NATURAL LAWS, HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL RIGHTS

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From Natural Laws to Civil Rights. A short introduction to the world of Human Rights.

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NATURAL LAWS, HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL RIGHTS. Adolfo García Morillo Citizenship Year 9 Colegio de San Francisco de Paula.

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NATURAL LAWS Natural law : Certain rights or values are inherent by virtue of human nature, and universally cognizable through human reason.

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NATURAL LAWS Which translated means …

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NATURAL LAWS People tend to appreciate the same things everywhere . People seem to hate the same things everywhere . People tend to organise themselves the same way everywhere .

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NATURAL LAWS OH YES! COOPERATION HONOUR COURAGE HARD WORK FAMILY RESPECT FOR AUTHORITY RESPECT FOR THE ELDER EDUCATION… OH NO! INSOLIDARITY FALSEHOOD COWARDICE LAZINESS SELF-ISOLATION REBELLION CRUELTY BRUTENESS

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NATURAL LAWS Who were the first to notice them and to talk about them ? And why ?

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NATURAL LAWS Of course , the Romans NOTICED this . Not that they RESPECTED this .

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NATURAL LAWS Then , the Roman Empire collapsed …

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NATURAL LAWS And nothing happened for EIGHT centuries until …

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MAGNA CARTA In 1189, the king of England , Richard I the Lionheart , decided to join the Third Crusade . He left his brother , John, as the ruler of the kingdom while he was away …

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MAGNA CARTA Seeing the warrior king Richard was out , the nobles and barons took advantage of John’s weakness and forced him to accept a list of demands . Most of them were related to granting priviledges and benefits to the aristocracy , but there were also references to protecting widows and orphans , building hospitals to help the poor , etc.

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MAGNA CARTA But the two most important achievements were :

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MAGNA CARTA HABEAS CORPUS

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HABEAS CORPUS No person will be arrested without charges . No person will be judged without legal assistance . No person will be imprisoned without a trial.

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MIRANDA WARNING

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MAGNA CARTA The second greatest achievement was …

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MAGNA CARTA Nobody is above the law …

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MAGNA CARTA Nobody is above the law … NOT EVEN THE KING!

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MAGNA CARTA Therefore , since then , the King had to consult in order to raise taxes or to declare war …

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LEGITIMACY Some kings did it … Others ignored the Parliament … Which led to the conflict between Monarchy and Parliament , to decide what the origin of Legitimacy comes from .

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DIVINE LAW OR PUBLIC LAW

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MONARCHY VS PARLIAMENT This conflict reached its highest peak with Charles I of England .

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MONARCHY VS PARLIAMENT Charles needed money to go to war …

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MONARCHY VS PARLIAMENT Charles needed money to go to war … For this , he needed to raise new taxes …

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MONARCHY VS PARLIAMENT But in order to go to war and raise new taxes , he needed to call the Parliament .

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MONARCHY VS PARLIAMENT The Parliament hadn’t been called for decades , so when it was reenacted again …

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MONARCHY VS PARLIAMENT

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MONARCHY VS PARLIAMENT It started to take decisions , to pass laws … Basically , it started to rule the country.

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MONARCHY VS PARLIAMENT Something with which Charles didn’t feel very happy …

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CROMWELL vs CHARLES I

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MONARCHY VS PARLIAMENT Eventually , the Civil War broke out in 1642. The Royalist forces were defeated by Crowmwell in the Battle of Naseby .

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AND THE KING WAS EXECUTED.

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BILL OF RIGHTS (1689) As a result of the triumph of Parlamentarians , the Bill of Righs was issued and passed in 1689, definitely setting the supremacy of this institution over any other , including the Crown.

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THE CONCEPT OF “RIGHTS” The English Bill of Rights was decissive for the legitimation of the American Revolution . Also it inspired the Declaration of Independence of the United States (1776).

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“WE THE PEOPLE” For the first time in history , a group of people admitted that some truths were SELF-EVIDENT:

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SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS THAT ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL.

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SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS THAT WE ALL HAVE UNALIENABLE RIGHTS BY BIRTH.

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SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS THAT THOSE RIGHTS INCLUDE LIFE , LIBERTY AND HAPPINESS.

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USA DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

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REVOLUTIONARY TIMES The American Revolution was also consequence and, at the same time, inspiration for the most famous of all Revolutions in History…

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JULY 1789

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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION Again , the revolutionaries proclaimed the existence of rights that were just inherent to the human nature .

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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION And edited The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen .

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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

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NATURAL RIGHTS This Declaration included all of the elements already proclaimed by the previous revolutions , such as F reedom , Habeas corpus, The right to violence to fight opression and tyranny …

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NATURAL RIGHTS But added some new ones …

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NATURAL RIGHTS Did you get them ?

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NATURAL RIGHTS Freedom of speech . Freedom of religion . Right to property . Right to vote and be voted . If it’s not illegal , then it’s legal.

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NATURAL RIGHTS The French Revolution called these rights NATURAL RIGHTS

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EVERYWHERE ELSE? The discussion about a universal application of the Human Rights had had a long history behind …

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EVERYWHERE ELSE? After all , the questions were … WHO IS A HUMAN? ARE THERE HUMANS OUTSIDE EUROPE? WHAT ABOUT SLAVES, NATIVES…OR WOMEN?

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SOUTH AMERICA In South America , the Spanish Conquest had had bright and dark moments .

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FRAY BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS CASAS

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THE CHURCH AND THE RIGHTS Later on , in the 18th century , the Jesuits tried to establish the human condition of the Native Americans and, therefore , their natural rights to life and freedom .

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PARAGUAY PLANTATIONS

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EGALITARIANISM The influence of the Christian message of peace and brotherhood and the egalitarian principles of the American Revolution led to a strong debate in the United States , concerning slavery .

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QUAKERS The Quaker Movement , descendant of the first Puritans that arrived in America in the 16th-17th century , were extraordinarely active in the fight for the abolition of slavery .

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QUAKERS

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QUAKERS It’s a fact that the lively activism of the Quakers all over the United States was one of the reasons that eventually triggered the outbreak of the American Civil War .

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EGALITARIAN WAVES SPREAD The success of the American Revolution , the abolition of slavery and the sense that all humans had a right to be free from their colonial masters spread elsewhere .

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1798 REVOLUTION IN IRELAND

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RIGHT TO FREEDOM But it was in Asia, in the heart of the British Empire , where the movement of the Human Rights was to grow and set an example to the rest of the world .

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IT’S TIME YOU LEFT!

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1948 THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION After the disastrous experience of the Second World War , and as a natural extension of the founding of the United Nations Organisation , the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights was issued in 1948.

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1948 THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION

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ONE STEP FORWARD, TWO STEPS BACK However , although in some places the Human Rights movement was moving on , in other parts of the world , the situation was stepping back…

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NORTHERN IRELAND Bogleside Battle and Bloody Sunday

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SOUTHERN STATES OF THE USA. Segregation and Civil Rights marches

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SOUTH AFRICA Apartheid

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CIVIL RIGHTS A new concept was developing out of the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights .

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CIVIL RIGHTS They are not a list of articles . There is not an exact number of them . They have not been discussed , approved or voted .

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CIVIL RIGHTS They all spring out from the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights. From what it says and from what it means. It is rooted in the SPIRIT of the Article, in its consequences:

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CIVIL RIGHTS I f nobody can be discriminated out of their religion , race , ethnicity , sex, discapacity or sexual orientation , then …?

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SUFFRAGISM

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IT’S THE BALLOT OR THE BULLET

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SEGREGATION

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LESBIAN/GAY ADOPTION

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DISABILITY UNEMPLOYMENT

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RACE AND DEATH PENALTY

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RACE AND DEATH PENALTY

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DRIVING WOMEN IN ARABIA

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FREEDOM vs SECURITY

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PERSONHOOD FOR GREAT APES

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IS THE FUTURE HERE?

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YOUR TASKS Formative : You will produce a PPT on ONE article of the UNDHR. You can talk about : Situation in the past and historical evidences of it . Present implementation in the world , in Europe , in Spain . International campaigns . Celebrities ’ or important people’s support . Main problems against full implementation . Don’t forget your own opinion , conclusion , comments .

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YOUR TASKS Formative : About 20 slides . CICB ( Cover , Index , Conclusion , Bibliography ). Explain , comment , describe, change pictures FREQUENTLY.

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YOUR TASKS Summative : You will produce a video on the article of your choice . You can either try a short story , with or without dialogue, using the article as the script for it . You can see an example here . You can try a video including pictures , music , texts , your own voice , related to your article .

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YOUR TASKS Summative . The video will last between 1 and 2 minutes. It will be commented and then shown in class . It must include Title ( Article ) and Credits . It will be stored in a pen-drive, so that the teacher can downloaded . Otherwise , you can share it in Google Drive.

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