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Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change : 

Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES Third Session Kyoto, 1-10 December 1997


A Short History of the Framework Convention on Climate Change 1979 First World Climate Conference 1987 Montreal Protocol signed in Montreal 1988 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) established 1990 Second World Climate Conference 1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) signed at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1995 The First Session of the Conference of the Parties to the FCCC (ratifying States) in Berlin [Berlin Mandate established] 1996 The Second Session of the Conference of Parties (COP2) in Geneva 1997 Meetings of the Ad hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate (AGBM) 1997 The Third Session of the Conference of Parties (COP3) in Kyoto


Objective of the Climate Change Convention The Climate Change Convention seeks to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases "at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic [human-induced] interference with the climate system". There are three requirements: this objective should be achieved early enough to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change food production should not be threatened efforts to minimize greenhouse gas emissions and climate change should be consistent with sustainable economic development.


The Climate Change Convention Agreements The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Convention is the centrepiece of global efforts to combat global warming The Convention sets out some guiding principles Both developed and developing countries accept a number of general commitments Industrialized countries undertake several specific commitments (in particular, reducing emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000) The richest countries shall provide "new and additional financial resources" and facilitate technology transfer


The Climate Change Convention Agreements (continued) The supreme body of the Convention is the Conference of the Parties (COP) A financial mechanism (Global Environmental Facility) provides funds The Convention establishes two subsidiary bodies SBSTA and SBI The COP and its subsidiary bodies are serviced by a secretariat


1995 Meeting of the Council of the Parties (COP1) The Berlin Mandate countries agreed to negotiate binding commitments by industrial countries to reduce emissions after the year 2000 Ad hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate (AGBM) was established to conduct a series of negotiating sessions so that an agreement might be reached by COP3 in December 1997 in Kyoto


Negotiating stances going to Kyoto EU (European Union) -15% of 1990 levels by 2010 EU “bubble” and tradable permits JUSSCANNZ (Japan, US, Switzerland, Canada, Australia, Norway, New Zealand, - and recently Iceland and Mexico) -3% to +10% of 1990 levels by 2012 want developing countries to make binding commitments ‘flexible measures’ (tradable and bankable permits, joint implementation, removals by sinks)


Negotiating stances (continued) EIT (Economies In Transition - Central/Eastern Europe, Russian Federation) tradable permits special treatment regarding baseline years G77 / CHINA (developing nations, including OPEC and AOSIS) range on reductions (OPEC no limits / compensation, AOSIS 20% reductions by 2005) no binding commitments technology transfer, and adaptation assistance from rich countries no joint implementation or tradable permits


Major Issues discussed in Kyoto Emission reduction targets Emissions Trading Joint Implementation


Final agreements Emission reduction targets reduction targets to apply to 6 greenhouse gases ‘differentiated’ reductions of 5% from baseline 1990 levels by developed nations by the first commitment period 2008 - 2012 “countries undergoing transition to market economies” (EIT) to have differing baseline years, and “a certain degree of flexibility in implementing their commitments” no commitments from developing countries


Final Agreements Emission Reduction Targets (continued) developed countries to use 1995 as their base year for HFCs, PFCs and SF6 blocs of countries to be allowed to jointly achieve aggregate of targets (e.g., EU) net changes in emissions from human-induced effects on forests (e.g, reforestation and deforestation) to apply to reduction targets


Tradable Emissions Permits emissions reduction units to be reassignable as part of an international system of tradable permits by developed countries acquisition of such units shall be supplemental to domestic actions to meet commitments emission reduction units to be bankable from one commitment period to the next the COP will define the methods used for the permits trading system Final Agreements


Joint Implementation / Clean Development Mechanism creation of a ‘clean development mechanism’, in which climate-related projects in developing countries are funded by developed countries developed country funders of “joint implementation” activities can apply the resulting emission reduction units to their own targets a share of the proceeds of such projects to be applied to administrative costs and adaptation costs of developing countries Final Agreements


Other items each country must report on baseline year emissions, submit yearly emissions inventories, and develop and report on programmes for emission reduction and adaptation to climate change countries will cooperate on pertinent communication, research, ‘clean’ technology transfer, education and public awareness expert review teams to be established by the COP to assess each country’s implementations emissions to be measured and counted by methodologies established by the IPCC protocol to come into force 90 days after 55 countries, accounting for at least 55% of the total 1990 emissions Final Agreements


Unresolved Issues national governments still to ratify no commitments from developing nations no details on specific policies and measures to meet reduction targets no details on implementing permits system, including penalties no details on funding mechanism for developing nations ‘bunker fuels’ issue unresolved (i.e., fuels used in shipping and air travel) compensation fund discussion postponed


Major Problems with the approach Problem viewed as a technical issue, i.e., technology and economic instruments are the solution No mention of reducing consumption in developed nations Reductions are not large enough to prevent major climate effects Little sense of urgency or appreciation of the magnitude of the problem

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