Libro de gramatica

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Libro de gramatica:

Libro de gramatica BY: Minerva Tello

Indice de materiales:

Indice de materiales

Ser y Estar:

Ser y Estar

Nouns:

Nouns

Ser y Estar con Adjectivos:

Ser y Estar con Adjectivos Ser con adjectivos used to describe inherit, expected qualities.

Los verbos como gustar:

Los verbos como gustar

Preterite Tense:

Preterite Tense

Articles:

Articles

Imperfect tense:

Imperfect tense

Formal Commands :

Formal Commands Third person. Ex: Usted and Ustedes Tener-tenga Venir-Venga Decir-diga / dar -de Ir-vaya Ser -Sea Hace-haga / haber-haya Estar-este Saber- sepa Ex: jugar - juegue , jueguen Almorzar - almuerce - almuercen Sacar c- qu saq ue , saq uen

Usted and Ustedes Command:

Usted and Ustedes Command

Affirmative Commands:

Affirmative Commands Reflexive , indirect object pronouns, direct object pronouns are all attached to the affirmative. Ex: Limpie – límpielo Negative commands Reflexive, indirect object pronouns, direct object pronouns. Informal Commands

Irregular tu Commands:

Irregular tu Commands Verbs Tu command Ir and ver = Ve Irregular tu commands (negative) dar - no des estar - no estes ir - no vayas Saber- no sepas Ex: Bórralos – no los borres Prende - préndela

Nosotros/as Commands:

Nosotros /as Commands Used in orders/suggestions Ex: Crucemos la calle & no crucemos la calle Lets + (verb) & Vamos a + infinitive Vamos a bailar ! (We are going to dance) Vamos a bailar ! ( Lets dance) Object pronouns + affirmative nosotros /as commands. Firmemos el cheque – Firmémoslo Escribamos a Ana y Raúl – Escribámosles Nos + se Affirmative nosotros command you drop the s Ex: senté monos allí Nosotros /as Command Negative form Vámonos no nos vayamos

Direct Object Nouns:

Direct Object Nouns Miguel visita a cristina . In this sentence miguel is the subject , visita is the verb , and cristina is the direct object noun. Direct Object: Maribel hace las maletas . Adela practica el tennis. Practica is the con conjugated verb , and el tennis is the Direct Object Noun.

Direct Object Noun:

Direct Object Noun Ex: Ellos van a escribir unas postales . Van a escribir is the infinitive construction , and postales is the Direct Object. Ellos los van a escribir . If you already stated who you were talking about you don’t have to re-write it again. Los is the Direct Object Gerardo está leyendo la lección . Esta leyendo is present progressive, and Lección is the Direct Object Noun. Gerardo la está leyendo . La can be added between the verb and noun. Gerardo está leyendo la . The la can be added to the end.

Indirect Object Pronouns:

Indirect Object Pronouns El vendedor le vende el sueter a javier . El vendedor is the subject , le is the Indirect Object , vende is the verb , and Javier is the Indirect Object. Ella le vende la ropa a elena .

Double Object Pronouns:

Double Object Pronouns El camarero me muestra el menú . Me is the indirect object , and menú is the direct object. El camarero me lo muestra . The double object pronoun goes before the conjugated verb.

Double Object Pronouns:

Double Object Pronouns Te lo voy a mostrar . Te lo is the double direct object, which goes before the conjugated verb. Mostrar is the infinitive. Voy a mostrár telo . In this sentence the double object is at the end of the infinitive, it can either go before the conjugated verb or at the end of an infinitive. No los están sirviendo . Nos las is the double object ,and sirviendo is the present participle. Están sirviéndonoslas . In this sentence están is the conjugated verb , and sirviéndo noslas is the present participle and nos las is the double object pronouns.

The subjunctive in adjective clauses:

The subjunctive in adjective clauses When the antecedent is uncertain or indefinite, the subjunctive is used . Ex: Busco un trabajo que pague bien . “ Busco un trabajo ” is the main clause. “ que ” is the connector “ pague bien ” that’s the subordinate clause. Ex: Necesito un libro que tenga información sobre los prejuicios sociales . The attencedent is uncertain. When the antecedent of an adjective clause is negative pronoun the subjunctive is used in the subordinate clause. Ex: Elena no tiene ningún pariente que viva en Limón. The personal “ a ” is maintained before nadie and alguien , even when their existence is uncertain. Ex : No conozco a nadie que se queje tanto como mi suegra The personal “a” is not used with direct objects that represent hypothetical persons. Ex: Busco un abogado que sea honrado . .

More subjunctive:

More subjunctive The subjunctive is commonly used in questions with adjective clauses when the speaker is trying to find out information about which he or she is uncertain. Ex:Me recomienda usted un buen restaurante que esté cerca de aquí ?

The indicative:

The indicative When the subordinate clause of a sentence refers to something (the antecedent) that is known to exist, the indicative is used. Ex: Necesito el libro que tiene información sobre los prejuicios sociales Ex: Elena tiene tres parientes que viven en San José. The personal “a” is not used with direct objects that represent hypothetical pronouns. Ex: Antecedent certain- Indicative Ex: Conozco a un abogado que es honrado , justo e inteligente . The personal ‘’a’’ is manintained before nadie and alguien , even when their existence is uncertain. Ex: Yo conozco a alguien quen se queja aun más … la mia ! If the person who responds knows the information, the indicative is used. Ex: Sí , el restaurante de mi yerno está muy cerca , y es excelente .

Demonstrative adjectives :

Demonstrative adjectives This, that, these, and those

Pronouns:

Pronouns

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