Chapter 13 ppt 2005

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This presentation is currently under construction. Prepared by Deborah Turner

Chapter 13 The Rise of Dictators and World War II: 

Chapter 13 The Rise of Dictators and World War II Main Idea – The rise of dictators in Europe and Asia led to World War II. Aggressive leaders still threaten peace today. TSW demonstrate knowledge of the major causes of American involvement in World War II by identifying the causes and events that led to the US entering the war. SOL USII.6a


Section 1 Steps to War The Great Depression had ruined economies in Europe. Many Europeans turned to new leaders to solve their problems. Who were the dictators that came to power in Europe? Dictator – an absolute ruler. Italy – Benito Mussolini – began a political movement – fascism – an extreme form of nationalism and racism. Germany – Adolf Hitler – leader of the fascist National Socialist German Workers’ Party – or Nazi Party.


Who am I? Benito Mussolini Italy Fascist and Totalitarian State


Who am I? Adolf Hitler Germany


Dictators come to power: Soviet Union - Joseph Stalin – the Communist dictator took over upon the death of Vladimir Lenin (led the Communist takeover of Russia in 1917.) His government tried to control every aspect of life in the nation. Japan – The military was gaining more and more power with army General Hideki Tojo having more power than the Emperor Hirohito.


Who am I? Joseph Stalin Russia Communist and Totalitarian State


Who am I? Emperor Hirohito Japan Totalitarian State General Hideki Tojo Prime Minister


Who am I? Francisco Franco Spain Fascist who overthrows the democratic government.


Who am I? Winston Churchill Great Britain


Who am I? Franklin Delano Roosevelt United States


Define: Fascism – political movement that preached intense nationalism and racism. Adolf Hitler – Nazi dictator of Germany. Nazi party – Fascist party that ruled Germany between 1933 – 1945, with Hitler as the dictator. Dictator – absolute ruler. Joseph Stalin – the Communist dictator of the Soviet Union.


Axis Powers – the name of the alliance between Germany and Italy, and later would include Japan. Benito Mussolini Dictator of Italy General Hideki Tojo – Military leader of Japan. 9. Appeasement – the policy of meeting a nation’s demands to avoid war. 10. Lend - Lease Program – the policy in which the US sent war materials to the Allied Powers. 11. Pearl Harbor – the site of the Japanese attack on the United States.


12. The Munich Agreement – Hitler and Neville Chamberlain, Britain’s Prime Minister, met in Munich, Germany. They made an agreement giving Germany control of the Sudetenland, in return, Hitler promised to stop taking anymore territory. This appeasement was supposed to make “peace in our time.” 13. Blitzkrieg – a new method of warfare, using speed and surprise, “lightning war.” 14. Luftwaffe - Germany’s air force 15. The Battle of Britain – German planes flew massive bombing attacks on London and other civilian targets – but the British never surrendered.


CAUSES (Long Term) WWI (the harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles) Dictators come to power in Germany, Italy, Japan, and the Soviet Union Severe economic problems exist in Europe and Asia. Italy, Germany, and Japan expand their territory. The policy of appeasement fails. World War II


Immediate Causes Germany invades Poland. Japanese attack the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor


Countries That Threatened World Peace Japan Military leaders took control of gov’t Invaded Manchuria Tried to expand in the Pacific Joined the Axis Powers in 1940


Countries That Threatened World Peace Italy Mussolini seized control of the gov’t and the military and formed a fascist state Italy formed alliance with Germany called the Axis Powers Invaded Ethiopia in 1936 Supported Franco in Spain’s civil war


Countries That Threatened World Peace Germany Dictator and fascist Adolph Hitler took control in 1934 created a totalitarian state built up Germany’s army


Countries That Threatened World Peace Germany Nazis attacked Jews and sent them to concentration camps Hitler made alliance with Mussolini as an Axis Power Supported Franco in Spain’s civil war


Countries That Threatened World Peace Germany Threatened France’s border Annexed Austria Seized the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia


German Aggression! Lightning War - Hitler invades Poland


One of the VonTrapp children in the Sound of Music calls it The “angry spider”. Even today, neo nazi groups and other hate groups use it to represent their programs of prejudice.


Nazi Blitzkrieg April - May 1940 German Aggression Hitler conquers Denmark, Norway, Belgium, and the Netherlands


Defeated and forced to acknowledge the Nazi government.


April 1940 The Miracle of Dunkirk


Bombing damage in France.


June 22, 1940 France surrenders September 1940 U.S. passes first peacetime draft


German Aggression Battle of Britain Autumn 1940 - daily air raids over Britain - Unable to defeat the British quickly!


Despite their partnership – Hitler and Stalin distrusted each other. (There is no honor among thieves or dictators.) June1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union September 1941 – January 1944 German troops surround the city. The Siege of Leningrad - - lasted 872 days December 1941 – German advance to Moscow – harshest winter in decades. The weather and the Soviets push them back. German Aggression


Dec. 1940 The Lend-Lease Policy allows U.S. to give Allies help.


Atlantic Charter Prime Minister Winston Churchill President Franklin Roosevelt Discuss allied goals: the right of all people to self-determination, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, free from want, and freedom from fear.


Ford Island, seen on 10 October 1941 from much the same angle as Japanese bomber pilots viewed it on 7 December. National Archives Photo 80-G-279375


Deployment of attacking Japanese aircraft 183 aircraft of the first attack wave were launched from the six Imperial Japanese Navy carriers; Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, Hiru, Zuikaku and Shokaku, 230 miles North of O'ahu at 6:00 A.M. - They were ordered to attack at 0750 A.M. by Lt. Commander Mitsuo Fuchida. At approximately 7:15 A.M. the second wave of aircraft was launched and 170 more aircraft were on their way to Pearl Harbor.


Shattered by a direct hit, the USS Arizona burns and sinks, December 7, 1941.


Damage at Pearl Harbor


Aerial view of the USS Arizona Memorial


FDR calls this “a date which will live in infamy”, and Congress declares that a state of war exists with Japan.


Roosevelt signs the Declaration of War


Doolittle’s Raid With only 450 feet of 'runway,' one of sixteen Army B-25 Mitchell bombers takes off from the deck of the USS HORNET on its way to take part in the Doolittle Raid, the first U.S. bombing raid on Japan. The all volunteer strike force, trained and led by Lt. Col. James Doolittle, flew 800 miles then bombed Tokyo and 3 other cities without opposition. The raid inflicted little damage but gave a big boost to Allied morale in the face of the seemingly unstoppable Japanese. April 18, 1942.


Major Events Review 1936 Germany and Italy form Axis Powers. Civil war erupts in Spain. Germany annexes Austria (think the Sound of Music - true story.) Britain and France allow Germany to annex the Sudetenland in the Munich Agreement. Germany invades Czechoslovakia. Germany signs nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union. Germany invades Poland, Sept. 1, 1939. Britain and France declare war on Germany, Sept. 3


Japan joins the Axis Powers Germany invades France. Battle of Britain fought. Germany invades the Soviet Union. December 7 - Japan attacks United States at Pearl Harbor. The United States enters the war.


1941 June - British stop Axis advance in Africa at the Battle of El Alamein. September - Germans attack Soviet Union city of Stalingrad. November - American forces join tlhe Allies in North Africa. February Soviets win the Battle of Stalingrad.


The Allies defeated the Axis Powers in Europe and in Africa. War in Africa and Europe Section 2 During World War II, the United States assumed a leading role in world affairs that continues today.


Terms to Know: Dwight D. Eisenhower – U.S. general who led the Allied Forces in Europe. D-Day – Allied invasion of France in June 1944 to liberate Europe. Battle of the Bulge – Germany’s last major attack. Yalta Conference – Meeting of Allied leaders to discuss the end of the war plans. Holocaust – Systematic murder of millions of Jews and other people in Europe by the Nazis. Anti-Semitism – hostility or discrimination against Jews.


6. Anti-Semitism – hostility or discrimination against Jews. Persecute – to continuously treat others in a way meant to be cruel and harmful. Genocide – the deliberate destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group. The Holocaust – complete destruction of life on purpose – usually by fire. This term refers to the murder of 6 million Jews and 5 million others by the Nazis in WWII. The Final Solution – Hitler’s plan to exterminate “inferior” people such as Jews, the handicapped, political enemies, and others that did not conform.


Operation Torch North African Campaign Purposes: Drive Axis powers out of North Africa and Middle East Divert German forces from Russian Front Strategy: Sandwich Afrikan Corp between British in East and Allied forces (including US) in West


The Panzer IV was the mainstay of the Afrika Corps and were needed in great numbers in the Western Desert Erwin Rommel Commander of the Nazi forces in North Africa


July - August 1943, Operation "Husky": Allied forces invade Sicily, Italy. This Operation was the greatest Airborne-Amphibious Operation of WWII until D-DAY 3,000 ships and landing-craft with 160,000 men (8 Divisions), 14,000 vehicles, 600 tanks and 1800 guns. Operation continues in Sicily and Italy 1943-1945


First Allied attacks on Monte Cassino Operation Husky Invasion of Italy


Landing on the beach was difficult. 1. Surprise attack 2. Poor weather conditions 3. German fortifications Landing on Omaha Beach


13 June, 1944 - till 20 June, V-1 named "Vergeltungswaffe". Germany launches its first V-1 rocket attack on England, 8000 V-1's fired to London. Up to 100 V-1s fell every hour on London. Over an 80 day period, more than 6,000 persons were killed.


Launched a V-2 rocket. 8 September 1944, Those witnessing the event cannot explain the cause of the explosion because the speed of the projectile is such that it arrives before the sound of its passage is heard.


7 November 1944, Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected to an unprecedented fourth term as President of the United States.


"The Battle of the Bulge” December 1944 - January 1945 Last major offensive German action.


Yalta Conference FDR, Stalin, Churchill Meet to decide what happens next in Europe Stalin wants complete control of eastern Europe. FDR and Churchill refuse! Agree to divide Germany into occupied zones Agree to set up the United Nations


12 April 1945, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies; he is succeeded by his Vice-president, Harry S. Truman.


April 1945, "United Nations" formed in San Francisco. 28 April 1945, Benito Mussolini, and sixteen of Mussolini's body-guards are assassinated in the village of Giulino di Messegra, on Lake Como, Italy. 30 April 1945, Adolf Hitler, Eva Braun, Goebbels and his wife commit suicide in the bunker under the Reich Chancellery in Berlin, Germany


Germany Surrenders! Victory in Europe 8 May 1945, V-E Day - Victory in Europe is celebrated.


January 1945 - Red Army liberates Auschwitz, finds convincing evidence of SS atrocities of the Holocaust. Concentration Camps


Section 3 After early losses, the Allies defeated the Japanese in the Pacific.


Section 3 Terms to Know Bataan Death March – Forced march of captured Americans and Filipinos in the Philippines. Island hopping – Strategy of invading Japanese – held islands and moving ever closer to Japan. General Douglas MacArthur – “I shall return,” are his words after FDR orders him to withdraw from the Philippines in March 1942. (same guy – drove out the WWI Bonus Army.) Battle of Coral Sea – 1st time in Naval history, enemy ships fought a battle without seeing each other – aircraft carriers’ war planes fought the battle. No clear victory for either side but America blocks their path to Australia. (May 1942) Battle of Midway – naval battle between American and Japanese forces – won by Americans. (June 1942)


6. Battle for Guadalcanal – After 6 months of fierce fighting, the US wins first major land victory against the Japanese. ( Feb. 1943) 7. Navajo Code Talkers – Navajo Indians were trained to used their native language to communicate coded messages so the Japanese couldn’t decode our messages. 8. March 1945 – MacArthur returns and liberates Manila, Philippines. Kamikaze – Japanese suicide pilot Iwo Jima and Okinawa – Fiercely fought battles for these two islands places Americans close enough to begin major bombings of Japan.


Manhattan Project – Secret program to build an atomic bomb. Led by American scientist, J. Robert Oppenheimer. Worked for 3 years to develop and test the world’s first atomic bomb. Enola Gay – the name of the B-29 bomber that dropped the atomic bomb. Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan – The US dropped bombs on these two cities after issuing a warning to surrender or face complete destruction. September 2, 1945 – Japan signed the official letter of surrender, ending the war.


Map of the Japanese Empire at its height in 1942.


Allied POWs with hands tied behind their backs pause during the Bataan Death March. About 76,000 prisoners including 12,000 Americans were forced on the 60 mile march under a blazing sun without food or water toward a new POW camp in the Philippines. April, 1942.


GIs waded ashore on islands with strange names. Like Tarawa and Bougainville


Every island posed new dangers.


Marines of the 5th Division inch their way up a slope on Red Beach No. 1 toward Mount Suribachi on Iwo Jima, defended by seven Japanese Battalions. By nightfall, 566 Marines were killed and 1,854 wounded. February 19, 1945.


19 February 1945, (till 26 March). US Marines divisions land on Iwo Jima In the Pacific Iwo Jima is strategically and politically important to both sides. The Americans need the island as a fighter base (Mustangs P-51 fighters) for their Japanese raids (B-29's) and a relief base for damaged bombers. On the first day some 30,000 marines landed on the 8 square mile island. About 23,000 Japanese soldiers had prepared defences but allowed the landing to take place before opening fire. The Japanese had prepared for the invasion with a system of underground tunnels, bunkers, and pillboxes, designed to entrap and decimate the Americans. Over the next 36 days - 6,281 US soldiers are killed (in the first 2 days, 4000 US soldiers died), and 21,865 are wounded in capturing the island from 23,000 defenders. 21,000 Japanese soldiers died.


23 February 1945, U.S. Marines plant a U.S. flag on Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima. The flag raising photo and subsequent statue came to symbolize being a Marine.


26 May 1945, Tokyo, Japan is fire bombed by American bombers. The city burns, uncontrolled, for two days.


26 June 1945, Fifty nations meet in San Francisco, California (USA) and sign the World Security Charter formally establishing the United Nations. 4 July 1945, General Douglas MacArthur announces the liberation of the Philippines. 21 July 1945, The U.S. delivers a final ultimatum to the Japanese, quit the war or face total destruction. 24 July 1945, At the Potsdam Conference in defeated Germany, President Truman told Stalin only that the U.S. "had a new weapon of unusual destructive force."


Enola Gay Col. Paul W. Tibbets, pilot of the B-29 Superfortress ENOLA GAY, drops the world's first atomic bomb, Little Boy, on Hiroshima. The 9,000 lb. bomb was dropped from 31,600 feet and detonated at 8:15 a.m., August 6, 1945, about 1,900 feet above the center of Hiroshima. A blinding light, tremendous explosion and dark gray cloud enveloped the city, followed by a rising mushroom shaped cloud. The Japanese estimated 72,000 were killed and 70,000 out of 76,000 buildings in the city were destroyed.


At the time of the bombing, Hiroshima was a prosperous city of nearly 320,000. The bomb exploded almost directly over the center of the city. Two square miles of the city were completely leveled by the bomb, and the intense heat generated by the explosion started fires as far as two miles from ground zero.


About one hour after the bombing on 6 August 1945.


A Roman Catholic cathedral on a hill is all that remains in this section of Nagasaki following the dropping of the second Atomic Bomb from a B-29 flown by Major Charles W. Sweeney, August 9, 1945. The Japanese estimated 25,680 were killed and 44 percent of the city was destroyed.


8 August 1945, The Soviet Union declares war on Japan. Soviet forces invade Manchuria and North-Korea. 9 August 1945, The world's second (and last) atomic bomb (Plutonium), Fat Man, is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. One minute after explosion 39,000 were killed and 25,000 wounded. 14 August 1945, Emperor Hirohito announces the Japan defeat to his people. Japan accepts an unconditional surrender. The fear of more atomic weapon attacks and the certainty of land defeat by the Soviets have combined to secure the complete surrender. 2 September 1945, Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signs the instrument of surrender aboard the battleship U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay, Japan. End of World War II.


Gen. Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay. September 2, 1945.


Sept 2, 1945 Japanese sign surrender agreement Gen. Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay.

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