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DEFINITION: A vessel design that contain chemical reaction. A complex device in which heat transfer, mass transfer, diffusion and friction may occur along with chemical reaction with provisions of safety and control

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Heat transfer -is the transition of thermal energy or simply heat from a hotter object to a cooler object

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Mass transfer- is the transfer of mass from high concentration to low concentration.

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Diffusion- is a net transport of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration by random molecular motion.

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Friction- is the force resisting the relative lateral (tangential) motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, or material elements in contact.

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Dry friction resists relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Lubricated friction-resists relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces separated by a layer of gas or liquid. Internal friction is the force resisting motion between the elements making up a solid material while it undergoes deformation

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Residence time distribution (RTD- is a probability distribution function that describes the amount of time a fluid element could spend inside the reactor. Advantages: characterize the mixing and flow within reactors and to compare the behavior of real reactors to their ideal models. for troubleshooting The concept was first proposed by MacMullin and Weber in 1935, but was not used extensively until P.V. Danckwerts analyzed a number of important RTDs in 1953.

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The theory of residence time distributions generally begins with three assumptions: 1.the reactor is at steady-state, 2.transports at the inlet and the outlet takes place only by advection, and 3.the fluid is incompressible.

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Two Main Basic Vessel Types: Tank Pipe

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Chemical reactor san be Operated in: 1. Batch Modes 2. Semi Continuous Modes 3.Continuous Modes


BATCH REACTOR One in which feed material is treated as a whole for a fixed period of time.

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Advantages: Versatility Pilot plant Suited for small scale production

Types of Cooling Jacket: : 

Types of Cooling Jacket: Single External Jacket Consists of an outer jacket which surrounds the vessel. Heat transfer fluid flows around the jacket and is injected at high velocity via nozzles. The temperature in the jacket is regulated to control heating or cooling.

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Disadvantages: Takes times for the heat transfer fluid to adjust inside the vessel

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Half coil jacket The half coil jacket is made by welding a half pipe around the outside of the vessel to create a semi circular flow channel. A large reactor may use several coils to deliver the heat transfer fluid.

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Constant flux cooling jacket Has a series of 20 or more small jacket elements. The temperature control valve operates by opening and closing these channels as required.

Semi Batch Reactor : 

Semi Batch Reactor One or more reactant is in a batch modes, while coreactant is fed and withdrawn continuously

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Schematic Diagram of Batch, Semi Batch, Continuous Reactor

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