symptoms Sore Throat Chest and Pulmonary Symptoms Abdominal Symptoms Back pain, Joint or Skeletal pain

PATTERN OF FEVER:

PATTERN OF FEVER Sustained (Continuous) Fever Intermittent Fever (Hectic Fever) Remittent Fever Relapsing Fever: Tertian Fever Quartan Fever Days of Fever Followed by a Several Days Afebrile Pel Ebstein Fever Fever Every 21 Day

APPROACH TO FEVER:

APPROACH TO FEVER Physical Examination: Vital Signs Neurological Exam. Skin Lesions,Mucous Membrane Eyes ENT Lymphadenopathy Lungs and Heart Abdominal Region (Hepatomegaly,Splenomegaly) Musculoskeletal

LABORATORY STUDY IN PATIENT WITH FEBRILE ILLNESS:

LABORATORY STUDY IN PATIENT WITH FEBRILE ILLNESS Assess the extent and severity of the inflammatory response to infection Determine the site(s) and complications of organ involvement by the process Determine the etiology of the infectious disease

Initial Laboratory Evaluations in UNEXPLAINED PROLONGED FEVER:

Initial Laboratory Evaluations in UNEXPLAINED PROLONGED FEVER CBC (diff.) PBS for Malaria and borelia Two Blood Culture in 30 min. Interval CXR U/A L.F.T. in selected patients Wright in selected patients

INDICATIONS OF HOSPITALISATION IN PATIENT WITH FEBRILE ILLNESS:

INDICATIONS OF HOSPITALISATION IN PATIENT WITH FEBRILE ILLNESS Persons who are clinically unstable or are at risk for rapid deterioration Major alterations of immunity Need for IV Antimicrobials or other fluids Advanced age

FUO:

FUO FEVER OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN

FUO:

FUO Classic FUO Nosocomial FUO Neutropenic FUO HIV-Associated FUO

Classic FUO:

Classic FUO Definition: Fever of 38.3 C or higher on several occasions Fever of more than 3 weeks duration Diagnosis uncertain, despite appropriate investigations after at least 3 outpatient visits or at least 3 days in hospital

Nosocomial FUO:

Nosocomial FUO Definition: Fever of 38.3 or higher on several occasions Infection was not manifest or incubating on admission Failure to reach a diagnosis despite 3 days of appropriate investigation in hospitalized patient

Neutropenic FUO:

Neutropenic FUO Definition: Fever of 38.3 or higher on several occasions Neutrophil count is <500/mm3 or is expected to fall to that level in 1 to 2 days Failure to reach a diagnosis despite 3 days of appropriate investigation

HIV-Associated FUO:

HIV-Associated FUO Definition: Fever of 38.3 or higher on several occasions Fever of more than 3 weeks for outpatients or more than 3 days for hospitalized patients with HIV infection Failure to reach a diagnosis despite 3days of appropriate investigation

Causes of classical FUO:

Causes of classical FUO Infections 22-58% Neoplasms up to 30% Noninfectiouse inflammatory diseases up to 25% Miscellaneous causes up to 25% Undiagnosed up to 30%

Infections commonly associated with FUO:

Infections commonly associated with FUO Localized pyogenic infections Intravascular infections Systemic bacterial infections (Tuberculosis, Brucellosis,…) Fungal infections Viral infections Parasitic infections

Malignancies commonly associated with FUO:

Malignancies commonly associated with FUO Hodgkin’s disease Non-hodgkin’s lymphoma Leukemia Renal cell carcinoma Hepatoma Colon carcinoma Atrial myxoma

Noninfectious inflammatory diseases with FUO:

Noninfectious inflammatory diseases with FUO Collagen vascular/ hypersensitivity diseases Lupus Still’s disease Temporal arteritis (Giant cell arteritis) Granulomatouse diseases Crohn’s disease Sarcoidosis Idiopathic granulomatouse disease

Miscellaneous causes of FUO:

Miscellaneous causes of FUO Drug fever Factitious fever FMF Recurrent pulmonary emboli Subacute thyroiditis

FACTITIOUS FEVER:

FACTITIOUS FEVER Diagnosis should be considered in any FUO, especially in: Young women Persons with medical training If the patients clinically well Disparity between temperature and pulse Absence of the normal diurnal pattern

Causes of FUO lasting > 6 month:

Causes of FUO lasting > 6 month Undiagnosed 19% Miscellaneous 13% Factitious 9% Granulomatouse hepatitis 8% Neoplasm 7% Infection 6% No fever 27%

Approach to FUO:

Approach to FUO Determine whether the patient has a true FUO Workup of true FUO: Careful history Serial follow-up histories Careful physical examination Physical examination should be repeated

Laboratory examination::

Laboratory examination: CBC(diff) PBS ESR U/A S/E Culture of blood, urine,… Skin test Serology ANA

Imaging::

Imaging: CXR Ultrasonography Radiographic contrast study Radioneuclide scan CT or MRI

Invasive Procedures:

Invasive Procedures Biopsies: Bone marrow Skin lesion Lymph node Liver Temporal artery

THANKS:

THANKS MITESH BHINGARADIYA

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