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Premium member Presentation Transcript FOOD AND NUTRITION: FOOD AND NUTRITION Chapter 3At the end of the chapter:: At the end of the chapter: The students should be able to demonstrate the ability to apply basic principles of nutrition to meal planning. Recognize the importance of good nutrition, meal planning, preparation, and service to the family.Lesson 1: Lesson 1 IMPORTANCE OF GOOD HEALTH AND PROPER NUTRITION Do you see yourself in this situation? Can this affect your performance as a student? Why is proper nutrition closely related to good health? Let us watch a video about malnutritionWhat is NUTRITION?: What is NUTRITION? Nutrition is the process by which you take in and assimilate the right amount of nutrients to keep you healthy and strong.IMPORTANCE OF NUTRITION: IMPORTANCE OF NUTRITION Proper nutrition is required for good health. Optimum nutrition results to good health that makes a person productive. Good health makes you lively, gets you interested in many things that you want to do, and makes you a pleasant person to be with.How can you tell if a person is well-nourished and healthy?: How can you tell if a person is well-nourished and healthy? The characteristics of a well-nourished and healthy person are: A well-shaped skeletal frame Normal weight for one’s age and height Good appetite A well-developed body A pleasant disposition Healthy gums and a good set of teethHow can you tell if a person is well-nourished and healthy?: How can you tell if a person is well-nourished and healthy? The characteristics of a well-nourished and healthy person are: Clear eyes Clean and smooth skin A general appearance of vitality and well–being Good body posture Absence of any pain Resistance to infectionMALNUTRITION AND UNDERNUTRITION: MALNUTRITION AND UNDERNUTRITION Malnutrition is the relative lack or absolute deficiency, or excess of one or more essential nutrients. This results when the body does not get the proper kind and the right amount of nutrients that it needs for growth and survival. It also results when the body takes much more nutrients than it needs.2 TYPES of MALNUTRITION: 2 TYPES of MALNUTRITION Acute Malnutrition - describes the present state of nutrition as indicated by your weight in proportion to your height. 2. Chronic Malnutrition - describes the state of nutrition as shown by your height in relation to your age.SYMPTOMS OF MALNUTRITION: SYMPTOMS OF MALNUTRITION Underweight or overweight for one’s age Poor appetite Weak and tired Cannot sleep well Pale Sores appear at the corners of one’s mouth Cannot see well in dim lightPROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (PEM): PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (PEM) The most common and widespread form of malnutrition. Infants and young children are the ones seriously affected by this form of malnutrition. The most severe forms of PEM are kwashiorkor and marasmus .Slide 12: Kwashiorkor is caused by severe lack of protein and may occur even if the children are getting enough calories from energy foods. Children affected have low resistance against infection.Slide 13: Marasmus is caused by lack of calories or inadequate amount of protein. Children with marasmus are reduced to skin and bones. They look like old people with withered and wrinkled faces.Slide 14: Undernutrition is a form of malnutrition. It results from inadequate intake of essential nutrients over an extended period of time. On the other hand, any amount of food added beyond what is required based on one’s age group and when taken regularly over time, will lead to overnutrition .Lesson 2: Lesson 2 MAINTAINING GOOD HEALTH THROUGH PROPER NUTRITION Can you differentiate a well-nourished from a poorly nourished person? DEVELOPING GOOD NUTRITION : DEVELOPING GOOD NUTRITION Eat the right kind and the right amount of food. Pack a home-prepared school lunch. Eat nutritious snacks. Avoid eating spicy foods. Have plenty of rest and outdoor exercise. Eat your meals on time and in the company of your family. Developing good nutrition is practicing good eating habits. Here are sure ways to develop good nutrition and a sound and healthy well-being:IMPROVING ONE'S NUTRITIONAL STATUS: IMPROVING ONE'S NUTRITIONAL STATUS The following ways help improve the nutritional status of the different members of the family: Milk, fish, meat, monggo , and eggs should be provided for normal growth and development of growing children. Vegetables and fruits should also be a part of the family’s daily diet. Protein-rich and body building foods, such as milk, meat, poultry, and eggs should be given to pregnant and nursing mothers. If there are vacant spaces outside the house, plant fruit trees and vegetables. Raise poultry, farm animals, and fish in the backyard in order to supplement some of the food needs of the family.IMPROVING ONE'S NUTRITIONAL STATUS: IMPROVING ONE'S NUTRITIONAL STATUS The following ways help improve the nutritional status of the different members of the family: Parents who space the birth of their children will be better able to provide the proper kind and amount of food for their children. The family should be given a well-balanced diet. Green, leafy, and yellow vegetables should be provided and fats and oil should be used at a minimum. The best milk for infants is still breastmilk from their mothers.Lesson 3: Lesson 3 A nutrient is an essential substance in natural food sources. It provides body heat and energy, builds and repairs body tissues, and regulates life processes. NUTRIENTS AND THEIR SOURCES AND FUNCTIONSLesson 3: Lesson 3 There are three general classifications of nutrients: macronutrients, micronutrients, and water. Water is a basic component of all foods and is essential to life. Fiber helps regulate the body functions, particularly the gastrointestinal tract. NUTRIENTS AND THEIR SOURCES AND FUNCTIONSLesson 3: Lesson 3 Nutrients can also be classified as organic , like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins or inorganic, like minerals and water. Nutrients have very important physiological roles in the body. The function of each nutrient is equally essential as that of the other. NUTRIENTS AND THEIR SOURCES AND FUNCTIONSSlide 22: Nutrients Functions Sources Symptoms of Deficiency Carbohydrates Most important source of energy which is needed by the body for work and play Rice Cereals Bread Root crops ( camote,gabi,etc .) Sugar Weak body which may end up in fainting or collapsing, underweight, skin irritation, and laziness Proteins Used by the body to build and renew body tissues. It can also be used to provide energy if there is insufficient carbohydrates and fats intake in the diet Cheese Eggs Meat Fish Poultry Whole grain products Soybeans Gelatin Dried beans & peas Retarded growth, low resistance to diseases, loss of weight, and edema or swelling Fats Concentrated source of energy for the body. They supply heat and energy for daily activities. Margarine Butter Cream Fats from meat, nuts and avocado Lard Vegetable oil Mayonnaise Laziness and weak body MACRONUTRIENTSSlide 23: Nutrients (Vitamins) Functions Sources Symptoms of Deficiency Vitamin A Helps prevent xerophthalmia , a severe infection of the eyes associated with night blindness. It is also essential to maintain clear and healthy skin and hair. Green, leafy vegetables Squash Melon Carrots Papaya Chesa Dry , rough skin , dry scalp, brittle nails, retarded growth, inability to see in dim light, sensitivity of the eyes to bright light. Vitamin B1 or Thiamin Helps prevent heart disease, keeps the nerves healthy, and promotes good appetite and normal digestion. Under milled or whole grain cereal Dried beans Lean pork Lean beef Fish and shellfish Egg Animal intestines Worsens existing diabetic conditions and results in eye problems especially among diabetics Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin Helps keep the eyes and skin healthy, regulates the nervous system’s normal function, and promotes growth. Dried mushrooms Malunggay Powdered milk Internal organs Lean meat Shellfish Quail eggs Sores in the mouth and in the folds of the nose, sore or swollen lips, swollen and painful tongue, itchy eyes, and retarded growth. MICRONUTRIENTSSlide 24: Nutrients (Vitamins) Functions Sources Symptoms of Deficiency Vitamin C or Ascorbic Acid Strengthens the body’s resistance against infections and facilitates healing of wounds. Guava Citrus fruits Bell pepper Green leafy vegetables Tomatoes Cauliflower Parsley Pyorrhea or bleeding of the gums, low resistance to colds and infections. Vitamin D or the Sunshine Vitamin Regulates the utilization of calcium and phosphorous, and is essential to maintain healthy teeth. Sunlight Cod liver oil Egg yolk Butter Fortified margarine Irradiated foods like milk and cereals Rickets or deformed bones on legs, neck, and knees. Vitamin B3 or Niacin Effective in treating mental diseases and helps improve blood circulation. Peanuts Whole enriched rice Whole wheat bread Mushrooms Chicken Fish Lean meat Rough red skin that later gets pigmented, sore mouth, tongue and throat, digestive and nervous disturbances, and loss of appetite and weight. Vitamin K or the Anti- Hemorrhagic Factor Hastens coagulation of the blood Liver Dark, green leafy vegetables Wheat bran Vegetable & soybean oil Wheat germ oil Tomatoes,tubers,seeds Hemorrhagic disease for infants and bleeding in adults.Slide 25: Nutrients (Minerals) Functions Sources Symptoms of Deficiency Calcium Builds and maintains strong bones and teeth. Milk Whole grain cereals Dilis Meat bones Cheese Fish Whole grain products Muscular irritability, and osteoporosis or softening of the bones especially among the aged. Phosphorous Works with calcium to build bones and teeth, repair cells, and keeps muscles and nerves healthy. Legumes like peas, beans, and peanuts Poorly developed bones and teeth, slow growth, and rickets. Iron Important in the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Milk Cheese Meat Fish Whole grain products Legumes like peas, beans, and peanuts Weakness and anemia Iodine Responsible for proper functioning of the thyroid gland. Liver Organ meats Eggyolk Fish Green leafy vegetables Dried fruits Peas, beans, seafood Goiter or enlargement of the thyroid gland MICRONUTRIENTSTHE BALANCED MEAL: THE BALANCED MEAL Studies have shown that people who are well nourished generally eat balanced meals. A balanced meal contains all the food nutrients needed by the body in the right amount. The simplest and easiest way to check the nutritional adequacy of a meal is by using the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) guides provided by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI). Lesson 4THE FILIPINO PYRAMID FOOD GUIDE FOR TODAY'S LIFE STYLE: THE FILIPINO PYRAMID FOOD GUIDE FOR TODAY'S LIFE STYLE Eat a little Eat some Eat more Eat most Drink a lot f ats, oils, sugar, salt f ish, poultry, dry beans, nuts, egg, lean meats, low fat dairy v egetables, green salads, fruits or juices rice, root crops, corn, noodles, bread, cereals water, clear brothHEALTHY PYRAMID FOOD GROUP CHOICES: HEALTHY PYRAMID FOOD GROUP CHOICES FOOD GROUP CHOOSE MORE CHOOSE LESS HIGH FAT FOODS TO MINIMIZE Rice, Rootcrops , Corn, Noodles, Breads, Cereals Broiled / Steamed Rice Plain lugaw Sliced bread, pandesal Nilaga / inihaw na mais Nilagang patatas Nilagang camote Suman sa ibos Puto Oatmeal Soupy noodles Pancit ( Bihon , sotanghon ) Spaghetti or macaroni with tomato sauce Fried rice Chicken arroz caldo Ensaymada Cinnamon rolls Buttered corn Pancit (canton) Cuchinta , biko , sapin-sapin , kalamay , and other very sweet kakanin French fries Baked potato cream toppings Rice and pasta with cheese, Butter and Cream Sauces (Macaroni and Cheese, Carbonara ) Goto Egg Noodles Vegetables and Green Salads Boiled, steamed, and broiled Vegetables ( Inihaw or nilagang talong , nilagang okra, nilagang talbos ng kamote , pinakbet ) Vegetable salad with Vinaigrette Vegetable salad with less creamy dressing (thousand island) Vegetable tempura or fried vegetables Chef’s saladHEALTHY PYRAMID FOOD GROUP CHOICES: HEALTHY PYRAMID FOOD GROUP CHOICES FOOD GROUP CHOOSE MORE CHOOSE LESS HIGH FAT FOODS TO MINIMIZE Fruits and Juices Any fresh fruit in season (banana, mangoes, pineapples, oranges, suha ) Canned fruits in light syrup Dried fruits (raisins, prunes, mangoes) Fruits prepared with creamy dressings (fruit salad with cream) Fish, Poultry, Dry Beans, Nuts, Eggs, Lean Meats, Low Fat Dairy Lean cuts of beef and pork (sirloin, tenderloin, pigue,lomo ) Chicken skin removed, litsong manok , tinolang manok Fish and shellfish (boiled, broiled, or grilled, sinigang na isda , halabos na hipon at alimasag , adobong pusit ) Nonfat milk/skimmed milk Mongo, kadyos , beans Nilaga / Sinangag na mani Hotdogs, lean ham, salami, Vienna sausages Daing , tuyo , tinapa Whole milk Cheddar cheese Fried egg/ boiled egg Deep fried peanuts and other nuts Breaded fried chicken Internal organs and dishes like dinuguan , bopis , papaitan Bacon, chorizo Ice cream, sundaes Fats, Oils, Sugar, Salt Mustard, catsup Diet spreads, diet margarine, diet mayonnaise Soy sauce, patis , bagoong , and other condiments Syrups and honey Regular mayonnaise, butter Bacon fat Kakang gataTIPS IN PLANNING A BALANCED MEAL: TIPS IN PLANNING A BALANCED MEAL In planning a balanced diet, the following points should be remembered: Limit your intake of fats to or below 30% of your total food intake and limit your intake of saturated fats to no more than 10% of your total food intake. Eat more food rich in carbohydrates, like grains, legumes, vegetables, and some fruits. Protein intake should be limited to just 12 to 15% of your daily diet.TIPS IN PLANNING A BALANCED MEAL: TIPS IN PLANNING A BALANCED MEAL In planning a balanced diet, the following points should be remembered: Avoid too much sugar because not only does it contribute to tooth decay, but also because many foods high in sugar are high in fats. Take adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals particularly iron and calcium. Use the “Guide to Good Nutrition” in planning a balanced meal.TIPS IN PLANNING A BALANCED MEAL: TIPS IN PLANNING A BALANCED MEAL In planning a balanced diet, the following points should be remembered: Distribute into three meals of the daily food requirements into the day. Take into account that foods must be provided in sufficient amount to meet the normal body requirements. Provide a variety of food daily.TIPS IN PLANNING A BALANCED MEAL: TIPS IN PLANNING A BALANCED MEAL In planning a balanced diet, the following points should be remembered: Substitute cheap foods for expensive ones which have the same nutritive value. Prepare foods in such a way that the nutrients are conserved. Prepare nutritious snacks. Make leafy, green , and yellow vegetables a part of your daily meals.EFFECTS OF A BALANCED DIET: EFFECTS OF A BALANCED DIET A balanced diet Provides children with the nutrients for growth and muscle-building; Supports the rapid increase in height of pre-adolescents; Provide adolescents with the nutrients for accelerated physical activities; Provides the elderly with food that will give them the energy for their daily activities and protect them from illnesses. Provides pregnant women with enough food for themselves and their baby.PROPER STORAGE OF FOOD: PROPER STORAGE OF FOOD The Food Storage Network (FSN) have compiled some tips on food storage: Always follow the FIFO method (first in, first out). Always store cooked and ready-to-eat food away from raw food to prevent contamination. Keep storage area clean. Keep food items in clean wrappers and containers. Lesson 5PROPER STORAGE OF FOOD: PROPER STORAGE OF FOOD The Food Storage Network (FSN) have compiled some tips on food storage: Store food only in areas intended for food storage. Store ready-to-eat foods at the upper portion of the refrigerator compartment. Raw food should be placed inside the freezer or any cold storage to avoid spoilage. Cover food to prevent drying and contamination. Lesson 5HOME STORAGE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS FOODS: HOME STORAGE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS FOODS FOOD NUMBER OF DAYS Asparagus 2-3 weeks Bacon 1 week Berries 2-3 days Broccoli 3-5 days Butter 2 weeks Cabbage 2 weeks Carrots 2 weeks Cauliflower 1 week Celery 1 week Cheese 2 weeks Cold cuts 3- 5 days Sweet corn 1-2 daysHOME STORAGE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS FOODS: HOME STORAGE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS FOODS FOOD NUMBER OF DAYS Cream 3-5 days Eggs with shell 1 week Fish 1- 2 days Grapes 3-5 days Grapefruit 2 weeks Ham, whole 1 week Ham, sliced 2-3 days Lemons 2 weeks Lettuce 1 week Lima beans 3-5 days Meat, ground 1-3 days Meat, fresh 3-5 daysHOME STORAGE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS FOODS: FOOD NUMBER OF DAYS Leftover cooked/dishes 3-5 days Liver, etc. 1-2 days Milk 3-5 days Onions, green 3-5 days Oranges 2 weeks Poultry 1-2 days Spinach 3-5 days Tomatoes 1 week HOME STORAGE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS FOODS MEAL PREPARATION AND SERVICE: MEAL PREPARATION AND SERVICE Look at the picture below. What does it convey to you? Lesson 6Steps in Meal Preparation:: Steps in Meal Preparation: Decide on the menu for the occasion. Prepare the recipes, take note of the ingredients needed, and go through the procedure. Make a list of ingredients and equipment needed for the meal. Make a market list. Make a work and time schedule by referring to the recipes, the time of preparation, and the time the meal is to be served. Decide on the scheduled assignment of tasks if you are working with somebody.Steps in Meal Preparation:: Prepare the dishes by following these steps: - Wear your cooking outfit. - Wash your hands before handling food items. - Refer to the schedule and take note of your work assignment. - Assemble ingredients, cooking implements, and table and serving appointments from the list made in step three. - Serve the meal. - Clear away the table, wash the dishes, and put everything in their proper places. - Evaluate the meal and the occasion. Steps in Meal Preparation:HOW TO AVOID LOSING NUTRIENTS DURING FOOD PREPARATION: HOW TO AVOID LOSING NUTRIENTS DURING FOOD PREPARATION Cook fish quickly and at high temperature to retain its flavor and juices. Cook eggs at low to medium heat to keep them from becoming tough and discolored. As soon as hard boiled eggs are cooked, dip them in cold water at once so that their shells can be easily removed. Meat drippings contain the B vitamins. These can be used to make gravies and sauces.HOW TO AVOID LOSING NUTRIENTS DURING FOOD PREPARATION: Before cooking rice, remove the dirt and husk. Wash the rice once or twice without rubbing the grains. Eat the fresh fruits as soon as possible. Cook vegetables in a covered pot with a small amount of water until they are tender but not mushy. Use the water in which vegetables have been cooked for soups and sauces since most of their nutrients are dissolved into the cooking water. HOW TO AVOID LOSING NUTRIENTS DURING FOOD PREPARATIONHANDLING FOOD: HANDLING FOOD Wash hands and any exposed portion of the arms with soap and water before and after handling food. Do not handle food if you have severe colds. Keep fingernails clean and trimmed. Wear clean clothes when handling food. Do not smoke while cooking. Do not sneeze or cough near food. When handling food, remove rings and bracelets which can be possible sources of contamination. Use a tasting spoon for sampling food.MEAL SERVICE: MEAL SERVICE Table setting – creates a certain atmosphere that adds to the enjoyment of the meals served. Table appointments – the flatware, dishes, liners, and centerpiece included in a table setting. Cover – an individual place setting.Sample table settings for breakfast, lunch, and dinner:: S ample table settings for breakfast, lunch, and dinner: BREAKFAST LUNCH DINNER PREPARING A SIMPLE BREAKFAST: PREPARING A SIMPLE BREAKFAST Breakfast is the first meal of the day. It should not be planned haphazardly or taken for granted because the amount and quality of your breakfast affects your performance of daily tasks. Lesson 7Planning a simple breakfast menu: P lanning a simple breakfast menu A menu is a list of food served at mealtime while a menu pattern is the guide used in planning a menu. Food served during mealtime depends upon a menu pattern. A sample menu may be: * light meal * medium meal * heavy mealSamples of healthy breakfast: Samples of healthy breakfast LIGHT BREAKFAST MEDIUM BREAKFAST HEAVY BREAKFAST You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.