INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM

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INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM Dr Mohammad Muzaffar Mir Professor of Biochemistry Al- jouf University

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Thousands of chemical reactions take place in a living cell simultaneously in a well organized and integrated manner This entire system of chemical reactions is collectively called as METABOLISM . A metabolic pathway or a metabolic map constitutes a series of enzymatic reactions to produce specific products What is Metabolism

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ALL Living Things from Bacteria to Humans Conduct METABOLISM. Metabolism is the ability to acquire and use energy from the environment. Metabolic processes are all the chemical reactions that occur in cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems .

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The term “ Metabolite” is applied to a substrate or an intermediate or a product in the metabolic reactions. Metabolism is divided into two categories. Catabolism Anabolism

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Catabolism : Breakdown of large and complex molecules into simple ones to produce energy (release energy). Anabolism: Building of large and complex molecules from simple molecules (requires energy input).

Two Basic Kinds of Chemical Reactions found in Biological System:

Two Basic Kinds of Chemical Reactions found in Biological System

Two Basic Kinds of Chemical Reactions found in Biological System:

Two Basic Kinds of Chemical Reactions found in Biological System

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The food we eat, ( carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and Nucleic Acids) , are our only source of energy for doing the biological work by our cells. Nutrient molecules have stored ( potential) energy in the bonds between their atoms. Energy from Food stuffs

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The energy that the runs most biological Systems on earth comes from solar energy. Plants trap solar energy via the metabolic reactions of Photosynthesis by producing these molecules Energy from Food stuffs

Three Basic Uses of Nutrients :

Three Basic Uses of Nutrients Energy for immediate use by cells to conduct their normal Metabolic processes ( Muscle contraction, secretions, active transport ). Synthesize structural or functional molecules to repair and replace cells. Storage of energy as glycogen or fat for later use as energy (nutrient reserves)

Types of Metabolic Reactions:

Types of Metabolic Reactions The biochemical reactions are mainly of four types. Oxidation –reduction reactions Group Transfers Rearrangement and isomerization Make and break of carbon-carbon bonds These reactions are catalyzed by about 2000 enzymes

High Energy Compounds:

High Energy Compounds Definition: Certain compounds which on hydrolysis yield at least 7Kcal/mol of free energy at pH 7.0 are known as high energy compounds. Classification Pyrophosphates e .g. Adenosine triphosphate [ ATP] Acyl Phosphates e.g.1,3-bisphosphoglycerate Enol Phosphates e.g. Phosphoenolpyruvate Thioesters e.g. Acetyl Co A Phosphagens e.g. Creatine Phosphate

ATP- The Energy Currency of Cell:

ATP- The Energy Currency of Cell ATP made up of adenine, ribose and a triphosphate moiety

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ATP is a unique and most important high energy molecule in the body due to presence of two high energy phospho-anhydride bonds with high phosphoryl potential. ATP is hydrolyzed to yield energy ATP + H 2 O → ADP + Pi + 7.3 KCal ATP serves as the Energy currency of Cell as it is being constantly utilized and regenerated in ATP-ADP cycle. ATP also acts a phosphate donor to low energy phosphate compounds. ATP serves as a link between Catabolism and Anabolism in biological system. ATP- The Energy Currency of Cell-con’td

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Thank You and Allah Bless