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Embedded system is found in a variety of common electronic devices such as consumer electronics, home appliances, office automation, business equipment and automobiles. Characteristics of Embedded System: : Characteristics of Embedded System: It acts as single functioned or has tightly bound set of functions means it is not used as general purpose. It is very reactive and real time constrained. Increasingly high performance. Application specific processor design can be a significant component of some embedded system. Requirements of Embedded Systems:- : Requirements of Embedded Systems:- 1. Functional Requirements :- Direct Digital Control Data Collection Man-Machine Interaction 2. Temporal Requirements :- Tasks may have deadlines Minimal latency jitter Minimal error detection latency Timing requirements due to tight software control loops Human interface requirements. 3. Dependability Requirements :- Reliability Safety Maintainability Availability Security Major Components in Embedded Systems : Major Components in Embedded Systems Data acquisition and processing Communication System logic and control algorithm Interface Auxiliary units Display Storage Monitoring and protection Test and diagnosis. Block Diagram of Embedded System : Block Diagram of Embedded System Hardware: Processors, ASICs (application specific ics), memory. It is used for performance and sometimes. Software: C or Assembly language is used as software. It is used for providing features and flexibilities. EMBEDDED HARDWARE : EMBEDDED HARDWARE Processor Types Used in New Embedded Designs 1.Processor: A processor is a digital circuit designed to perform computation tasks. An embedded system consists of single purpose processor rather than general-purpose processor. Single purpose processor is more better then General- purpose processor. Slide 8: 2.ASICs: (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) It is the silicon chip with an array of unconnected transistors. It includes gate arrays and standard cell ICs. 3.Memory: A fixed size volatile memory such as DRAM or SRAM & non-volatile memory such as flash or EPROM, connected to microprocessor or micro controller, is used. Slide 9: 4.Peripherals: According to the block diagram of embedded system as shown in the figure above analog I/O consists of the several peripherals according to the requirement or the application. Some of the peripherals are listed below: Timer, Counter UART Pulse Width Modulators DMA Controller LCD Controller Keypad Controllers Stepper Motor Controller ADC Converter Real Time Clock EMBEDDED SOFTWARE : EMBEDDED SOFTWARE Programming Languages Used in New Embedded Designs Programming is the design and debugging of a sequence instruction. Basically software contains programming of processor of the embedded system. Two types of programming languages are mainly used: Assembly Language C Language Slide 11: 1.Assembly language: It is made up of a set of mnemonics. Each mnemonics corresponds directly to a processor machine instruction code. 2.C language: As it is the high level language it is shorter and easier to write. It is independent of the Processor. It is used more frequently than assembly language. C language has two important advantages, because of which it is much easier for programmer to write quality programs that are easier to read, revise, and port to a different system. Built-in structure. Checking and Abstraction. OPERATING SYSTEM : OPERATING SYSTEM All intelligent devices that perform complex functions have an embedded OS inside it. This OS is typically real time in nature i.e., it is capable of responding to time critical external events. Real time OS is inseparable when we are dealing with Embedded Systems. Best example for Operating System is LINUX. APPLICATIONS : APPLICATIONS 1.Aerospace 2.Automotive 3.Communications 4.Computer Peripherals 5.Home 6.Industrial 7.Instrumentation 8.Medical 9.Office Automation 10.Personal Application of different Embedded Systems: : Application of different Embedded Systems: Microprocessor: 32-bit AMD Robotic Dog. Advantages and Disadvantages : Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages: Customization yields lower area means compact size. Lower power. Lower cost. Sufficiently high on performance. Disadvantages: Higher hardware/software. Need designer, compilers, debuggers. May result in delayed time. CONCLUSION : CONCLUSION Finally we can say that embedded systems are electronic devices that incorporate a computer (usually a microprocessor) within their implementation. A computer is used in such devices primarily as a means to simplify the system design and to provide flexibility.Often the user of the device is not even aware that a computer is present. The day is not far when almost all automobiles would interact with computers on dashboards from ordering a pizza to booking tickets at nearest theater. Things would be as easy as giving orders to your servant. Slide 17: THANK YOU….. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.