Muscular System

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*Muscular System *Muscle Types -Cardiac -smooth -Skeletal *Muscle-Bone Interactions *Tendons and Ligaments *Major Skeletal Muscles -Facial -Thorax -Neck - Abdomen -Shoulder - Hip -Arm - Pelvis/Thigh -Forearm - Leg

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Muscular System -The muscular system, composed of over 600 muscles, come in a variety of shapes and forms. Differences between each muscle are recognized by location, function, structure, and the way they are contracted. Muscle Types Cardiac cardiac muscles are involuntary and found only in the heart. They are controlled by the lower section of the brain called the medulla oblongata, which controls involuntary action throughout your body.

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Smooth They make up your internal organs, such as your stomach-hyper link, small intestine-hyper link, and all the others except your heart. Smooth muscles are generally spherical, as most other human cells are, and each contains one nucleus. Skeletal Skeletal muscles are the only voluntary muscles of your body, and make up what we call the muscular system. They are all the muscles that move your bones and show external movement. Skeletal muscles contain multiple nuclei because of its large size, being in strips up to a couple of feet long.

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Muscle-Bone Interactions Flexors flexors bend at the joint, decreasing the interior angle of the joint. If a flexor appears in either the wrist or ankle joints, it becomes a plantar flexor. Extensors extensors unbend at the joint, increasing the interior angle, If an extensor is found in the wrist or ankle joints, it becomes a dorsa flexor.

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Abductors Abductors take away from the body, like lifting the arm to the side. Abd - means to take away, like abduct and abdicate. Spreading out of your fingers uses abductors, because you are taking away your fingers from an imaginary line running down your arm. Adductors Adductors, the opposite of Abductors, move toward the body. Add- means to increase or include. By lowing an arm raised to the side, or moving your fingers together while keeping them straight, your muscles are adducting.

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Tendons and Ligaments As fascinating as they are, muscles alone cant do the job. At every point, tendons and ligaments also help out. Muscles wouldn’t be very useful alone because they don’t directly connect to the bone, so even if they contract, they wouldn’t moving anything. Instead muscles are connected to tendons. When the muscles contract, they pull on the tendons, which in turn pull on the muscles, and that causes movement. But without ligaments, the movement wouldn’t be useful because it would not be directed movement. Without ligaments, instead of bones bending or rotating about each other when muscles contract, they would slide by each other. Ligaments are what hold the bones together.

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Major Skeletal Muscles Facial In the facial are one finds all the muscles which move the face. Orbicularis oculi -sound are the two muscles that move the eye are. Frontalis -sound and Temporalis -sound are the two muscles which move the forehead and sides of your head. Zygomaticus -sound and Masseter -sound are the two muscles that work in conjunction to move the jaw and upperlip area.

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Neck The neck are almost entirely moved by the sternohyoid -sound. These muscles allow the neck to move your head. They work with the platysma muscle to control how far you can move your head left and right. Trapezius -sound, to move your head up and down. Tra pezius is so large to extend down to the shoulder and thorax area. The trapezius is a good example of how some muscles are named by their shape .

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Shoulder A group of muscles all work together to move the whole shoulder area. Trapezius -sound, deltoid-sound, infraspinatus -sound, teres major-sound, and the rhomboid major-sound. The rhomboid major-sound is called so because its shape liked the geometric shap of rhombus.With the help of ball and socket joint-hyperlink in your shoulder, these group of muscles allow your arm to throw, and to pick up things over your head. And give your arms a good stretch early in the morning.

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Arm The famous bicep brachii -sound is the muscles that allows you to bring your forearm close to your body and form a huge ball of muscle which catches a lot of attention among weight lifters. The tricep brachii -sound and brachialsound are the two other muscles located in the arm region. These muscles allow a person to do push-ups!

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Forearm A majority of a muscle in the forearm help to control a part of the arm. Among these is the berachiodials major-sound, palmaris longus -sound, and flexor carpi radialis -sound. The name of the flexor carpi radialis is a good example of how muscles are named by their function and location. This muscle is named carpi because of the bones that it helps to move, the carples , Also the name of radialis is made by the bone that is attached to the radius.

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Thorax The thorax is the set of muscles which carrying your head, stomach, and any other upper body areas. These muscles are the trapezius -sound and latissimus dorsa-sound. Usually, the majority of the muscles of the thorax can be damaged easily, if one does not stretch before exercise, or lifts of heavy load.

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Abdomen The abdominal area consists of the muscles that allows you to bend down and move your waist from side to side. The internal oblique-sound and external oblique-sound are the muscles that move your body From left to right. The Transversus abdominus -sound and Rectus abdominus -sound, along with the trapezius -sound an latissimus dorsi -sound allow you to bend down and grab objects.

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Hip Only two muscles make up the hip area. These are the gluteus medius -sound and gluteus maximus-sound.The laziest muscles in the whole system is the gluteus of muscles are used only to sit down on.

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Pelvis/ Thigh The pelvis area is usually referred to as the upper part of the leg, like the practineus -sound and illiopsoas -sound, which help support the upper leg area are known as pelvic muscles. Thigh muscles are very rich in capillaries and support the whole body. The upper thigh muscles are abductor fasciae latea . The lower thigh muscles are rectus femoris -sound, vastus lateralis -sound. Located in the back of your leg are the hamstrings-sound . These muscles help you to run, jump, and walk!

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Leg Helping the thigh region support the body is the leg region. These muscles like the Gastrocnemius -sound , soleus -sound, porenius -sound, and tibialis anterior-sound absorb the impact when one walks and runs, they also give better coordination for moving.

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Prepared by: Michelle V. Caponpon BSED 1-s

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