Periodontal Disease : Periodontal Disease Prepared by Microbiology student: Minh Anh Nguyen Goals : Goals To Explain what the root causes of Periodontal Disease are. What bacteria are involved Symptoms How it is diagnosed What treatments are available what techniques are useful for prevention of the disease. who might most likely be affected by this disease? What is Periodontal disease?: It is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gum and tissues that surround and support the teeth. If left untreated, periodontal disease can lead to tooth loss. This disease is divided into two types: Gingivitis (gum disease) Periodontitis What is Periodontal disease? Periodontal disease (Cont.): Periodontal disease (Cont.) The development of disease is also dependent on several other factors. Illness Diabetes. Many kinds of bacteria (germs) thrive on sugar, including glucose – the sugar linked to diabetes. Bad habits Smoking make it harder for gum tissue to repair itself Poor oral hygiene habits Family history of dental disease Gingivitis: Gingivitis The first stage of periodontal disease. Poor brushing and flossing habits allow dental plague. Plaque is a sticky material made of bacteria, mucus, and food debris that develops on the exposed parts of the teeth. If you do not remove plaque, it turns into a hard deposit called tartar that becomes trapped at the base of the tooth. Bacteria and the toxins they produce cause the gums to become infected, swollen , and tender . Periodontitis: Periodontitis Damages the bone and connective tissue that support the teeth. Plaque builds and hardens under the gums. The gums pull away from the teeth, forming “pocket” of infection. The infection leads to loss of the bone that holds the tooth in its socket and might lead to tooth loss. Bacteria: Bacteria Periodontal disease is caused by “ plaque ” bacteria. 350 species of microorganisms are found in the typical health mouth. 4% of these species are linked to periodontal disease. The helpful bacteria are usually known as gram positive aerobic bacteria. The bacteria that cause periodontal disease thrive in acidic environments. Eating sugars and other foods that increase the acidity in the mouth increase bacterial counts. Bacteria : Bacteria The three types of bacteria types most likely to cause aggressive periodontal disease are: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Bacteroides forsythus. These bacteria are also known as gram negative anaerobic bacteria. Both A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis are caused gum disease. The bacterium that causes periodontal disease may be able to be passed to others through saliva. Symptoms: Symptoms Red, tender and swollen gums. Bleeding of the gums. Even during brushing, bleeding gums are a sign of inflammation and the major marker of periodontal disease. Debris and bacteria. They can cause a bad taste in the mouth and persistent bad breath. Loose teeth. They can sometimes cause a change in the way the upper and lower teeth fit together when biting down or in how partial dentures fit. How it is diagnosed: How it is diagnosed Checks the color of gum tissue on the side of each tooth. Redness, puffiness, and bleeding. Deposits of plaque and tartar may be seen at the base of the teeth. The gums are usually painless or only mildly tender. At the dental office, dental bone measurements may be done to determine whether the inflammation has spread to the supporting structures of the teeth. Dental bone measurements: Dental bone measurements Healthy gums: probing into the “ditch” only goes to depth of (1-3mm) – “coral pink” Gum disease: (3-8mm) How is Gingivitis (gum) disease treated?: How is Gingivitis (gum) disease treated? Depends on how much damage the disease has caused. Nonsurgical Approaches . Deep cleaning of tartar and bacteria from gum line and tooth root surfaces. Before after How is periodontitis treated?: How is periodontitis treated? Surgical Approaches . The dentist will clean out the infection area under the gum, then reshaped the damaged tooth-supporting tissues. Before after Prevention: Prevention The best method to prevent this disease is daily brushing and flossing. Four steps for prevention of this disease are: Stop smoking. Reduce stress Maintain a well - balanced diet Eating foods with antioxidant properties, such as, those containing vitamin E or vitamin C can help your body repair damaged tissue. Avoid clenching and grinding your teeth. who might most likely be affected by this disease? : who might most likely be affected by this disease? This disease affects both men and women. People usually don't show signs of gum disease until they are in their 30s or 40s . Men are more likely to have gum disease than women. http:// issuu.com/reporterherald/docs/healthline_sept16 Questions: Questions What is periodontal disease? It is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gum and tissues that surround and support the teeth. Is the periodontal disease caused by gram negative or gram positive bacteria? Gram negative What is the root cause of periodontal disease? Periodontal disease is caused by “ plaque ” bacteria. Questions?: Questions? What is the best method to prevent this disease? The best method to prevent this disease is daily brushing and flossing What are four symptoms of this disease? Red, tender and swollen gums. Bleeding of the gums. bad breath. Loose teeth.