Lesson 5 Problem and settings in research

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methods of research

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Teachers are made for a noble purpose. And you are lovingly reminded of that…

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Lesson 5: THE PROBLEM AND THE SETTING (cont.) Scope and limitations of the study Hypothesis and assumptions Definition of terms used

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Scope and limitations of the study

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Scope and limitations of the study 1. extent or range of view, outlook, application, operation, effectiveness, etc.: 2. space for movement or activity; 3. a tract or area. 4. length 5. aim or purpose.

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Scope and limitations of the study

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Scope and limitations of the study A limitation on something is a rule or decision which prevents that thing from growing or extending beyond certain limits. A limitation of something is the act or process of controlling or reducing it. If you talk about the limitations of someone or something, you mean that they can only do some things and not others, or cannot do something very well.

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Scope and limitations of the study (cont.) This part is sometimes referred to as “Scope and Delimitation.” scope of the study - what will be covered limitations point out -what will be not covered The scope must indicate the area of study which must be large enough to make significant generalizations but small enough to make be clearly discussed.

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Hypothesis and assumptions

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Hypothesis and assumptions (cont.)

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Hypothesis and assumptions (cont.) 1. a proposition, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation (working hypothesis) 2. a proposition assumed as a premise in an argument 3. the antecedent of a conditional proposition. 4. a mere assumption or guess.

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Hypothesis and assumptions (cont.) Hypothesis is necessary because the researcher needs to have some pints or positions from which he may begin to project the facts and a checkpoint against which to test his findings. It has to be noted that the research hypothesis not subject to experimental testing are stated usually in positive, declarative sentence. However, hypothesis subject are stated in the negative. They are called null hypothesis .

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Hypothesis and assumptions (cont.)

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Hypothesis and assumptions (cont.) The assumptions are what the researcher takes for granted as true. Assumptions are often accepted as general truths or statement of facts.

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Hypothesis and assumptions (cont.) Example of basic assumption: “Although no two school administrators face exactly the same conditions in dealing with curriculum innovation, it is assumed that the task and its attendant problems have sufficient universality so that other schools may profit from the study.”

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Hypothesis and assumptions (cont.) The following are some points that will guide researchers while formulating basic assumptions: One cannot assure the value of his study. This must be placed under the significance of the study. One cannot assume the reliability of the instruments he proposes to use in his research. Such rationale and defense must be established under methodology. One cannot assume the validity of his study. Validity is better placed under methodology. One cannot assume that his population is typical. This point is to be made under methodology. An assumption is not tested. It is neither defended nor argued .

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Definition of terms used

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Definition of terms used (cont.) Three ways of defining terms. ҉ Conceptual or theoretical definition ҉ Operational or working definition ҉ Dictionary definition

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Definition of terms used (cont.) ҉ Conceptual or theoretical definition *These are given in terms of conceptual or hypothetical rather than observable one. *They are usually taken from textbooks and other general reference materials like encyclopedia, almanac, etc.

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҉ Operational or working definition Definition of terms used (cont.) They are based on the observable characteristics of that which is being defined. This type of definition refers to the meaning of a certain term according to the context of the study. Terms are defined as they are used operationally in the research study.

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Definition of terms used (cont.) ҉ Dictionary definition taken from the dictionary and other materials like thesaurus, etc . This type of definition is usually useful and informative but cannot substitute for the operational definitions.

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It’s over!!! Thank You…