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Fractal : 4 Fractal Geometric shape that can be split into parts each of which is a reduced size copy of the whole. Benoit Mandelbrot 1975 Latin fractus –broken or fractured Fractal Antenna : 5 Fractal Antenna Uses a self similar design to maximize the length, or increase the perimeter of material that can receive or transmit EM radiation with a given total surface area or volume. Multilevel space filling curves. Iterations. Why fractal antenna? : 6 Why fractal antenna? Compact Wideband applications Background of the invention : 7 Background of the invention Euclidean geometry Area directly proportional to perimeter Emphasis on frequency resonance and power patterns Concentrated on ease of construction rather than underlying electromagnetics First order iteration No attempts to exploit multiple scale self similarity of real fractals Equations : 8 Equations Fractal ratio limit dimension D=log L/log r Perimeter compression parameter PC=full sized antenna element length/fractal reduced antenna element length PC =A log[ N(D+C)] X(n+1)=f(Xn,Yn) Y(n+1)=g(Xn,Yn) Features : 9 Features R>eucledian Rapid element size shrinkage Increased effective wavelength N increase no:of resonant nodes increase Smaller than euclidean Much gain & frequencies of resonance Low Q and good bandwidth Slide 10: 10 Acceptable SWR Radiation Z that is frequency dependant High efficiency Infinitely complex Gain and PC as a function of N : 11 Gain and PC as a function of N Frequency invariance : 12 Frequency invariance Self similarity --invariant Rumey`s principle :antennas had to be defined by angles for this to be true 1999 analysis based on Maxwell`s equations A subset of the more general set of self similar conditions Slide 13: 13 Used where a wide range of frequencies needed while still having moderate G and D. Used for a VHF/UHF television antenna Tuning units : 14 Tuning units Wide bandwidth and complex resonance no need for tuning units For issues that require equalization need tuning units Log-periodic antenna (LP) : 15 Log-periodic antenna (LP) Dwight E.Isbell and Raymond DuHamel Individual components-dipoles Length and spacing of elements of LPA increase logarithmically from 1 end to the other Z and R characteristics that are regularly repetitive as a logarithmic function of the excitation frequency Multi-element,unidirectional,narrow beam antenna Slot fractal antenna : 16 Slot fractal antenna A communication system : 17 A communication system Areas of creation : 18 Areas of creation Design Prototyping Testing Manufacturing Ongoing innovation Advantages : 19 Advantages Powerful,versatile & compact antennas Fractal version of all existing antenna types Production of high performance antennas Smaller than traditional ones More reliable & lower cost One antenna able to replace many Increased bandwidth & multiband capability Decrease size load & enable optimum smart antenna technology Slide 20: 20 Slide 21: 21 Slide 22: 22 Applications : 23 Applications Military applications Custom applications Military applications : 24 Military applications Extreme frequency range operation Compact enough to be mounted in a variety of locations Rugged and field proven Inter operability Caability for covert operations Custom applications : 25 Custom applications Support full deployment of world`s most advanced wireless technology Mobile device configurations made possible Low cost performance enhancement for today`s RFID applications In-building communication applications Slide 26: 26 THANKYOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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