Bible typology

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Typology of the old and new testaments

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Bible typology:

Bible typology

Points to ponder:

Points to ponder What is a type? What is typology? Defining the Terms. Types of Types? How to identify a type?

What is a type? :

What is a type?

What is a type?:

What is a type? “The preordained representative relation which certain persons, events, and institutions of the Old Testament bear to corresponding persons, events, and institutions in the New.” (Milton Terry 1890, 246 ). “ A type is a shadow cast on the pages of Old Testament history by a truth whose full embodiment or antitype is found in the New Testament revelation” (Broomall, 533).

What is a type?:

What is a type? Types are pictures, object-lessons, by which God taught His people concerning His grace and saving power. The Mosaic system was a sort of kindergarten in which God's people were trained in divine things, by which also they were led to look for better things to come. God in the types of the last dispensation was teaching His children their letters. In this dispensation He is teaching them to put the letters together, and they find that the letters, arrange them as they will , spell Christ, and nothing but Christ.

What is typology? :

What is typology?

What is typology?:

What is typology? Typology (type) - (ology) - the study of types!

Defining the terms:

Defining the terms

Defining the terms:

Defining the terms Tupos : A die (as struck), i.e. a stamp or scar; a shape, a model, fashion , figure, form, manner, pattern, print. Romans 5:14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not sinned according to the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come.

Defining the terms:

Defining the terms The word type (Greek tupos ) occurs 16 times in the New Testament. It is variously translated in the King James Version as: Print ( Jn 20:25 ); Figure ( Acts 7:43 ; Ro 5:14 ) Pattern ( Titus 2:7 Heb 8:5 ) Fashion ( Acts 7:44 ) Manner ( Acts 23:25 ) Form ( Ro 6:17 ) Example ( 1Cor 10:6 , 11 , Php 3:17 , 1Th 1:7 , 2Th 3:9 ; 1Ti 4:12 )

Defining the terms:

Defining the terms Skia : "shade " or a shadow ;literally or figuratively (darkness of error or an adumbration ) Colossians 2:16-17 So let no one judge you in food or in drink, or regarding a festival or a new moon or sabbaths , 17 which are a shadow of things to come, but the substance is of Christ.

Defining the terms:

Defining the terms Hupodeigma : A n exhibit for imitation or warning (figuratively, specimen, adumbration):--en-(ex-)ample, pattern Hebrews 9:23 Therefore it was necessary that the copies of the things in the heavens should be purified with these, but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.

Defining the terms:

Defining the terms Antitupos (Anti-type) 1Peter 3:21 The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ : Hebrews 9:24 For Christ has not entered the holy places made with hands, which are copies of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us;

Types of types!:

Types of types!

Types of types:

Types of types Historical Types People in the Old Testament frequently are seen to be types of Christ. For instance, Moses, who led God's people out of slavery in Egypt and into the rest of the Promised Land, is clearly a type for Christ who leads his people out of slavery to sin and toward their final heavenly rest. De 18:15 The LORD your God will raise up for you a Prophet like me from your midst, from your brethren. Him you shall hear,

Types of types:

Types of types Legal Types Within the Law of Moses, many sacrifices, offerings and rituals were prescribed by God as the worship to be given by Israel. These sacrifices pointed forward, in different ways, to the one Sacrifice to be offered on the Cross for the sins of all God's people . John 1:29 The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!

Types of types:

Types of types Typical Persons Adam is a type of Christ in that as the former introduced sin into the world, even so, through the latter a system of righteousness was made available for mankind (Romans 5:19 ). Melchizedek , king of Salem and a priest of God—at the same time (Genesis 14:18-20)—was a type of Christ. David : At his ascension, Jesus began to reign on David’s throne and to simultaneously function as our high priest (cf. Psalm 110:4; Zechariah 6:12, 13; Hebrews 5:5-10; 6:20; 7:1-17). Moses , prophet , leader, and mediator for Jehovah’s people, was typical of the Lord Jesus who functions in a similar, though more exalted, capacity (cf. Deuteronomy 18:15; Acts 3:22; 1 Corinthians 10:2; Galatians 3:27; 3:19; 1 Timothy 2:5).

Types of types:

Types of types Typical Places Egypt represents a state of bondage such as holds the sinner prior to his conversion (Galatians 4:2; Romans 6:17; 1 Corinthians 10:lff); Jerusalem or Zion typifies the church and finally heaven (cf. Galatians 4:25, 26; Hebrews 12:22; Revelation 21:2); Babylon , which held God’s people captive in the Old Testament, pictures the condition of an apostate church that has departed from the simplicity of the New Testament pattern (Revelation 11:8; 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:2ff).

Types of types:

Types of types Typical Things Jacob’s ladder, with the angels ascending and descending upon it (Genesis 28:12), pictured Christ (cf. John 1:51), who provides both communication from the Father (John 1:18; Hebrews 1:1-2) and access to heaven (John 14:6 ). The brazen serpent , lifted up in the wilderness, through which the people found physical healing (Numbers 21:8) was a type of the lifted-up Christ (John 3:14; 12:32), through whom spiritual healing comes (Isaiah 53:5 ). Tabernacle was typical ( cf. Hebrews 9:8-9). Accordingly , the most holy place of the tabernacle represented heaven (Hebrews 6:19, 20; 9:8, 24), while the holy place was a type of the church (Acts 15:16, 17; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Timothy 3:15).

Types of types:

Types of types Typical Events Creation of light on the first day of Earth’s history suggests the coming brilliant illumination of the gospel of Christ (cf. 2 Cor 4:6 ). The flood typified the sudden destruction of the world yet to come at the end (Matthew 24:37-39 ). Water from the rock in the wilderness (Exodus 17:6) was a preview of the life-sustaining water provided by our Lord (John 4:14) Manna from heaven was a type of that spiritual bread who came down from heaven to nourish humanity (John 6:32 ). The deliverance of Noah from a corrupted world, by means of “water,” prefigured our salvation, through baptism (cf . 1 Peter 3:21)

Types of types:

Types of types Typical Offices Prophets (1 Kings 19:16) Priests (Exodus 28:41) Kings (1 Samuel 10:1) All these were anointed in anticipation of the coming of The Anointed O ne (cf. Daniel 9:25, 26) who is prophet (Acts 3:22), priest (Hebrews 3:1), and king (Revelation 17:14 ).

Types of types:

Types of types Typical Actions Scape Goats One slain – representing Christ’s atoning sacrifice One set free – representing removal of our sins. The two goats were, so to speak, two sides of the same coin; both constituted the solitary offering of Christ. The one signified his death and the atoning effect of his blood, the other his resurrection (cf. Romans 4:25) and the complete removal of our sins (cf. Isaiah 53:4, 6; John 1:29 ). (W. Jackson)

Types of types:

Types of types Typical Institutions The Passover Spotless lamb (Exodus 12:5) which was Slain between three and five P.M., Without any bones being broken (12:46 ). Feast of First Fruits Pentecost , was a celebration in which the initial produce of the harvest was offered to God as a token of the full crop to follow. This ritual typified: (1) the early influx of the Jews into the church of Christ (Romans 11:16); and, (2) the resurrection of the Lord Jesus as God’s pledge of the general resurrection to ultimately come (1 Corinthians 15:20, 23 ).

How to identify types:

How to identify types

How to identify types:

How to identify types Following the Reformation period, several distinct schools of thought developed. THREE MAJOR POSITIONS 1. Any OT event or person that resembles a NT parallel Johannes Cocceius (1603-1669) Very similar to an allegorical approach. 2. Only those explicitly stated to be types by NT writers. John March (1757-1839) 3. Types can be both explicit and inferred. More types in the OT than are specifically mentioned in the NT. Patrick Fairbairn (1805-1874)

How to identify types:

How to identify types Most of OT is a type Only if explicitly identified in NT Explicit AND Implicit Johannes Cocceius John March Patrick Fairbairn

How to identify types:

How to identify types Rule 1 A type is “ preordained ” and not merely an incident in history.

How to identify types:

How to identify types Rule 2 There must be some compelling reason to think that an object is a type. There must be some clear intent that the type is designed to prefigure something else. There must be some clear point of resemblance. Types are not trivial similarities!

How to identify types:

How to identify types Typology is not a matter of collecting all of the resemblances between the Old and New Testaments, but rather of understanding the underlying redemptive and revelational process which begins in the Old Testament and finds its fulfillment in the New. St. Augustine " In the Old Testament the New Testament is concealed; in the New Testament the Old Testament is revealed."

How to identify types:

How to identify types Rule 3 A type generally has been selected for one particular purpose. Not every element of an Old Testament figure is necessarily typical of its New Testament antitype. While the tabernacle elements are typical of heaven, the church, baptism, etc. Not EVERY ring or thread has an equivalent in its New Testament antitype. Over interpretation is dangerous.

How to identify types:

How to identify types Rule 4 In a type the thing said/or seen has spiritual value in and of itself in addition to the intended antitype The lamb of the Passover had inherent spiritual value in the first Passover!

How to identify types:

How to identify types Rule 5 A type is NOT merely history repeating itself. Israel Sins Babylonian Captivity 586 B.C. Israel Sins Roman Captivity A.D. 70 Not Typical

How to identify types:

How to identify types Rule 6 Similarity in two objects does not necessarily make a type. Ark of Covenant Created w. purist materials Overshadowed by Cherubim Had Manna in it. David danced before it In house of Obed-edom 3 months Mother Mary Pure and holy Overshadowed by HS Had Bread of Life in her John Baptist lept in the womb In house of Elizabeth 3 months Not Typical

How to identify types:

How to identify types Rule 7 Types are NOT exact replicas of their antitypes. John the Baptist Preached the coming kingdom Beheaded Succeeded by his superior Early history well known. Elijah Preached against Baal Taken up in a whirlwind Succeeded by his student Early history unknown Typical but NOT identical!

How to identify types:

How to identify types Rule 8 Types are used in important moral and religious matters and thus must be exalted in their character BUT less exalted than their antitypes. Heaven Indescribable Splendor Most Holy Place With Splendor

How to identify types:

How to identify types Rule 9 A type is always something real , not fictitious or ideal. vs Symbolism such as in Daniel

How to identify types:

How to identify types Rule 10: Type s are NOT allegories. Origen (184-253) and the “allegory” of the Good Samaritan The man who was going down is Adam. Jerusalem is paradise Jericho is the world. The robbers are hostile powers. T he priest is the Law The Levite is the prophets The Samaritan is Christ The wounds are disobedience The beast is the Lord’s body T he [inn], which accepts all, is the Church. The manager of the [inn] is the head of the Church, The Samaritan promised return is the second coming . Allegories ignore the literal, historical, and contextual sense of the passage!

How to identify types:

How to identify types Rule 11: Types are not normal prophecy. Typology differs from prophecy in the means of prediction. Prophecy predicts mainly by means of the word , whereas typology predicts by institution, act or person . Prophecy Gen 3:16 seed of woman Isaiah 2 and the Church Daniel 2 and the Church Is 53 and the Christ Typology Adam The Tabernacle Moses The Passover

Closing considerations:

Closing considerations

Closing considerations:

Closing considerations Interesting observations by Milton Terry. The early Church was rebuked for not recognizing OT types even though they had not been specifically identified by the apostles . (Hebrews 5:10—14). Each case must be determined on its own merits by the good sense and sound judgment of the interpreter and his exegetical discernment must be disciplined by a thorough study of such characters as are acknowledged on all hands to be scriptural types. Terry, p. 337ff

Closing considerations:

Closing considerations The philosophical question: Are types . . . . Prospective - Did the OT authors recognize the typological force of the original type? Retrospective – Or is it only in retrospect that anyone can see the prediction? While the OT writers likely did not understand the full ramifications of the very system in which they served, at least some no doubt saw that God had more in store. Prophets, while not fully understanding God’s plan did indeed long to step from the shadows into the light of full revelation.

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