Bio-field Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of B

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The present research work investigated the influence of bio-field treatment on two common flavoring agents used in food industries namely beef extract powder (BEP) and meat infusion powder (MIP). The treated powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

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Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389 J Nutr Food Sci ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS an open access journal Open Access Research Article Nutrition and Food Sciences ISSN: 2155-9600 Journal of Nutrition Food Sciences Mahendra et al. J Nutr Food Sci 2015 5:4 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600.1000389 Corresponding author: Shrikant P Trivedi Global Inc. 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969 Henderson NV 89052 USA Tel: 1602-531-5400 E-mail: publicationtrivedieffect.com Received June 02 2015 Accepted June 18 2015 Published June 23 2015 Citation: Mahendra KT Gopal N Shrikant P Rama MT Snehasis J et al. 2015 Bio-feld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389 Copyright: © 2015 Mahendra KT et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are credited. Bio-field Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder Mahendra KT Gopal N Shrikant P Rama MT Snehasis J and Rakesh M Trivedi Global Inc. 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969 Henderson NV 89052 USA Abstract The present research work investigated the infuence of bio-feld treatment on two common favoring agents used in food industries namely beef extract powder BEP and meat infusion powder MIP. The treated powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR X-ray diffraction XRD particle size analysis surface area analysis differential scanning calorimetry DSC and thermogravimetric analysis TGA. The FT-IR results showed disappearance of triglycerides peaks in both the treated powders as compared to control. XRD results corroborated the amorphous nature of both control and treated samples. The BEP showed enhanced average particle size d 50 and d 99 size exhibited by 99 of powder particles by 5.7 and 16.1 respectively as compared to control. Contrarily the MIP showed a decreased particle size d 50 0.4 and d 99 18.1 as compared to control. It was assumed that enormous energy was stored in MIP after bio-feld treatment that led to fracture into smaller particles. The surface area was increased in both the treated powders. DSC result showed signifcant increase in melting temperature in BEP and MIP which indicated the higher thermal stability of the samples. However the specifc heat capacity ∆H was decreased in both samples which was probably due to high energy state of the powders. Keywords: Beef extract powder Meat infusion powder Bio-feld treatment Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy X-ray difraction Particle size analysis Surface area analysis Diferential scanning calorimetry Termo gravimetric analysis Abbreviations: BEP: Beef Extract Powder MIP: Meat Infusion Powder FT-IR: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy XRD: X-Ray Difraction DSC: Diferential scanning Calorimetry TGA: Termo Gravimetric Analysis CHD: Coronory Heart Disease BET: Brunauer- Emmett-Teller DTG: Derivative Termo Gravimetry Introduction Beef is known to have excellent nutritional value and it has been widely consumed in many countries. Te prominent reason for this high food value is its strongest peroxide forming potential due to its excellent myoglobin and haem levels 12. Beef extract powder BEP is highly concentrated meat stock and has been used in food industry as a favouring agent in cooking and to prepare broth for drinks 3. It has been used since many years as a food additive and taste enhancer in food technological applications. On the other hand meat infusion powder MIP has been used as a microbial growth medium and favouring agent 4. Coronory heart disease CHD is the main cause of death in western countries. Te life style and genetic backgrounds are two important factors which afects the mortality in CHD. Te elevated level of triglycerides is one of the main reasons for CHD. Te factors such as obesity insulin resistance excessive alcohol consumption diabetes and kidney disease also causes risk of high triglycerides 5. Moreover the red meat such as beef and less dark meat chicken also have the higher triglycerides. Previously it was suggested that removing triglycerides from cooked meat afects the aroma and thus it can afect the quality of the beef meat 6. Hence reducing the triglyceride content will directly improve the health and it will improve the quality of the meat products. Currently no alternative and cost efective approaches are available to alter the content of triglycerides but bio-feld treatment may be a new approach to change the physiochemical properties of powders made from these meat products. In physics energy is a property of objects that can be transmitted to other objects and changed into diferent forms but neither can be created or destroyed 7. According to Einstein’s equation Emc 2 the energy and matter are fundamentally related to each other 8. Nonetheless the energy is a feld of force which can signifcantly interact with any object at a distance and cause action. Furthermore the energy can exists in several forms such as kinetic potential electrical magnetic and nuclear. Researchers have shown that short lived electrical events or action potential exists in several types of animal cells such as neurons muscle cells endocrine cells as well as plant cells. Te human nervous system consist the energy/information in the form of electrical signals 910. Whenever these electrical signals fuctuate with time the magnetic feld generates as per the Ampere-Maxwell law and cumulatively known as electromagnetic feld. Hence the electromagnetic feld being generated from the human body is known as bio-feld energy 11. Mr. Trivedi is known to exert prominent efects on external surrounding using his unique bio-feld herein referred as Bio-feld treatment. Recently it was investigated that bio-feld treatment can signifcantly change the characteristics of living and non-living organisms. Subjecting bio-feld treatment on metals and ceramics caused signifcant changes in crystalline thermal and atomic properties 12-19. It has been recently published that the efect of bio-feld treatment resulted in signifcant improvement of the yield and quality of various agriculture products 20-23. Te said bio-feld

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Citation: Mahendra KT Gopal N Shrikant P Rama MT Snehasis J et al. 2015 Bio-feld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389 Page 2 of 8 Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389 J Nutr Food Sci ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS an open access journal exposure caused an increase in growth and anatomical characteristics of an herb Pogostemon cablin that is commonly used in perfumes in incense/insect repellents and alternative medicine 24. Moreover in microbiology bio-feld treatment has also changed the antibiotic susceptibility patterns as well as produced biochemical reactions that induced changes in the characteristics of pathogenic microbes 25-27. Having inspired by these excellent results in present study an attempt was made to investigate the physicochemical properties of BEP and MIP that were exposed to the said Bio-feld. Te bio-feld treated powders were thoroughly characterized by FT-IR XRD DSC TGA CHNSO and particle size analysis. Experimental Materials and methods Te BEP and MIP were procured from HiMedia Laboratories Pvt Ltd India. Te samples were grouped into two parts one was kept as a control sample while the remaining part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s bio-feld treatment and coded as treated sample. Afer that all the samples control and treated were characterized with respect to FT-IR CHNSO XRD particle size analysis surface area analysis DSC and TGA. Characterization Fourier transforms infrared FT-IR spectroscopy: Te infrared spectra of BEP and MIP were recorded with FT-IR spectrometer Perkin Elmer USA. IR spectrum was recorded in the range of 4000 to 500 cm -1 . CHNSO analysis: Te BEP and MIP were analyzed for their elemental composition CHNS and O. Te powdered samples were subjected to CHNSO Analyzer using Model Flash EA 1112 Series Termo Finnigan Italy. X-ray difraction XRD study: XRD of BEP and MIP were analyzed using Phillips Holland PW 1710 X-ray difractometer system. Te wavelength of the radiation was 1.54056 angstrom. Te data was obtained in the form of 2θ versus intensity a.u chart. Te obtained data was used for calculation of crystallite size using the following formula. Crystallite size kλ/b Cos θ Where λ is the wavelength and k is the equipment constant 0.94. Particle size analysis: Te average particle size and particle size distribution were analyzed using Sympetac Helos-BF Laser Particle Size Analyzer with a detection range of 0.1 µm to 875µm. Average particle size d 50 and size exhibited by 99 d 99 of powder particles were computed from laser difraction data table. Te d 50 and d 99 value were calculated using following formula. Percentage change in d 50 size100 × d 50 treated- d 50 control/ d 50 control. Percentage change in d 99 size100 × d 99 treated- d 99 control/ d 99 control. Surface area analysis: Te surface area of BEP and MIP were characterized using Surface Area Analyzer SMART SORB 90 BET Brunauer-Emmett-Teller which had a detection range of 0.1-100 m 2 /g. Diferential scanning calorimetry DSC study: Te BEP and MIP were used for DSC study. Te samples were analyzed using a Pyris-6 Perkin Elmer DSC on a heating rate of 10ºC/min under oxygen atmosphere. Termo gravimetric analysis TGA: Termal stability of the BEP and MIP were analyzed using Metller Toledo simultaneous TGA. Te samples were heated from room temperature to 400ºC with a heating rate of 5ºC/min under oxygen atmosphere. Results and Discussion FT-IR spectroscopy Te FT-IR spectrum of control and bio-feld treated samples are illustrated in Figure 1. Te IR spectrum of control and BEP showed Figure 1 prominent vibration bands at 1760 cm -1 -CO and 1151 cm -1 -C-O due to presence of triglycerides peak stretching in the sample. Other important peaks were observed at 2895 and 2817 cm -1 which can be attributed to C-H stretching vibration peaks. Te spectrum showed peaks at 1635 and 1587 cm -1 attributed to presence of characteristic protein bands such as amide-I and amide -II stretching vibration peaks 28-31. Another peak was observed at 3078 to 3780.2 cm -1 attributed to -OH stretching vibration peak. Te treated sample showed considerable change in FT-IR spectrum Figure 1. We observed that the presence of triglycerides peak of -CO 1760 cm -1 and C-O 1151cm -1 was disappeared in the treated BEP. Te result showed that the bio-feld treatment probably removed the fatty triglycerides components from the treated BEP. Additionally it was also observed that the characteristic –OH/-NH stretching vibration peaks were reduced to lower wavenumbers 3064 cm -1 which indicated the formation of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the treated sample 3233. Tese results suggest that bio-feld treatment has induced structural changes in the treated sample. Te FT-IR spectrum of control and treated MIP are presented in Figure 2. Te FT-IR of control powder showed Figure 2 important peaks at 1689 and 1589 cm -1 due to amide-I and amide-II stretching vibration peaks respectively. Other important peaks were observed at 1760 and 1157cm -1 for CO and C-O group respectively due to triglycerides. However these two peaks were completely disappeared in treated MIP Figure 2 which indicated that bio-feld treatment afected chemical changes in the treated sample. Figure 1: FTIR spectrum of control and treated beef extract powder.

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Citation: Mahendra KT Gopal N Shrikant P Rama MT Snehasis J et al. 2015 Bio-feld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389 Page 3 of 8 Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389 J Nutr Food Sci ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS an open access journal CHNSO analysis Table 1 shows the results of CHNSO analysis of BEP and MIP. Te treated BEP showed substantial changes in terms of elemental composition of the treated sample. Te treated BEP showed 5.05 increase in nitrogen as compared to control. Te oxygen percentage was increased by 3.82 in the treated BEP as compared to control. Te carbon percentage was also improved by 2.09 as compared to control sample. Moreover the treated BEP showed the presence of sulphur element however no trace of sulphur was found in control sample. Te presence of sulphur might play a crucial role in preserving the comminuted meat products 34. Tis data showed that the bio-feld treatment led to change the elemental composition in BEP. Whereas the treated MIP showed small percentage change in nitrogen 0.77 as compared to control powder. However carbon and hydrogen percentage was decreased by 1.22 and 7.13 respectively in the treated sample as compared to control. It was observed that there was a signifcant change in oxygen percentage in treated MIP 24.48 as compared to control sample. Te treated MIP showed some trace of sulphur 0.27 though no sulphur was found in control sample. All together the CHNSO results confrmed that bio-feld treatment signifcantly changed the elemental percentage in treated samples. X-ray difraction studies Te XRD difractogram of control and treated BEP sample are illustrated in Figure 3 where a and b represented to control and treated sample respectively. Te XRD showed the amorphous nature of the control sample Figure 3a with a broad halo at 2θ equals to 20.0°. Te XRD of treated BEP did not reveal Figure 3b any diferences in X-ray pattern of the sample. Te treated samples also showed the broad amorphous nature which was probably due to less ordered atomic arrangement in the sample. Te X-ray difractogram of control and treated MIP are presented in Figures 4a and 4b. Te Figure 4a showed a broad amorphous peak at 2θ equals to 22° and Figure 4b showed similar XRD pattern with no change in peak position. Amorphous materials due to random or irregular arrangement in atoms show broad and difused peaks 35. Particle size and surface area analysis Te particle size analysis was carried out on BEP and MIP. Te percentage of average particle size d 50 and d 99 were computed and results are presented in Figure 5. Te control BEP showed d 50 value 11.75 μm and d 99 value of 85.39 μm respectively. Afer treatment d 50 value was increased to 12.42 μm and d 99 value was increased to 99.1 μm. Te percentage change in d 50 value and d 99 value of the treated BEP was increased by 5.7 and 16.1 respectively as compared to control sample Figure 5. Tis showed that bio-feld treatment led to an increase in particle size of the treated samples. It is postulated that the agglomeration of treated BEP may be due to bio-feld treatment which causes joining of particle boundaries and hence increase in particle size. Contrarily in case of MIP the d 50 and d 99 values were decreased by 0.4 and 18.1 Figure 6. Here we assume that the treated powder particles received high bio-feld energy which led to deformation of the particle boundaries and hence it caused a reduction in particle size. Te surface area was analyzed by BET analysis and results are presented in Table 2. Te treated BEP showed substantial increase in surface area 1.291 m 2 /g as compared to control powder 1.027 m 2 /g. Tis was contrary to our particle size results. Te surface area of treated Figure 2: FTIR spectrum of control and treated meat infusion powder. Figure 3a: XRD diffractogram of control beef extract powder. Figure 3b: XRD diffractogram of treated beef extract powder.

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Citation: Mahendra KT Gopal N Shrikant P Rama MT Snehasis J et al. 2015 Bio-feld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389 Page 4 of 8 Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389 J Nutr Food Sci ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS an open access journal MIP 0.625 m 2 /g was also increased as compared to control powder 0.488 m 2 /g. Te percentage changes in surface area of the samples BEP and MIP were 25.7 and 28 respectively. Tis was probably due to the fact that the decreased particle size in MIP caused an increase in surface area. Te surface area and particle size changes are usually opposite to each other i.e. smaller the particles size larger the surface area and vice versa 36-38. Hence the more surface area could have been exposed to solvents thereby causing increased solubility. Diferential scanning calorimetry study DSC is an excellent technique to investigate the glass transition melting temperature and change in heat capacity of diferent materials. DSC thermogram of control and treated BEP are presented in Figures 7a and 7b respectively. Te DSC thermogram of control sample Figure 7a showed a broad endothermic infexion at 124.61°C which was due to melting temperature of the control sample. However the treated BEP sample showed an elevation in melting temperature as compared to control. DSC thermogram of treated powder showed Figure 7b a broad endothermic peak at 192°C. Tis sharp increase in melting temperature was probably due to the higher absorption of bio- feld in the treated sample. Hence the treated BEP need more external thermal energy in order to melt the sample which increased its melting temperature as compared to control. Te DSC thermo gram of both control and treated MIP are presented in Figures 8a and 8b. Te DSC thermogram of control MIP Figure 4a: XRD diffractogram of control meat infusion powder. Figure 4b: XRD diffractogram of treated meat infusion powder. Figure 5: Particle size results d50 and d99 of beef extract powder and meat infusion powder. Figure 6: Percentage change in particle size d50 and d99 of beef extracts powder and meat infusion powder. Figure 7a: DSC thermogram of control beef extract powder.

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Citation: Mahendra KT Gopal N Shrikant P Rama MT Snehasis J et al. 2015 Bio-feld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389 Page 5 of 8 Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389 J Nutr Food Sci ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS an open access journal showed Figure 8a a sharp endothermic infexion at 131.67°C which was responsible for its melting temperature. Contrarily the bio-feld treated sample showed Figure 8b a broad endothermic infexion at 182°C which was due to melting temperature of the sample. Tis confrmed that bio -feld treatment enhanced the melting temperature of the treated MIP. Tis was probably due to increased internal energy that was caused due to Bio-feld which subsequently needed more external energy in order to disturb the material chains. Te increased melting temperature could be correlated to higher thermal stability of the treated BEP and MIP. It can be hypothesized that bio-feld has acted as a crosslinker for the collagen present in meat products BEP and MIP which probably restricted the molecular mobility that resulted in enhanced thermal denaturation and stability 3940. Moreover the specifc heat capacity of the control and treated samples were computed from DSC data and results are presented in Table 3. Te specifc heat capacity was found to be decreased proportionally in both the samples 83.92 and 3.84. It was assumed that the treated samples BEP and MIP were present in corresponding high energy state. Termal stability TGA thermo gram of control and treated BEP are illustrated in Figures 9a and 9b. Te thermograms of control powder showed Figure 9a one step thermal degradation pattern. Te control sample started to degrade at 188°C and degradation was terminated at 235°C. Derivative thermogravimetry DTG thermogram of the control powder showed the maximum thermal decomposition temperature at 206°C. Similarly the treated BEP also displayed Figure 9b one step thermal degradation pattern. Te treated sample started to decompose at 180 o C and decomposition step was terminated at 250°C. However signifcant increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature 218°C was observed in the treated sample which could be correlated with its higher thermal stability. Figures 10a and 10b shows the TGA thermogram of control and bio-feld treated MIP. TGA thermogram of control MIP showed Figure 10a single step decomposition pattern. Te sample started to degrade at 165°C and decomposition was stopped at 250 o C. Te sample showed maximum thermal decomposition temperature at 209°C contrarily the treated MIP showed Figure 10b no DTG peak for maximum thermal decomposition temperature. Based on Tese results we assume that the bio-feld treatment has induced signifcant thermal changes in both BEP and MIP. Te TGA results were also well supported by the DSC data. Te FT-IR data showed a complete disappearance of triglyceride CO and C-O peak in the treated BEP and MIP as compared to control sample. It was shown previously that elevated level of triglycerides could cause serious health concerns such as obesity hypertension and high blood glucose levels. More consumption of red meat such as beef could increase the triglyceride level in the humans that further increases health problems. Hence present work describes that bio-feld treatment could be used as possible strategy to remove excess triglycerides. Moreover it was recently shown that reduced level of triglyceride might improve the aroma and quality of cooked meat. Hence we assume that bio-feld treatment could improve the health and quality of beef and meat products. Conclusion Tis research study was an attempt to improve the physicochemical properties of BEP and MIP using bio-feld treatment. FT-IR data showed that bio-feld treatment has changed characteristics of treated powders at the structural level. DSC study corroborated increase in Figure 7b: DSC thermogram of treated beef extracts powder. Figure 8a: DSC thermogram of control meat infusion powder. Figure 8b: DSC thermogram of treated meat infusion powder.

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Citation: Mahendra KT Gopal N Shrikant P Rama MT Snehasis J et al. 2015 Bio-feld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389 Page 6 of 8 Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389 J Nutr Food Sci ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS an open access journal Figure 9a: TGA thermogram of control beef extract powder. Figure 9b: TGA thermogram of treated beef extract powder.

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Citation: Mahendra KT Gopal N Shrikant P Rama MT Snehasis J et al. 2015 Bio-feld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389 Page 7 of 8 Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389 J Nutr Food Sci ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS an open access journal Figure 10a: TGA thermogram of control meat infusion powder. Figure 10b: TGA thermogram of treated meat infusion powder.

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Citation: Mahendra KT Gopal N Shrikant P Rama MT Snehasis J et al. 2015 Bio-feld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389 Page 8 of 8 Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389 J Nutr Food Sci ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS an open access journal melting temperature in BEP and MIP of treated powders as compared to control. However decrease in specifc heat capacity ∆H was observed in treated samples BEP and MIP as compared to control. It is postulated that no extra energy or heat was required in order to raise the powder temperature as the treated samples were already in high energy state due to bio-feld treatment. Te increased melting temperature and maximum thermal decomposition temperature of treated samples showed the higher thermal stability. Based on the results achieved we conclude that the removal of triglycerides could lead to an improvement in the aroma and food quality of beef extract and meat infusion powder. Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank all the laboratory staff of MGV Pharmacy College Nashik for their assistance during the various instrument characterizations. We thank Dr. Cheng Dong of NLSC institute of physics and Chinese academy of sciences for permitting us to use Powder X software for analyzing XRD results. References 1. Yi G Grabe AV Bjelanovic M Slinde E Olsen K et al. 2015 Lipid oxidation in minced beef meat with added Krebs cycle substrates to stabilise colour. Food Chem 187: 563-571. 2. Yi G Haug A Nyquist NF Egelandsdal B 2013 Hydroperoxide formation in different lean meats. Food Chem 141: 2656-2665. 3. Brock WH 1997 Justus von Liebig: the chemical gatekeeper. Cambridge University Press Cambridge UK. 4. 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