Hist 12 05 - Progressive Era

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Progressive Era:

Progressive Era 1900-1916

Introduction:

Introduction Progressive era Surge in production, consumption, urban growth Persistence of social problems Progressivism Broad-based elements Loosely-defined meanings Varied and contradictory character New notions of American freedom

Urban age:

Urban age Early-twentieth-century economic explosion Growth of cities Stark economic contrasts Dynamism and ills of the city Muckrakers Lewis Hine’s photography Ida Tarbell’s History of the Standard Oil Company Novelists Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle

Ch. 18, Image 5:

Ch. 18, Image 5

Ch. 18, Image 1:

Ch. 18, Image 1

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Ch. 18, Image 7

Map 73:

Map 73

Ch. 18, Image 8:

Ch. 18, Image 8

Ch. 18, Image 9:

Ch. 18, Image 9

Urban age:

Urban age The new mass-consumption society Outlets for consumer goods Department stores Neighborhood chain stores Retail mail order houses Expanding range and availability of consumer goods Leisure activities Amusement parks Dance halls Theaters Movies

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Ch. 18, Image 11

Urban age:

Urban age Women in urban public life Employment Racial and ethnic stratification Working woman as symbol of female emancipation Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s Women and Economics Leisure, entertainment

Urban age:

Urban age “ Fordism ” Henry Ford Ford Motor Company Production innovations Strategies to attract and discipline labor Linking of mass production and mass consumption

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Ch. 18, Image 14

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Ch. 18, Image 15

Urban age:

Urban age Impact of mass-consumption ideal Recasting “American way of life,” “freedom” Challenges to material inequalities Labor unionism Critique of corporate monopoly Doctrine of “a living wage”; Father John A. Ryan

Changing ideas of freedom:

Changing ideas of freedom Varieties of Progressivism Industrial labor and the meanings of freedom Frederick W. Taylor’s “scientific management” Principles of Mixed response New talk of “industrial freedom,” “industrial democracy”

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Ch. 18, Image 34

Changing ideas of freedom:

Changing ideas of freedom Socialist party High watermark of American socialism Program Immediate reforms Public ownership of railroads and factories Democratic control of economy

Map 74:

Map 74

Changing ideas of freedom:

Changing ideas of freedom Socialist party Rising presence of socialism throughout Atlantic World Labor movement American Federation of Labor

Changing ideas of freedom:

Changing ideas of freedom Labor movement American Federation of Labor Moderate ideology; ties with business Progressives National Civic Federation Collective bargaining for “responsible” unions Alternative strain of rigid employer anti-unionism

Child Labor:

Child Labor

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Ch. 18, Image 2

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Ch. 18, Image 10

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Ch. 18, Image 12

Changing ideas of freedom:

Changing ideas of freedom Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) Inclusive Militant Workers’ Revolution William “Big Bill” Haywood Support and guidance for mass, multiethnic strikes

Changing ideas of freedom:

Changing ideas of freedom Labor movement High points of broad-based labor struggle Lawrence “Bread and Roses” textile strike march of strikers’ children New Orleans dock workers strike Paterson silk workers strike; Paterson pageant Colorado Fuel and Iron miners strike; Ludlow Massacre Suppression of labor radicalism and emergence of “civil liberties” issue

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Ch. 18, Image 20

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Ch. 18, Image 19

Changing views of freedom:

Changing views of freedom Shadings of feminism Appearance of term “feminism” “Lyrical Left” New cultural “bohemia” Radical reassessments of politics, the arts, sexuality

Changing views of freedom:

Changing views of freedom Rise of personal freedom Freudian psychology Free sexual expression and choice Pockets of open gay culture

Changing views of freedom:

Changing views of freedom

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Ch. 18, Image 23

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Ch. 18, Image 27

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Ch. 18, Image 28

The Politics of Progressivism:

The Politics of Progressivism Global scope of Progressive impulse Common strains International networks of social reformers European “social legislation” Shared premises Activist Government Freedom as a positive concept Trans-Atlantic scope of Progressive impulse

The Politics of Progressivism:

The Politics of Progressivism Progressivism in municipal and state politics Agendas Curbing Political Machines Regulation public utilities Railroads other business interests Taxation of property and corporate wealth Improvement and enhancement of public space Humanizing of working and living conditions

The Politics of Progressivism:

The Politics of Progressivism Progressive democracy Expansion and empowerment of electorate U.S. senators, judges Primary elections Initiatives, referendums, recalls Women’s Suffrage Contraction and curtailment of electorate Southern blacks city commissions or managers voting rights for the poor Government by experts

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Ch. 18, Image 30

The Politics of Progressivism:

The Politics of Progressivism Women reformers Challenge to political exclusion Crusades to uplift condition of immigrant poor, women, and child laborers Leading figures Jane Addams Hull House Julie Lathrop Children’s Bureau Florence Kelley National Consumers’ League

The Politics of Progressivism:

The Politics of Progressivism Revival of suffrage movement Scattered progress at state and local levels Gathering focus on constitutional amendment Ambiguities of “ maternalist ” reform Drive to improve conditions of working women while reconfirming their dependent status Stamping of gender inequalities into foundation for welfare state

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Ch. 18, Image 25

The Politics of Progressivism:

The Politics of Progressivism Native American Progressivism Profile of Indian reformers Shared aims Differing aims Carlos Montezuma

Progressive presidents:

Progressive presidents Progressivism and the rise of the national state Theodore Roosevelt Succession to presidency reelection in 1904 Limits on corporate power

Progressive presidents:

Progressive presidents Regulation of business Hepburn Act Pure Food and Drug Act Meat Inspection Act Mixed reaction from business

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Ch. 18, Image 32

Progressive presidents:

Progressive presidents William Howard Taft Roosevelt’s chosen successor electoral victory over Bryan Partial continuation of Progressive agenda Antitrust initiatives Support for graduated income tax (Sixteenth Amendment) Conservative drift Pinchot-Ballinger affair

Progressive presidents:

Progressive presidents Election of 1912 Distinctive outlooks on political and economic freedom Woodrow Wilson Democrat “New Freedom” Theodore Roosevelt Progressive “New Nationalism” William Howard Taft Republican conservative wing Eugene V. Debs Socialist

Map 75:

Map 75

Progressive presidents:

Progressive presidents Wilson’s first-term program Underwood tariff Labor Farmers Warehouse Act 1916 Supervision of economy Federal Reserve System Federal Trade Commission

Progressive Era:

Progressive Era 1900-1916

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