Hist 12 11 - Cold War

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The Cold War:

The Cold War

Origins of the Cold War:

Origins of the Cold War Rival postwar powers United States Soviet Union Roots of “containment” Projection of Soviet dominance in eastern Europe George Kennan’s Long Telegram Winston Churchill’s “iron curtain” speech

Origins of the Cold War:

Origins of the Cold War Marshall Plan Provisions Underlying motivations and vision Achievements Berlin Crisis Emerging East-West conflict over Berlin Soviet blockade Western airlift Lifting of blockade Escalation of Cold War Division of Germany into East Germany and West Germany Soviet acquisition of atomic bomb

Origins of the Cold War:

Origins of the Cold War Escalation of Cold War Establishment of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Avowed mission Varied agendas Establishment of Warsaw Pact Communist revolution in China Mao Zedong Political repercussions in United States American response NSC-68

Origins of the Cold War:

Origins of the Cold War Escalation of Cold War Communist revolution in China Mao Zedong/Mao Tse-tung Political repercussions in United States American response

Origins of the Cold War:

Origins of the Cold War Escalation of Cold War NSC-68

Origins of the Cold War:

Origins of the Cold War Korean War Postwar division of Korea North Korean invasion of south Mobilization of U.S. military response Perception of Cold War test Obtainment of United Nations authorization Initial American military progress Intervention by China Removal of General Douglas MacArthur Protracted stalemate; eventual death toll Armistice and aftermath

Origins of the Cold War:

Origins of the Cold War Concerns raised by the Cold War Simplistic East-West dichotomies Inability to see foreign developments on case-by-case basis Continual intervention abroad Tendency to side with undemocratic regimes Aversion to colonial independence

Ideological mobilization for Cold War:

Ideological mobilization for Cold War Effect of notions of freedom Realms Depictions of U.S. history The arts Secret involvement of national security agencies Political discourse

Ideological mobilization for Cold War:

Ideological mobilization for Cold War Themes America = Pluralism Tolerance Equality free expression individual liberty Communist = totalitarian socialized resources (medicine, housing) = communist negation of freedom

INTOLERANCE: want of toleration of the opinions of beliefs of others (Webster’s):

INTOLERANCE: want of toleration of the opinions of beliefs of others (Webster’s )

Ideological mobilization for Cold War:

Ideological mobilization for Cold War Rise of “human rights” Background Drafting of UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights Range of rights identified Civil and political liberties Social and economic entitlements Affirmation of global accountability of nations Cold War contest over U.S. emphasis on political rights Soviet emphasis on social and economic rights

Truman presidency:

Truman presidency Postwar domestic situation Rapid demobilization return civilian life Abolished wartime regulatory agencies Fair Deal Aims Revive momentum of New Deal Improve social safety net and living standards

Truman presidency:

Truman presidency Strike Wave of 1946 Contributing factors Scope and Magnitude Range of industries affected Operation Dixie Truman response Concern over economic effect Threat to draft striking railroad workers Court order against striking miners Outcomes

Truman presidency:

Truman presidency Republican congressional gains of 1946 Causes Middle-class alarm over strike wave Labor disappointment over Truman Failure of Operation Dixie Consequences Rejection of Fair Deal program Tax cuts for wealthy Taft-Hartley Act Provisions Impact on organized labor

Truman presidency:

Truman presidency Steps towards civil rights Anti-discrimination measures state and local Vitality of civil rights coalition Growing response to lynching Integration of major league baseball Jackie Robinson Commission on Civil Rights Truman’s civil rights initiatives Desegregation of armed forces Truman’s civil rights initiatives Underlying considerations

Truman presidency:

Truman presidency Election of 1948 Truman and the Democrats Strom Thurmond and the States’ Rights (“ Dixiecrat ”) party Henry A. Wallace and Progressive party Thomas A. Dewey and the Republicans Truman’s upset victory

Anticommunist crusade:

Anticommunist crusade Wide-ranging impact of Cold War on American life Permanent military-industrial establishment Federal projects Weapons development Military bases Higher education Interstate highway system Culture of secrecy, dishonesty Revised immigration policy Dismantling of segregation Assault on right to dissent

Anticommunist crusade:

Anticommunist crusade Emergence of anticommunist crusade Truman’s loyalty review system House Un-American Activities Committee hearings on Hollywood Pressure to testify about beliefs, “nick names” Cooperation and resistance Hollywood Ten blacklist

Anticommunist crusade:

Anticommunist crusade Emergence of anticommunist crusade Legal cases Trial, conviction, and imprisonment of… Alger Hiss Communist Party leaders Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

Anticommunist crusade:

Anticommunist crusade McCarthyism Joseph R. McCarthy Background Emergence with sensational Wheeling speech McCarthy’s Senate committee hearings Wild allegations regarding disloyalty, communist presence Growing Republican ambivalence McCarthy’s downfall Army-McCarthy hearings Television exposure Scolding by Joseph Welch Senate censure Genesis of term “McCarthyism”

Anticommunist crusade:

Anticommunist crusade Breadth of anticommunist crusade around country Initiatives of government (national, state, and local) Initiatives of private organizations Ideological “cleansing” of public libraries and universities Acquiescence of judiciary: Dennis v. United States Acquiescence of liberals Cost to the persecuted

Anticommunist crusade:

Anticommunist crusade Anticommunism as popular mass movement Strength among those of eastern European descent Strength among Catholics Multiple uses of anticommunism Bureaucratic self-promotion Political self-preservation Discrediting of political and social targets

Anticommunist crusade:

Anticommunist crusade Anticommunist politics Republican use of anticommunism to block Truman program McCarran Internal Security Act McCarran-Walter Act Operation Wetback Confinement of social welfare benefits to unionized workers Ideological taming of organized labor CIO expulsion of left-wing leaders and unions Labor’s support for Cold War foreign policy

Anticommunist crusade:

Anticommunist crusade Response of civil rights movement to anticommunist crusade Outspoken opposition Paul Robeson W.E.B. Du Bois Shifting approach of mainstream groups (NAACP, NUL) Initial resistance Growing accommodation Use of Cold War rhetoric to promote civil rights Demise of left-leaning organizations Southern Conference for Human Welfare

Anticommunist crusade:

Anticommunist crusade Lull in momentum for civil rights Dampening effect of Cold War Diminishing of efforts from Truman administration and Democrats Legacy for black postwar prospects

The Cold War:

The Cold War

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