PSY101_Chapter10_v1

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Intelligence:

Intelligence Chapter 10

intelligence test:

intelligence test A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.

intelligence:

intelligence Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.

general intelligence (g):

general intelligence (g) A general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific metal abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.

factor analysis:

factor analysis A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score.

savant syndrome:

savant syndrome A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.

creativity:

creativity The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.

emotional intelligence:

emotional intelligence The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.

mental age:

mental age A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet ; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.

Stanford-Binet:

Stanford- Binet The widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.

intelligence quotient (IQ):

intelligence quotient (IQ) Defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age ( ca ) multiplied by 100 [thus, IQ = (ma/ ca ) x 100]. On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.

achievement tests:

achievement tests A test designed to assess what a person has learned.

aptitude tests:

aptitude tests A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS):

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.

standardization:

standardization Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.

normal curve:

normal curve The symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.

reliability:

reliability The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.

validity:

validity The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

content validity:

content validity The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.

predictive validity:

predictive validity The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (Also called criterion-related validity.)

mental retardation:

mental retardation A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.

Down Syndrome:

Down Syndrome A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.

stereotype threat:

stereotype threat A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.

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