Print Makers of the Pop Art & Street Art Movements

Category: Entertainment

Presentation Description

No description available.


Presentation Transcript


MODERN PRINT-MAKERS OF THE POP ART & STREET ART MOVEMENTS Comparing the Works of Andy Warhol (Peak 1960s-1970s) to the Current Works of Shepard Fairey & Banksy 1

Andy Warhol:

Andy Warhol Born on August 6, 1928, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Andy Warhol was a successful magazine and ad illustrator who became a leading artist of the 1960s Pop art movements. He ventured into a wide variety of art forms, including performance art, filmmaking, video installations, and writing, and controversially blurred the lines between fine art and mainstream aesthetics. Warhol died on February 22, 1987, in New York City. 2

Andy Warhol:

Andy Warhol Do you recognize these works? Both of these works were created by Andy Warhol in 1962, and they are examples of artwork from the Pop Art Movement. 3

Pop Art Movement:

Pop Art Movement In 1961 , Warhol debuted the concept of "pop art"—paintings that focused on mass-produced commercial goods. British artist Richard Hamilton described pop art as "popular, transient, expendable, low cost, mass-produced, young, witty, sexy, gimmicky, glamorous, big business." 4


Commercialism The Pop Art Movement (and most particularly Warhol’s involvement in this movement) stood out at the time for many reasons, but most primarily, this reason: Unlike art movements in the past, which focused on calculated aesthetics or personal expression (human feelings and experiences), Pop Art blurred the lines between art and business . Warhol was “the artist as a businessman,” and although his messages about commercialism were “tongue in cheek,” his work ultimately challenged the idea that artists are “sell outs” if they decide to create and market their work like a business person (sell mass-produced works of art, advertise or “brand” themselves, make a lot of money, etc.). In his mind, artists had the same right as any other career person –to work towards financial success— and he had very Capitalistic views of society (he was very interested in the effects of commercialism on culture). These were concepts he “played” with (expressed) throughout his artwork, AND took advantage of himself as a very financially successful artist. 5


Controversy However, Warhol’s views and his work as an artist was not liked by many people (particularly many people in the art community), for these same reasons: Many questioned the artistic value of Warhol’s art and his messages, and many referred to his mass-produced way of making artwork (and his print-making processes, which borrowed images from other sources) as “cheapening” his value as an artist. He was also criticized for reusing (or “stealing”) images that were not his own, creating artwork out of them, and then selling them to profit. For example, he did not design the Campbell’s soup can, draw the image of Mickey Mouse, or take the photograph (still) of Marilyn Monroe. He just took them and created artwork out of them to sell. 6

Controversy - Think About It:

Controversy - Think About It Here are some samples of Andy Warhol’s works. What are some similarities between these works that you notice? What message do you think Warhol might be trying to send with these artworks? If the soup cans are a mass-produced product, made for consumption (to be purchased and owned) by society, then what might Warhol be saying about the images of Mickey Mouse and Marilyn Monroe? 7

The Factory:

The Factory The Factory (1962-1984) was the name of Andy Warhol’s studio in New York City. This is where Warhol produced and sold many of his “mass-produced” works. It was also a hangout for many of Warhol’s artist friends. His first exhibition in an art gallery, however, was not here. It was at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles in 1962. At this gallery show, Warhol exhibited and sold many mass-produced artwork based off of grocery store products, like Coca-Cola bottles, produce (like bananas), and the now famous, Campbell’s Soup cans. 8

The Factory - Think About It:

The Factory - Think About It Why do you think Warhol might have called his studio “The Factory?” At the Ferus Gallery, visitors could walk around the exhibition and could purchas e the artwork like it was an “art market” (or an art grocery store). What might be the message here, or why do you think Warhol did this? 9

Shepard Fairey:

Shepard Fairey Frank Shepard Fairey is an American contemporary street artist , graphic designer, activist, and illustrator who emerged from the skateboarding scene. Shepard Fairey was born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1970 and currently lives and works in Los Angeles, California.  He received a BA from the Rhode Island School of Design in 1991. 10

Shepard Fairey:

Shepard Fairey Do you recognize these works? All of these works were created by Shepard Fairey (OBEY in 1989, Guns & Roses in 2007, and HOPE in 2008), and they are examples of artwork from the Street Art Movement. 11

Street Art Movement:

Street Art Movement Street Art is an umbrella term defining forms of visual art created in public locations, usually unsanctioned artwork executed outside of the context of traditional art venues. The term gained popularity during the graffiti art boom of the early 1980s and continues to be applied to subsequent incarnations. Stencil graffiti, wheatpasted poster art or sticker art, and street installation or sculpture are common forms of modern street art. Video projection, yarn bombing, and Lock On sculpture became popularized at the turn of the 21 st century. The terms “urban art,” “guerrilla art,” “post-graffiti,” and “neo-graffiti” are also sometimes used when referring to artwork created in these contexts. Traditional spray-painted graffiti artwork itself is often included in this category, excluding territorial graffiti or pure vandalism. 12


Marketing Much of Shepard Fairey’s artwork, like that of Andy Warhol, utilizes a lot of a) repetition, b) “graphic” designs (or images lacking a lot of detail, like prints/stencils), and c) very few colors (and usually very bold colors). Both Fairey and Warhol have used screen printing, and Fairey also utilizes stencils. Whereas Warhol was the “artist as businessman,” Fairey is the “artist as marketer/advertiser.” Shepard Fairey’s work takes inspiration from the field of advertising: In this case, rather than advertising (promoting) a product, the artwork advertises (promotes) or brands the artist and the sale of his or her artwork itself. 13

Marketing - Think About It:

Marketing - Think About It The left image shows a series of advertisements promoting the sale of various products. The right image showcases samples of Shepard Fairey’s works. What are some similarities that you notice? Why might repetition be important to the concept of advertising and to Fairey’s works? 14

Marketing - Think About It:

Marketing - Think About It The far left image shows Fairey’s “OBEY” print, which he used as street art (he made many duplicates of it and posted it around various cities). The other three images are of logos for various companies. Do you notice any similarities between these images? Are they complex or simple images? Do they use many colors or just a few? What are some reasons you think logos tend to be designed like this? And why might that be important to the reasons Shepard Fairey made the “OBEY” image like this? 15

Marketing - Think About It:

Marketing - Think About It These are both samples of Shepard Fairey’s more detailed works. Why do you think Fairey might have wanted to use the same style and color scheme (black, white, red, and gold) consistently in most his works? And what might this concept of “consistency” have to do with advertising and “ branding ” (or name/image recognition)? 16


Controversy Like Andy Warhol, Shepard Fairey has also gotten criticism from the public (and other artists) for his act of taking images that don’t belong to him and using them in works that he sells for profit. In 2011, the Associated Press sued Shepard Fairey in court for using their photograph of Barack Obama in his HOPE line of artwork (which he sells) without obtaining a license (permission). Fairey had to pay $25,000 for “lying” during the trial, and will have to share all his profits from the HOPE line of products with the AP. 17


Controversy Many street artists like Shepard Fairey and “ Banksy ” (another popular Street Artist from the U.K.) have come under fire for their artwork causing damage to property (public and private) that is not theirs. The argument some make against this type of art is that the public typically has to pay (via taxes) –or the property owners have to pay out of pocket— to remove the artwork. However, the benefits of the “marketing” campaigns (the fame and the sales of the products with the artists’ prints on them) goes to the artists. 18

Installation Art:

Installation Art Some street artists, like Banksy (the creator of the pieces shown above), have seen a shift from using exclusively spray paint and/or stencil art (which are considered “destructive” mediums), to using more forms of installation art to get their messages (and promotions) to the public. Installation art involves building and leaving pieces of artwork out in the public. Although it is still considered “littering,” it is typically seen as somewhat less destructive to property than some other forms of street art. 19

Guerilla Marketing:

Guerilla Marketing Marketing / Advertising influenced the Street Art Movement, but the Street Art Movement also influenced Marketing / Advertising. Now many businesses are using installation art and other forms of street art as Guerilla Marketing campaigns to sell their products. Unlike Street Artists, companies usually pay money to the city/property owner to install works like this. However, this can hurt (rather than help) the case against Street Artists: “If most people have to pay marketing fees to advertise themselves, why don’t you?” 20

Guerilla Marketing – Think About It:

Guerilla Marketing – Think About It The images above are more samples of Guerilla Marketing (Google “Guerilla Marketing” for more images). Do you think Street Art should remain illegal? Is it okay for the artists to make money off of artwork that promotes them (and their products) when other people have to involuntarily pay for it? Should they pay the same fees to promote their works/products as companies do? Do you think the messages behind the artists’ works make it “okay” to do what they do, or do you think these messages are still “self-promotional” in some way? 21

Final Opinions - Think About It:

Final Opinions - Think About It What are your thoughts on both Shepard Fairey and Andy Warhol using images from other artists (Photographers, Animators, Videographers, Illustrators, etc.) in their artwork? Is this stealing? How much do you think an image needs to be changed before it is not considered “stealing” to use it? Or do you feel it is always stealing to use someone’s work without their permission? In some cases, the recognizable images that are taken (like “Mickey Mouse” for Andy Warhol’s work) are needed to send an understandable message (in this case, about commercial culture). So what makes art “ART?” Is it more about what you create or is it more about the message you send? 22

authorStream Live Help