Nutritive values of food

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Nutritive values of food:

Nutritive values of food - By Dr. Ankita Parmar PSM department C.U.Shah medical college Surendranagar

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When planning a Balanced Diet it is important to know what foods are available according to origin, chemical composition , function Each food has different nutritional profile so intake of different types of food is desired to achieve optimum health

Nutritional profile of Principle foods:

Nutritional profile of Principle foods Cereals and Millets Pulses (legumes) Vegetables Fruits Nuts and oilseeds Animal foods Miscellaneous


Cereals Cereals constitute the bulk of daily Indian diet mainly: Rice Wheat Maize Cereals are the main sources of carbohydrates

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Cereals are deficient in certain essential amino acids However if cereals are eaten with pulses ,as in the Traditional Indian Diets, cereals and pulse proteins complement each other Providing a complete and balanced diet


RICE Rice proteins are rich in Lysine as compared to other cereal proteins Rice is good source of B groups vitamins especially Thaimine Rice is a staple food for more than half human race

Nutritive value of Rice (values per 100 g.):

Nutritive value of Rice (values per 100 g.) Raw Rice Protein (g) 6.8 Fat (g) 0.5 Carbohydrates (g) 78.2 Thiamine (mg) 0.06 Niacin (mg) 1.9 Riboflavin (mg) 0.06 Minerals (g) 0.6 Energy (kcal) 345

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Effect of Milling The milling process deprives Rice of its valuable nutritive elements (75%Thiamine, 60% riboflavin, 15% protein) The resulting White or Polished rice is poor in nutritive value People subsisting mainly on White or Polished rice are prone to Beriberi, a deficiency disorder of Rice eaters

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Washing and Cooking Washing in large quantities of water would remove 60% of water soluble vitamins and minerals The practice of cooking rice in large quantities of water and darning away the excess of water at the end of cooking leads to loss of B- group vitamins Best method- 2 measure of water for 1 measure of rice


Parboiling Parboiling (partial cooking in steam) is Ancient Indian technique of preserving nutritive quantity of rice The technique recommended by the Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore is known as the hot soaking process The process starts with soaking with paddy ( unhusked rice) in hot water at 65-70 deg.C for 3-4 hours which swells the grain Followed by draining the water and steaming the soaked paddy in the same container for 5-10mins.

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The limiting amino acids in wheat are lysine and threonine In India the bulk of wheat is consumed as Whole grain wheat flour or atta Maida or white flour which represents 70% extraction of wheat is poorer source of nutrients WHEAT

Nutritive value of Wheat (values per 100 g.):

Nutritive value of Wheat (values per 100 g.) Wheat whole Protein (g) 11.81 Fat (g) 1.5 Carbohydrates (g) 71.2 Thiamine (mg) 0.45 Niacin (mg) 5.0 Riboflavin (mg) 0.17 Minerals (g) 1.5 Energy (kcal) 346

MAIZE(Corn, bhutta):

MAIZE(Corn, bhutta ) Maize is fairly rich in Fat, yellow variety of maize contain amount of carotenoid pigments The proteins of maize are deficient in tryptophan and lysine Some strains have excess of leucine

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Excess of leucine interferes with the conversion of tryptophan into niacin and thus aggravates the pellagragenic action of maize Other uses- Cornflakes, maize flour/corn flour in preparation of custards and table deserts

Nutritive value of Maize (values per 100 g.):

Nutritive value of Maize (values per 100 g.) Maize dry Protein (g) 11.1 Fat (g) 3.6 Carbohydrates (g) 66.2 Thiamine (mg) 0.42 Niacin (mg) 1.8 Riboflavin (mg) 0.1 Minerals (g) 1.5 Energy (kcal) 342


MILLETS Are also known as “minor millets” or “ psuedocereals ” They are- jowar ( sorghum), bajra (pearl millet), ragi , kodo

Nutritive value of Millets (values per 100 g.):

Nutritive value of Millets (values per 100 g.) Jowar Bajra Ragi Protein (g) 10.4 11.6 7.3 Fat (g) 1.9 5.0 1.3 Carbohydrates (g) 72.6 67.5 72.0 Minerals (g) 1.6 2.3 2.7 Calcium (g) 25.0 42.0 344.0 Iron (mg) 4.1 8 2.9 Thiamine (mg) 0.3 0.3 0.2 Riboflavin (mg) 1.3 0.25 0.18 Niacin (mg) 3.1 2.3 2.3 Energy (kcal) 349 361 328

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Jowar (sorghum) Also known as Kaffir corn or Milo Proteins are limiting in lysine and threionine Certain varities have high leucine content asso . With pellegra This disorder is seen in the Telengana and Marathwada regions

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Bajra (pearl millet) -Staple food for people in Rajashthan , Gujarat and Maharashtra - Proteins are deficient in Lysine and Threionine - Bajra contains significant amounts of B-group vitamins and calcium and iron


RAGI Ragi is popular millet in Andra and Karnataka It is cheapest among millets Ragi flour is cooked and eaten as porridge Ragi is rich in calcium

PULSES (Legumes):

PULSES (Legumes) Most commonly eaten pulses are: Bengal gram( chana ) Red gram ( tuvar or arhar ) Green gram ( mung ) Peas and beans ( soyabean ) Lentils ( masur ) Pulses are rich in proteins, minerals and B-group vitamins such as riboflavin & thiamine

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Khesari dhal ( lathyrus sativus ) is consumed in parts of Madhya pradesh , Uttar pradesh and Bihar Excessive consumption of khesari dhal leads to Lathyrism Pulse proteins are poor in Methionine and to lesser extent cystein Germinating pulses contain higher concentration of vitamins C and B vitamins

Nutritive value of Pulses (values per 100 g.):

Nutritive value of Pulses (values per 100 g.) Pulses Energ -y(kcal) Protei -ns(g) Fat (g) Calciu -m(mg) Iron (mg) Thiami -ne (mg) Ribofl -- avin (mg) Niacin (mg) Vit C (mg) Bengal gram 360 17.1 5.3 202 4.6 0.30 0.15 2.9 3 Black Gram 347 24.0 1.4 154 3.8 0.42 0.20 2.0 0 Red Gram 335 22.3 1.7 73 2.7 0.45 0.19 2.9 0 Green Gram 348 24.5 1.2 75 3.9 0.47 0.21 2.4 0 Peas dry 315 19.7 1.1 75 7.05 0.47 0.19 3.4 0


SOYABEAN Soyabean is richest among pulses , exceptionally rich in proteins The limiting amino acid is Methionine Soyabean can be cooked and eaten as dhal or by mixing its powder with atta chapattis or soya milk and curd and in baby foods

Nutritive value of Soyabean (values per 100 g.):

Nutritive value of Soyabean (values per 100 g.) soyabean Energy (kcal) 432 Protein (g) 43.2 Fat (g) 19.5 Calcium (mg) 240 Iron (mg) 10.4 Thiamine (mg) 0.73 Riboflavin (mg) 0.39 Niacin (mg) 3.2 Vit . C (mg) 0


Vegetables They are classified as “Protective Foods” They usually have large water content , low energy and protein content They have varying amount of Dietary fiber Vegetables are divided into 3 groups 1.Green leaves 2.Roots and tubers 3.Others

Green leaves:

Green leaves They include palak (spinach), amaranth, cabbage, fenugreek ( methi ) Rich in carotenes, calcium, iron & vit . C riboflavin and folic acid, with exception of vit.B12 Because of its low caloric value and large bulk they have important value in dietaries of Obese people Recommended daily intake of green leafy vegetables is 40 g for an adult

Roots and tubers:

Roots and tubers Included in this group are potato, sweet potato, onion radish Carrots are exceptionally high in betacarotene Daily recommended intake is 50-60 g for an adult Other vegetables Brinjal , tomatoes and cauliflower have Daily recommended intake of 60-70 g

Nuts and oil seeds:

Nuts and oil seeds Included in this group are groundnut(peanut), cashew nut, coconut, walnut, almonds, mustard seeds, sesame seeds, cotton seeds sunflower seeds They contain good amount of fat & protein Nuts are good sources of B- vit , calcium, phosphorus and iron

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Fat content of: Walnuts -64.5% Almonds -58.7% Cashew nuts-46.9% Ground nut -40% Peanut butter is a very valued article in diet, protein content of ground nut tops the list with 26.7% Pistachio is the richest containing 14mg of Iron


FRUITS They are invaluable in human nutrition because they are good sources of vitamins and minerals Nutritive value: Vitamins –Most food contains significant amount of ascorbic acid like- orange, guava, Indian gooseberry( amla )

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The papaya and mango are excellent sources of carotene Minerals : Fruits are good sources of sodium and potassium, dry fruits are rich in calcium and iron Carbohydrates : banana and mango provide good source of energy . Pectin a kind of sugar is used in preparation of fruit jellies Cellulose : fruits have cellulose which assists in normal bowel movements

Nutritive value of common fruits (values per 100g of edible portion):

Nutritive value of common fruits (values per 100g of edible portion) Fresh fruits Calories Calcium (mg) Iron (mg) Carotene (µg) Vit C (mg) Banana 104 10 0.5 124 7 Guava 51 10 0.27 0 212 Mango 74 14 1.3 2,210 16 Orange 48 26 0.32 2,240 68 Papaya 32 17 0.5 2,740 57 Sitaphal 104 17 4.31 0 37 Amla 58 50 1.2 9 600

Animal foods:

Animal foods Foods of animal origin include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products They provide high quality protein and good amount of fat , minerals & vit . Vitamin B 12 is one of the rare nutrients found only in animal food Cow’s milk & hen’s egg are nature’s 2 most “nearly perfect foods”

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Milk is the best and most complete of all foods Good source of all the essential nutrients except vit c Proteins –chief proteins of milk are calcium caseinogenate , lactalbumin , lactoglobulin Milk contain all the essential amino acids Animal milk have 3 times more proteins than human milk MILK

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Human milk proteins have greater amounts 0f tryptophan and sulphur contaning a.a ( cystein ) FAT: 3.4% in human milk & 8.8% in animal milk Human milk has higher percentage of linoleic acid & oleic acid than animal milk Milk fat is a good source of retinol and vit D

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Sugar : Milk has lactose or milk sugar found nowhere else in nature and readily fermented by lactic acid bacilli Human milk have more sugars than animal milk Minerals and vitamins: Milk is particularly rich in calcium & contains all essential minerals (ca, ph, Na,K,Mg,Co,Cu,iodine ) It is however poor source of Iron

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Skimmed milk : It’s the milk from which fat is removed. It is devoid of fat and fat soluble vit . Toned milk : It’s the blend of Natural milk and “manmade” milk. It contains 1 part of water, 1 part of natural milk, 1/8 part of skim milk powder Vegetable milk : Milk prepared from vegetable foods like soyabean , groundnut


EGG Egg contains all the nutrients except carbohydrate and vit C An egg weighing 60g contains: 6g protein 6g fat 30mg calcium 1.5mg Iron 70 kcal energy “Reference protein” – egg protein has high biological value and digestibility

Nutritive value of Meat, fish & eggs (values per g/100g.):

Nutritive value of Meat, fish & eggs (values per g/100g.) Proteins Fat Minerals Meat , goat 21.4 3.6 1.1 Fish 19.5 2.4 1.5 Egg, hen 13.3 13.3 1.0 Liver , goat 20.0 3.0 1.3


Miscellaneous Coffee, tea & cocoa Soft drinks: lemonade, pepsi cola, fruit juices Alcoholic beverages : wine, beer, whisky Nutritive value of coffee, tea & cocoa (values per cup of 150ml.) Proteins Fat carbohydrates Energy Coffee 1.8 2.2 17.8 98.0 Tea 0.9 1.1 16.4 79.0 Cocoa 7.2 8.8 26.2 213.0

Some Health facts:

Some Health facts Alovera has been proved beneficial in certain skin diseases, acne & in diabetics, cancers and inflammation Cranberries help in preventing Urinary tract infections Raspberries help in preventing parkinsonism

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Black current oil prevents a wide variety of disorders, including candida , fatigue, high blood pressure, pain and inflammation and skin problems. Olive oil protect against heart diseases and various other health disorders including diabetes, high cholesterol, obesity and high blood pressure Carrot juice helps in preventing Gall bladder disease

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