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Text Complexity, Close Reading, and Text Dependent Questions:

Text Complexity, Close Reading, and Text Dependent Questions Liz Mileski – 6 th Grade Kaleidoscope Samantha Sawitski – Middle School Literacy Coach 1

Goals/Agenda:

Goals/Agenda Learn 3 aspects of evaluating text complexity Practice evaluating text(s) Break Discuss close reading and how to plan before/during/after reading Practice close reading Q/A 2

Shifts in ELA/Literacy:

Shifts in ELA/Literacy 4 Shift 1 Balancing Informational & Literary Text Students read a true balance of informational and literary texts. Shift 2 Knowledge in the Disciplines Students build knowledge about the world (domains/ content areas) through TEXT rather than the teacher or activities Shift 3 Staircase of Complexity Students read the central, grade appropriate text around which instruction is centered. Teachers are patient, create more time and space and support in the curriculum for close reading. Shift 4 Text-based Answers Students engage in rich and rigorous evidence based conversations about text. Shift 5 Writing from Sources Writing emphasizes use of evidence from sources to inform or make an argument. Shift 6 Academic Vocabulary Students constantly build the transferable vocabulary they need to access grade level complex texts. This can be done effectively by spiraling like content in increasingly complex texts.

What is so complex about text complexity?:

What is so complex about text complexity? Tamara Maxwell English Language Arts Consultant Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction

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Anchor Standard: R.CCR. 10 Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. Example Grade-level Standard: RI. 6.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently , with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. CCSS Text Complexity 6

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7 Grade Band Current Lexile Band "Stretch" Lexile Band* K–1 N/A N/A 2–3 450L–725L 420L–820L 4–5 645L–845L 740L–1010L 6–8 860L–1010L 925L–1185L 9-10 960L–1115L 1050L–1335L 11–CCR 1070L–1220L 1185L–1385L

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Complexity of texts students are expected to read is below what is required to achieve college and career readiness: High school textbooks have declined in all subject areas over the last several decades. Average length of sentences in K-8 textbooks has declined from 20 to 14 words. Vocabulary demands have declined since the 1960s: 8th grade textbooks = former 5th grade texts 12th grade anthologies = former 7th grade texts Complexity of college and career texts has remained steady or increased, resulting in a gap Text Complexity: Why is this important? Adopted from the Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy (SRCL) Center 8

Text Complexity:

Text Complexity Levels of meaning Structure Language conventionality and clarity Knowledge demands Word frequency Sentence length Text cohesion Motivation Knowledge/experiences Purpose Task complexity 9

From Text Complexity: Raising Rigor in Reading D. Fisher, N. Fry, D. Lapp:

From Text Complexity: Raising Rigor in Reading D. Fisher, N. Fry, D. Lapp “Anyway, the fascinating thing was that I read in National Geographic that there are more people alive now than have died in all of human history. In other words, if everyone wanted to play Hamlet at once, they couldn’t, because there aren’t enough skulls!”

Quantitative Measures:

Quantitative Measures Qualitative Quantitative Reader and Task 11

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Hunger Games by S. Collins

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590L 890L 600L 1020L 770L 760L 750L 820L Hunger Games by S. Collins 810

Qualitative Measures:

Qualitative Measures Qualitative Quantitative Reader and Task 14

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R.L.9-10.3 Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. 15

Literary Texts: Meaning:

Literary Texts: Meaning Exceedingly Complex Very Complex Moderately Complex Slightly Complex Meaning: Several levels and competing elements of meaning that are difficult to identify, separate, and interpret; theme is implicit or subtle, often ambiguous and revealed over the entirety of the text Meaning: Several levels of meaning that may be difficult to identify or separate; theme is implicit or subtle and may be revealed over the entirety of the text Meaning: More than one level of meaning with levels clearly distinguished from each other; theme is clear but may be conveyed with some subtlety Meaning: One level of meaning; theme is obvious and revealed early in the text. RL.2 Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 16

Literary Texts: Text Structure:

Literary Texts: Text Structure Exceedingly Complex Very Complex Moderately Complex Slightly Complex Organization: Organization is intricate with regard to elements such as narrative viewpoint, time shifts, multiple characters, storylines and detail Use of Graphics: If used, minimal illustrations that support the text Organization: Organization may include subplots, time shifts and more complex characters Use of Graphics: If used, a few illustrations that support the text Organization: Organization may have two or more storylines and occasionally difficult to predict Use of Graphics: If used, a range of illustrations that support selected parts of the text Organization: Organization of text is clear, chronological or easy to predict Use of Graphics: If used, extensive illustrations that directly support and assist in interpreting the written text RL.5 Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. 17

Literary Texts: Language Features:

Literary Texts: Language Features Exceedingly Complex Very Complex Moderately Complex Slightly Complex Conventionality: Dense and complex; contains abstract, ironic, and/or figurative language Vocabulary: Generally unfamiliar, archaic, subject-specific, or overly academic language; may be ambiguous or purposefully misleading Sentence Structure: Mainly complex sentences often containing multiple concepts Conventionality: Complex; contains some abstract, ironic, and/or figurative language Vocabulary: Somewhat complex language that is sometimes unfamiliar, archaic, subject-specific, or overly academic Sentence Structure: Many complex sentences with several subordinate phrases or clauses and transition words Conventionality: Largely explicit and easy to understand with some occasions for more complex meaning Vocabulary: Mostly contemporary, familiar, conversational; rarely unfamiliar or overly academic Sentence Structure: Simple and compound sentences, with some more complex constructions Conventionality: Explicit, literal, straightforward, easy to understand Vocabulary: Contemporary, familiar, conversational language Sentence Structure: Mainly simple sentences 18

Conventionality:

Conventionality 19

Vocabulary:

Vocabulary 20

Sentence Structure:

Sentence Structure 21

Sentence Structure:

Sentence Structure 22

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L.6 Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. L.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. L.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. Literary Texts: Language Features Exceedingly Complex Very Complex Moderately Complex Slightly Complex Conventionality: Dense and complex; contains abstract, ironic, and/or figurative language Vocabulary: Generally unfamiliar, archaic, subject-specific, or overly academic language; may be ambiguous or purposefully misleading Sentence Structure: Mainly complex sentences often containing multiple concepts Conventionality: Complex; contains some abstract, ironic, and/or figurative language Vocabulary: Somewhat complex language that is sometimes unfamiliar, archaic, subject-specific, or overly academic Sentence Structure: Many complex sentences with several subordinate phrases or clauses and transition words Conventionality: Largely explicit and easy to understand with some occasions for more complex meaning Vocabulary: Mostly contemporary, familiar, conversational; rarely unfamiliar or overly academic Sentence Structure: Simple and compound sentences, with some more complex constructions Conventionality: Explicit, literal, straightforward, easy to understand Vocabulary: Contemporary, familiar, conversational language Sentence Structure: Mainly simple sentences 23

Literary Texts: Knowledge Demands:

Literary Texts: Knowledge Demands Exceedingly Complex Very Complex Moderately Complex Slightly Complex Life Experiences: Explores complex, sophisticated themes; experiences are distinctly different from the common reader Intertextuality and Cultural Knowledge: Many references or allusions to other texts or cultural elements Life Experiences: Explores themes of varying levels of complexity; experiences portrayed are uncommon to most readers Intertextuality and Cultural Knowledge: Some references or allusions to other texts or cultural elements Life Experiences: Explores a single theme; experiences portrayed are common to many readers Intertextuality and Cultural Knowledge: A few references or allusions to other texts or cultural elements Life Experiences: Explores a single theme; experiences portrayed are everyday and common to most readers Intertextuality and Cultural Knowledge: No references or allusions to other texts or cultural elements R.9 Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. 24

Qualitative Measures:

Qualitative Measures Qualitative Quantitative Reader and Task 25

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R.I.6.2 Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. 26 http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/animals/invertebrates-animals/octopus-and-squid/octopus_giant_kills_shark /

Informational Texts: Purpose:

Informational Texts: Purpose Exceedingly Complex Very Complex Moderately Complex Slightly Complex Purpose: Subtle, implied, difficult to determine; intricate, theoretical elements Purpose: Implied, but fairly easy to infer; more theoretical than concrete Purpose: Implied, but easy to identify based upon context or source Purpose: Explicitly stated; clear, concrete with a narrow focus RI.6 Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. 27

Informational Texts: Text Structure:

Informational Texts: Text Structure Exceedingly Complex Very Complex Moderately Complex Slightly Complex Organization of Main Ideas: Connections between an extensive range of ideas or events are deep, intricate and often implicit or subtle; organization of the text is intricate or specialized for a particular discipline Text Features: If used, are essential in understanding content Use of Graphics: If used, extensive, intricate, essential integrated graphics, tables, charts, etc., necessary to make meaning of text; also may provide information not otherwise conveyed in the text Organization of Main Ideas: Connections between an expanded range ideas, processes or events are deeper and often implicit or subtle; organization may contain multiple pathways and may exhibit traits common to a specific discipline Text Features: If used, greatly enhance the reader’s understanding of content Use of Graphics: If used, essential integrated graphics, tables, charts, etc.; may occasionally be essential to understanding the text Organization of Main Ideas: Connections between some ideas or events are implicit or subtle; organization is evident and generally sequential Text Features: If used, enhance the reader’s understanding of content Use of Graphics: If used, graphics mostly supplementary to understanding of the text, such as indexes, glossaries; graphs, pictures, tables, and charts directly support the text Organization of Main Ideas: Connections between ideas, processes or events are explicit and clear; organization of text is clear or chronological or easy to predict Text Features: If used, help the reader navigate and understand content but are not essential Use of Graphics: If used, simple graphics, unnecessary to understanding the text but directly support and assist in interpreting the written text RI.5 Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. 28

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RI.5 Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. Informational Texts: Text Structure Exceedingly Complex Very Complex Moderately Complex Slightly Complex Organization of Main Ideas: Connections between an extensive range of ideas or events are deep, intricate and often implicit or subtle; organization of the text is intricate or specialized for a particular discipline Text Features: If used, are essential in understanding content Use of Graphics: If used, extensive, intricate, essential integrated graphics, tables, charts, etc., necessary to make meaning of text; also may provide information not otherwise conveyed in the text Organization of Main Ideas: Connections between an expanded range ideas, processes or events are deeper and often implicit or subtle; organization may contain multiple pathways and may exhibit traits common to a specific discipline Text Features: If used, greatly enhance the reader’s understanding of content Use of Graphics: If used, essential integrated graphics, tables, charts, etc.; may occasionally be essential to understanding the text Organization of Main Ideas: Connections between some ideas or events are implicit or subtle; organization is evident and generally sequential Text Features: If used, enhance the reader’s understanding of content Use of Graphics: If used, graphics mostly supplementary to understanding of the text, such as indexes, glossaries; graphs, pictures, tables, and charts directly support the text Organization of Main Ideas: Connections between ideas, processes or events are explicit and clear; organization of text is clear or chronological or easy to predict Text Features: If used, help the reader navigate and understand content but are not essential Use of Graphics: If used, simple graphics, unnecessary to understanding the text but directly support and assist in interpreting the written text 30

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R.7 Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.* Informational Texts: Text Structure Exceedingly Complex Very Complex Moderately Complex Slightly Complex Organization of Main Ideas: Connections between an extensive range of ideas or events are deep, intricate and often implicit or subtle; organization of the text is intricate or specialized for a particular discipline Text Features: If used, are essential in understanding content Use of Graphics: If used, extensive, intricate, essential integrated graphics, tables, charts, etc., necessary to make meaning of text; also may provide information not otherwise conveyed in the text Organization of Main Ideas: Connections between an expanded range ideas, processes or events are deeper and often implicit or subtle; organization may contain multiple pathways and may exhibit traits common to a specific discipline Text Features: If used, greatly enhance the reader’s understanding of content Use of Graphics: If used, essential integrated graphics, tables, charts, etc.; may occasionally be essential to understanding the text Organization of Main Ideas: Connections between some ideas or events are implicit or subtle; organization is evident and generally sequential Text Features: If used, enhance the reader’s understanding of content Use of Graphics: If used, graphics mostly supplementary to understanding of the text, such as indexes, glossaries; graphs, pictures, tables, and charts directly support the text Organization of Main Ideas: Connections between ideas, processes or events are explicit and clear; organization of text is clear or chronological or easy to predict Text Features: If used, help the reader navigate and understand content but are not essential Use of Graphics: If used, simple graphics, unnecessary to understanding the text but directly support and assist in interpreting the written text 32

Informational Texts: Language Features:

Informational Texts: Language Features Exceedingly Complex Very Complex Moderately Complex Slightly Complex Conventionality: Dense and complex; contains abstract, ironic, and/or figurative language Vocabulary: Generally unfamiliar, archaic, subject-specific, or overly academic language; may be ambiguous or purposefully misleading Sentence Structure: Mainly complex sentences often containing multiple concepts Conventionality: Complex; contains some abstract, ironic, and/or figurative language Vocabulary: Somewhat complex language that is sometimes unfamiliar, archaic, subject-specific, or overly academic Sentence Structure: Many complex sentences with several subordinate phrases or clauses and transition words Conventionality: Largely explicit and easy to understand with some occasions for more complex meaning Vocabulary: Mostly contemporary, familiar, conversational; rarely unfamiliar or overly academic Sentence Structure: Simple and compound sentences, with some more complex constructions Conventionality: Explicit, literal, straightforward, easy to understand Vocabulary: Contemporary, familiar, conversational language Sentence Structure: Mainly simple sentences 33

Informational Texts: Knowledge Demands:

Informational Texts: Knowledge Demands Exceedingly Complex Very Complex Moderately Complex Slightly Complex Subject Matter Knowledge: Extensive, perhaps specialized or even theoretical discipline- specific content knowledge; range of challenging abstract and theoretical concepts Intertextuality : Many references or allusions to other texts or outside ideas, theories, etc. Subject Matter Knowledge: Moderate levels of discipline-specific content knowledge; some theoretical knowledge may enhance understanding; range of recognizable ideas and challenging abstract concepts Intertextuality : Some references or allusions to other texts or outside ideas, theories, etc. Subject Matter Knowledge: Everyday practical knowledge and some discipline-specific content knowledge; both simple and more complicated, abstract ideas Intertextuality : A few references or allusions to other texts or outside ideas, theories, etc. Subject Matter Knowledge: Everyday, practical knowledge; simple, concrete ideas Intertextuality : No references or allusions to other texts, or outside ideas, theories, etc. R.9 Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. 34

Text Complexity:

Text Complexity Levels of meaning Structure Language conventionality and clarity Knowledge demands Word frequency Sentence length Text cohesion Motivation Knowledge/experiences Purpose Task complexity 35

Reader and Task Considerations:

What aspects of the text will likely pose the most challenge for my students? What are natural areas of focus for this text? With what standards do my students need the most practice? Reader and Task Considerations Qualitative Quantitative Reader and Task Will the complexity of any before, during, and after reading tasks or the complexity of any questions asked about the text interfere with the reading experience ? What supports do I need to provide so all of my students (even those who are struggling readers ) can access the text? 36

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Activity Adopted from the Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy (SRCL) Center As a small group, read “Ripe Figs” and evaluate the complexity of the text, using the literary text sheet. 38

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The main character spends time with an aunt in Louisiana as the figs are ripening. In this coming-of-age story, family relationships are explored as the adult and child interact. Vivid symbolism enhances the plot and character development. Text Description Text Structure: Moderately Complex Organization of the text is only moderately complex because it is clear and chronological. However, chronological order is evident by inferring the passage of time as marked by growing seasons for various garden plants and the ripening of the figs. Rich symbolism requires inferential reading. Language Features: Very Complex Language features overall are very complex. The short text contains both tier-two academic vocabulary ( disconsolate, gnarled, placid), as well as Creole names and language that may be unfamiliar to students ( Bayou-Boeuf, Maman-Nainaine, tante). There are several instances of figurative language, for example “as patient as the statue of la Madone” and “as restless as a hummingbird.” Many complex sentences that reflect conversational language add to the difficulty of the language features: “When Maman-Nainaine sat down in her stately way to breakfast, the following morning, her muslin cap standing like an aureole about her white, placid face, Babette approached.” Meaning/Purpose: Moderately Complex The text structure is moderately complex with more than one level of meaning and subtle conveyance of the theme. Knowledge Demands: Very Complex The relationships between the main characters are symbolized by the growing seasons in the natural world. Familiarity with French and cultural norms of the South, Louisiana in particular, makes understanding easier. Cultural references complicate the knowledge demands in this text, however, the way the text speaks to aging and the passage of time is something that students can access no matter where they live. Qualitative Measures Quantitatively, Ripe Figs measures at the very top of the 6-8 band, right on the cusp of the 9-10 band. Qualitative analysis suggests that the text could be taught at the high end of the 6-8 band or the low end of the 9-10 band, with varying supports. Instructional supports around vocabulary and cultural references are particularly important. Recommended Complexity Band Level Quantitative Measure of the Text: 1040L Range: 925L-1185L Associated Band Level: Grades 6-8 Quantitative Measure

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40 Possible Major Instructional Areas of Focus (include 3-4 CCS Standards) for this Text: RL.8.1 - Cite the specific textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. The third paragraph ends: “What she saw there finally was something that made her sing and dance the whole day long.” What did Babette see there? How do you know? RL.8.3 - Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision. Draw attention to the two lines of dialogue between Maman-Nainaine and Babette towards the end of the story: “’Ah,’ said Maman-Nainaine, arching her eyebrows, ‘how early the figs have ripened this year.’ ‘Oh,’ said Babette, ‘I think they have ripened very late.’” Ask students to analyze what these lines reveal about the differences between Maman-Nainaine and Babette. RL.8.4 - Determine the meaning of words or phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative or connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. Ask students to underline descriptions of the figs throughout the text. What specific words does the author use to describe the figs at the beginning? At the end? Note: If used in grade 8, it will be especially important to support students in understanding that these descriptions of the ripening figs mark the passage of time. Allow students to wrestle with this first in the text before you step in and point it out. Unpack the first sentence of paragraph three with students. Ask students to examine the two similes used to describe Babette and Maman-Nainaine. What do these two similes reveal about their different attitudes? Considerations for Reader and Task Below are factors to consider with respect to the reader and task: Potential Challenges this Text Poses: The vocabulary and cultural references may pose a challenge to many readers. Differentiation/Supports for Students: Unpacking the vocabulary, as well as cultural references throughout the text, will require strong supports when used at the high end of the 6-8 band. However, this is manageable with the short text length. Try substituting names for the French names in the story, if students are struggling. Perhaps design picture vocabulary with words and phrases from the text connected to pictures or photographs. Students could use these for pre-reading, during reading, and/or as a review after reading. Extensions for enrichment might include an author study of additional works by Kate Chopin or a study of the historical time period for the context of the story. Students might explore the coming-of-age theme and symbolism or other literary techniques used by the author. Cross-curricular teaching ideas might incorporate French language and culture. Additional areas for cross-curricular extension or enrichment might include agriculture, science, biology or botany as related to the plants in the story.

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Break

Promoting Close Reading:

Promoting Close Reading “Close, analytical reading stresses engaging with a text of sufficient complexity directly and examining meaning thoroughly and methodically, encouraging students to read and re-read deliberately. Directing student attention on the text itself empowers students to understand the central ideas and key supporting details. It also enables students to reflect on the meanings of individual words and sentences; the order in which sentences unfold; and the development of ideas over the course of the text, which ultimately leads students to arrive at an understanding of the text as a whole” (PARCC 2011) 42

Close Reading:

Close Reading Teacher introduces the text and sets the purpose, and students read. 4. Teacher reads passages of text out loud as students follow along. 2. Students annotate the text, i.e., “read with a pencil” or “interrogate the text.” 3. Students talk through their understanding of the text with a partner. 5. Teacher guides discussion (whole group, small group, or partners) of the passage with text-dependent questions. 6. Students record their thinking.

Carol Jago’s Close Reading Steps:

Carol Jago’s Close Reading Steps 1. First read: What does it say? 2. Second read: What does it mean? 3. Third read: How does it say it?

Gallagher’s Close Reading:

Gallagher’s Close Reading Before: I do; you watch During: I do; you help During: You do; I help After; You do; I watch

Gallagher Lesson Planning for Complex Texts:

Gallagher Lesson Planning for Complex Texts 1. Without my assistance, what will my students take from this reading? 2. With my assistance, what do I want my students to take from this reading? 3. What can I do to bridge the gap between what my students would learn on their own and what I want them to learn? What support should I offer in the following stages: Focusing, 1 st draft, 2 nd draft, Collaboration, metaphorical, and reflective? 4. How will I know if my students got it?

“Closing in on Close Reading” Nancy Boyles:

“Closing in on Close Reading” Nancy Boyles Aim for Independence — 1. Go Beyond Ho-Hum Questions from Chapters 6 and 7 of Kate DiCamillo's novel Because of Winn-Dixie (Candlewick, 2000): Why was Miss Franny so scared by Winn-Dixie? Why was she "acting all embarrassed"? How did the Herman W. Block Memorial Library get its name? Opal says, "She looked sad and old and wrinkled." What happened to cause Miss Franny to look this way? What were Opal's feelings when she realized how Miss Franny felt? Earlier in the story, Opal says that Winn-Dixie "has a large heart, too." What does Winn-Dixie do to show that he has a "large heart"? Opal and Miss Franny have three very important things in common. What are these? (Student Achievement Partners, 2012)

Up-graded Ho-Hum Questions:

Up-graded Ho-Hum Questions In these chapters, the author repeats a few phrases, like, "My daddy was a rich man, a very rich man." Why does the author do this? Find more repeated phrases. What effect do these have on the meaning of the story? (Standard 4: the use of language) In Chapter 7, Miss Franny Block tells Opal the story of the bear from long ago. Why do you think the author stops the action of the story to go back in time like this? What might not have happened if Franny Block hadn't told this story? (Standard 5: text structure) What is Franny Block's point of view about Winn-Dixie by the end of Chapter 7? What is the evidence? Where does her point of view change? (Standard 6: point of view)

Aim for Independence:

Aim for Independence Teach Students to Ask the Questions What is the author telling me here? Are there any hard or important words ? What does the author want me to understand ? How does the author play with language to add to meaning?

Aim for Independence :

Aim for Independence Focus on analyzing and observing Who is speaking in the passage? Who seems to be the main audience? (To whom is the narrator speaking?) What is the first thing that jumps out at me? Why? What's the next thing I notice? Are these two things connected? How? Do they seem to be saying different things? What seems important here? Why? What does the author mean by ______? What exact words lead me to this meaning? Is the author trying to convince me of something? What? How do I know? Is there something missing from this passage that I expected to find? Why might the author have left this out? Is there anything that could have been explained more thoroughly for greater clarity? Is there a message or main idea? What in the text led me to this conclusion? How does this sentence/passage fit into the text as a whole?

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Craft Technique Possible Questions Imagery, including comparisons: Similes Metaphors Personification Figurative language Symbols What is being compared? Why is the comparison effective? (typically because of the clear, strong, or unusual connection between the two) What symbols are present? Why did the author choose these symbols? Word choice What word(s) stand out? Why? (typically vivid words, unusual choices, or a contrast to what a reader expects) How do particular words get us to look at characters or events in a particular way? Do they evoke an emotion? Did the author use nonstandard English or words in another language? Why? What is the effect? Are there any words that could have more than one meaning? Why might the author have played with language in this way? Tone and voice What one word describes the tone? Is the voice formal or informal? If it seems informal, how did the author make it that way? If it's formal, what makes it formal? Does the voice seem appropriate for the content? Sentence structure Short sentence Long sentences Sentence fragments Sentences in which word order is important Questions What stands out about the way this sentence is written? Why did the author choose a short sentence here? (for example, so it stands out from sentences around it, for emphasis) Why did the author make this sentence really long? (for example, to convey the "on and on" sense of the experience.) Why did the author write a fragment here? (for example, for emphasis or to show a character's thoughts) Based on the order of the words in this sentence, which word do you think is the most important? Why? What was the author trying to show by placing a particular word in a certain place?

Activity: Millenials:

Activity: Millenials Pre-Reading During Reading Post Reading

Stop n’ Jot:

Stop n’ Jot What does this part SAY(summarize) What does this MEAN to me/my life (connections, implications, wonderings, etc )

Text Dependent Questions:

Text Dependent Questions 1. From what you read, how does Stein feel about the millenial generation? How do you know? 2. find at least 3 of Stein’s proofs – his quotes, stats, studies. Are they relevant and sufficient? Why/why not?

Questions continued:

Questions continued 3. Count how many times you see the words they, their, they’re , and them in the first few paragraphs. How does this word choice contribute to the tone and argument of the article? 4. How do Stein’s choices for “ Millenial Micro-Celebrities” on the back of the article contribute to his argument?

In Closing—Carol Jago’s Words of Wisdom:

In Closing—Carol Jago’s Words of Wisdom “…text worth reading and tasks worth completing.” “We’re going to make this road by walking.”

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