The Restoration Movement : A search for the ancient order The Restoration Movement Reasons To Study Church History : Reasons To Study Church History Helps Us Learn From The Mistakes Of The Past And Avoid Them
To Build Upon Their Successes, So We Can Grow From Them
Helps Us Appreciate The Lord’s Church Points to Ponder : Points to Ponder What was the Restoration Movement?
Who were the major players in the movement?
What were their goals?
What lasting effect did they have?
Is the “Restoration” principle a valid principle? What was the Restoration Movement? : What was the Restoration Movement? Background:
A movement that occurred in the late 1700’s and 1800’s.
The movement had its roots in Europe and in America.
In America it occurred on the Western Frontier.
Historically part of the “Second Great Awakening.”
While similar movements occurred previously in Europe during the Middle Ages, these movements were generally driven underground. Men like John Wycliffe and John Huss held similar restoration principles. The Restoration Movement as we know it, however, has its origin primarily in North America. Slide 5: Thinkers and Reformers Slide 6: “The church is always reforming” “Ecclesia semper reformanda” But What About Restoring? What Was the Restoration Movement? : What Was the Restoration Movement? Four factors leading to the movement:
Reformation call of Zwingli and Calvin for a return to the authority of scripture and the restoration of biblical forms and patterns.
The rationalism of John Locke and his call for unity among Christians based on Jesus’ direct commands.
The First Great Awakening (1730s-40s) and the view that creeds should be abandoned.
The spread of “Separate Baptists” on the frontier and the growing view that a “blueprint” could be found for the primitive church. Timeline for the Movement : Tyndale burned Timeline for the Movement 1415 John Huss
Burned 1384 John
Wycliffe dies 1536 1725 Wesley’s
“Conversion” 1611 King James Bible 1678 “Pilgrim’s Progress” James O’Kelly 1517 Luther’s
dies 1564 1492Columbus Discovers America Calvin’s
“Institutes” 1455 Gutenberg
Press 1794 What Was the Restoration Movement? : What Was the Restoration Movement? Principles of the Movement:
Recognition of Christ as the supreme authority in religion.
New Testament as the only source of faith and practice.
Proper distinction between the Old and New Testaments.
Recognition of a New Testament Pattern.
Unity of all believers.
Autonomy of local congregations.
Rejection of Manmade Creeds Major Players in the Movement : Major Players in the Movement James O’Kelley (1735-186)
Virginia Preacher and instrumental in the Movement.
Was once a Methodist and a circuit rider.
Smiths , Jones, and O’kelleys join forces in the 1790’s.
Believed that collection should be “free will.”
Lord’s Supper on the 1st day of the Week.
Did accept sprinkling for “baptism.” Slide 11: James O’Kelly (1735-1826) “Brethren, hearken unto me, put away all other books, and forms and let this be the only criterion and that will satisfy me.” 1792 Major Players in the Movement : Major Players in the Movement Abner Jones (1772 – 1841)
Organized churches in New Hampshire, Massachusetts.
Only attended school a few weeks in his life.
Mastered Latin, Greek, Hebrew.
At age of 21 abandoned Calvinism
Instrumental in setting the stage for the Restoration Movement. Major Players in the Movement : Major Players in the Movement Elias Smith (1769-1846)
A Baptist in Woodstock, Vermont
Strong religious convictions even as a youth.
Began preaching in 1790
Had most of Romans – Revelation memorized.
Believed baptism was by immersion.
Broke with the Baptist church.
First to preach the all sufficiency of the nameChristian. Slide 14: “When in my twenty-fourth year, I believed there would be a people bearing a name different from all the denominations in this country; but what would they be called, I then could not tell. In the spring of 1802, having rejected the doctrine of Calvin and universalism, to search the scriptures to find the truth, I found the name which followers of Christ ought to wear; which was Christians. …I ventured for the first time, softly to tell the people, that the name Christian was enough for the followers of Christ without addition of the words Baptist, Methodist, etc. -- Elias Smith Earliest Restorers : Earliest Restorers The Movement Picks Up Steam : The Movement Picks Up Steam As with most movements there are various factors and persons that lead to its success or failure.
The plea to return to Christianity was not exclusively an American plea. However the Restoration Movement found its most success in the new country called the United States.
Two major independent “threads” brought about the Restoration Movement in America. These two “threads” eventually merged into one movement in 1832. The men instrumental in this were Barton Stone and Alexander Campbell. Two Branches Emerge and Join : Two Branches Emerge and Join Barton W. Stone (1772-1844) Alexander Campbell (1788- 1866) Two Branches Emerge and Join : Two Branches Emerge and Join Stone and the Campbells (Thomas, Alexander) were denominational ministers of the time who became disenchanted with the infighting, division, and sectarianism inherent within denominations. Each of these men, again independently from each other, came to the conclusion that in order for the church to become what God intended, it must forsake human teachings and adopt the structure and likeness found in the New Testament. In order to do this, they began to realize that in order to be pleasing to God, the church had to return to its "purity" as it was before men began to add creeds and teachings foreign to the scriptures. Major Players in the Movement : Major Players in the Movement Barton W. Stone (1772-1844)
Born near Port Tobacco, VT
Licensed as a Presbyterian Minister.
Later abandoned all creeds and held bible alone as rule of faith.
Preached in Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee
August 1801 attended the Cane Ridge Revival.
Experience at Cane Ridge instrumental inhis joining the Restoration Movement. The Cane Ridge Factor : The Cane Ridge Factor The 2nd Great Awakening is in full swing.
People are becoming more religious.
Camp Meetings are breaking out.
August 1801 – The Great Cane Ridge Camp Meeting occurs.
Bourbon County, Kentucky
The meeting was attended by various denominations.
Some 30,000 were estimated to have attended.
Stone preached that gospel was universal for all The Cane Ridge Factor : The Cane Ridge Factor 30,000 in attendance
Known for charismatic events that took place during the meeting.
Jerks, Barks, Falling Unconscious on the Ground.
From this, however, Stone emerged determined to preach “Christianity.” Slide 22: “Religious Exercises” at Cane Ridge Falling Jerking Barking (in conjunction with jerking) Dancing Laughing Running Singing Slide 23: The Arrival of the Shakers Beginnings traced back to 1706 No creeds, worship marked by “religious exercises” Full name: “The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearance” Ann Lee became the leader and she believed that she was the second incarnation of Christ. Shakers arrive in New York, August 6, 1774 Some in Stone’s movement defected to the Shakers. Post- Cane Ridge Events : 1803 - Stone and four other preachers withdrew from the (Presbyterian) Synod of Kentucky
These five organized their 15 churches into the “Springfield Presbytery”
1804 - “The Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery” marked the end of the Springfield Presbytery
1807 – Stone accepts “immersion” as baptism but does not draw a “test of fellowship” till some time later.
1824 – Stone and Campbell meet and are amazed at their similar theologies.
1826 – Stone begins the Christian Messenger
1831/32 – The two groups unite. Post- Cane Ridge Events Major Players in the Movement : Major Players in the Movement Thomas Campbell
Father of Alexander Campbell.
Moved from Scotland in 1807
Preacher and Professor for the Presbyterians
Rejected Creeds was fired from Presbyterians.
Preached that unity was on scriptures.
1809 – Wrote Declaration and Address and organizedthe Christian Association of Washington (Pennsylvania) for the purpose of promoting only Christianity.
“Where the Bible Speaks We Speak.” Slide 26: “The Church of Christ upon earth is essentially, intentionally and constitutionally one; consisting of all those in every place that profess their faith in Christ and obedience to him in all things according to the Scriptures, and that manifest the same by their tempers and conduct, and of none else as none else can be truly and properly called Christians.” Thomas Campbell Slide 27: “Nothing ought to be inculcated upon Christians as articles of faith; nor required of them as terms of communion, but what is expressly taught and enjoined upon them in the word of God.” Thomas Campbell Major Players in the Movement : Major Players in the Movement Alexander Campbell
Born Sept 12, 1788 (Ireland)
Trained from youth in scripture and classics.
1808 set out from Scotland to join father in America.
Shipwrecked on the way
Schooled at Glasgow University
Influenced by Robert Haldane and family
Arrives in America and is amazed that he andhis father was preaching same doctrine and hadboth left Presbyterianism. Alexander Campbell’s Life and Influence : Alexander Campbell’s Life and Influence Doctrine:
Rejection of Creeds
Rejection of special clergy and emphasis on lay ministers
Plurality of elders for each congregation.
Rejected Calvinism – faith is the product of free will!
Mutual Edification and sharing in Worship. Alexander Campbell’s Life and Influence : Alexander Campbell’s Life and Influence Preaching Career:
Took no money for preaching.
Married into money (Martha Brown) and farmed, mined, etc.
Birth of 1st child brought him to consider the issue of infant baptism.
At first associated with the Baptists
Was baptized in Buffalo Creek, Bethany WV by Mathias Luse.
Started the Brush Run congregation and later became part of the Redstone Baptist Association.
Eventually broke from Baptists
1841 began Bethany College in Bethany, WV
Had several debates with notable figures including Robert Owens.