Distillation Process

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Unit operation

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Slide 1: 

Distillation (Group No. 6) ICE 38 - Introduction to Process Unit Operation 2008

Slide 2: 

Definition of Distillation ICE 38 - Introduction to Process Unit Operation 2008

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation - Is a unit operation or a physical separation process whereby two or more miscible liquids are separated using their volatility differences( differences in boiling points). Definition of Distillation

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Commercial uses of Distillation ICE 38 - Introduction to Process Unit Operation 2008

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ICE 38 2008 It is used to separate crude oil transportation, power generation and heating. purify water -remove impurities, such as salt from seawater. Commercial uses of Distillation

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ICE 38 2008 It is used to distilled air to separate its components like oxygen, nitrogen, and argon distilled fermented solutions - To produce distilled beverages with higher alcohol content. Commercial uses of Distillation

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History of Distillation ICE 38 - Introduction to Process Unit Operation 2008

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ICE 38 2008 2nd millennium BC Early types of distillation were known to Babylonians in Mesopotamia (now called Iraq) 500 BC Archaeological excavations in northwest Pakistan have yielded evidence that the distillation of alcohol was known in Pakistan, but only became common between 150 BC – 350 AD. History of Distillation

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ICE 38 2008 1st century AD Distillation was later known to Greek alchemist and the later development of large-scale distillation apparatus occurred in response to demands for spirits. 5th century occurs in writings of Aetius, a Greek physician. History of Distillation

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ICE 38 2008 8th century credited to Arabic and Persian chemist in the Middle East the invention of highly effective “pure distillation”. For the purpose of isolating natural esters (perfumes) and producing pure alcohol. 9th century Persian alchemist Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi first distilled Petroleum, for producing kerosene. History of Distillation

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ICE 38 2008 11th century Steam distillation was invented by Avicenna, for producing essential oils. Became part of Indian alchemy. 12th century Distillation was introduced to medieval Europe through Latin translation of Arabic chemical treatises. History of Distillation

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ICE 38 2008 16th century German alchemist Hieronymus Braunschweig published Liber de arte destillandi (The Book of the Art of Distillation). 17th century John French published The Art of Distillation the first major English compendium of practice. This includes diagrams showing the industrial rather than bench scale operation. History of Distillation

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ICE 38 2008 19th century The basic of modern techniques including pre-heating and reflux were developed, particularly by the French in the early 19th century. In 1830 a British Patent was issued to Aeneas Coffey for a whisky distillation column In 1877 Ernest Solvy was granted a U.S. Patent for a tray column for ammonia distillation. The emergence of chemical engineering as a discipline at the end of the 19th century. History of Distillation

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ICE 38 2008 20th century The developing petroleum industry in the early 20th century provided the impetus for the development of accurate design methods such as the McCabe-Thiele method and Fenske equation. Powerful computers has also allowed direct computer simulation of distillation columns. History of Distillation

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Application of Distillation ICE 38 - Introduction to Process Unit Operation 2008

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ICE 38 2008 The application of Distillation: Laboratory Scale Industrial Distillation Herbal Distillate Food Processing Application of distillation

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ICE 38 2008 Laboratory Scale Are almost run exclusively run as batch distillation. The Still or distillation device consist at a minimum of a reboiler or pot in which the source material is heated. a condenser in which the heated vapour is cooled back to liquid state. a receiver in which the concentrated or purified liquid, called the distillate is collected Application of distillation: Laboratory Scale

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ICE 38 2008 Application of distillation: Laboratory Scale A simple set-up of Laboratory scale distillation Consist of Reboiler or Pot Condenser Receiver

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ICE 38 2008 Industrial Distillation applications include batch and continuous fractional, vacuum, azeotropic, extractive and steam distillation. typically performed in a large, vertical cylindrical columns. know as distillation towers or columns with diameters ranging from 65 cm to 16 meters. and heights from 6 to 90 meters allows withdrawal of different fractions when process feed has diverse composition Application of distillation: Industrial Distillation

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ICE 38 2008 Application of distillation: Industrial Distillation Industrial Distillation Distillation Towers or Distillation Columns

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ICE 38 2008 Application of distillation: Industrial Distillation Large Scale Industrial Vacuum Distillation Column The packing material can be either ramdom dumped packing (1-3” wide) such as Rasching rings or structured sheet metal.

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ICE 38 2008 Herbal Distillate / Food Processing The distillation is not used as a true purification method but rather to transfer all volatiles from the source materials. Steam distillation is commonly used various aromatic herbs and flowers can result in two products. an essential oil: often used in perfumery and aromatherapy. Watery herbal distillate: have many application in aromatherapy, food processing and skin care Application of distillation: Herbal Distillate/Food Processing

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ICE 38 2008 Movie Time Title: Lab Demo Application of distillation PLAY MOVIE

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ICE 38 2008 Definition, Terminology and Acronyms use in Distillation system

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ICE 38 2008 Absorber A device used to remove selected components from a gas stream by contacting it with a gas or liquid. Definition

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ICE 38 2008 Adsorber A device such as a reactor or dryer, filled with porous solid designed to remove gases and liquids from the mixture. Definition

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ICE 38 2008 AZEOTROPE Is defined as a mixture of two or more components that have identical liquid and vapor composition at equilibrium. Definition

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ICE 38 2008 Continuous Distillation The most common form of distillation used by the chemical, petroleum and petrochemical industries. The feed is constantly charged to the column at a point between the top and bottom sections. The section above the feed point rectifies the more volatile while the column section below the feed point strips out the more volatile from the less volatile component. Terminology

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ICE 38 2008 Batch Distillation When particularly complex or small operations require of the recovery of the more volatile component . Involves pumping a batch of liquid feed into a tank where boiling occurs. This approach is not too effective for purifying the less volatile components since there is only the equivalent of one stripping stage. Terminology

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Is simply defined as a process in which a liquid or vapor mixture of two or more substances are separated into its component fractions of desired purity by the application and removal of heat. Definition

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Column Is a series of stills placed one on top of the other. As vaporization occurs, the lighter components of the mixture moves up to the tower and are distributed on the various trays. Heavier components goes down lighter components goes up. Definition

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ICE 38 2008 Scrubber A device used to removed chemicals and solids from process gasses. Definition

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ICE 38 2008 Solvent Recovery The term “solvent recovery” often has been somewhat a vague label applied to the many different ways in which solvents are reclaimed by industry. Solvent can be recovered by evaporation, extraction, adsorption, absorption and distillation methods. Terminology

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ICE 38 2008 Solvent Extraction Essentially a liquid/liquid process where one liquid is used to extract another from a secondary stream, solvent extraction generally is performed in a column somewhat similar to a normal distillation column. The primary difference is that the process involves the mass transfer between two liquids instead of a liquid and a vapor. Terminology

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ICE 38 2008 Stripping Stripping refers to the removal of a volatile component from a less volatile substance. This technique does not increase the concentration of the more volatile component, but rather decreases its concentration in the less volatile components. Terminology

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ICE 38 2008 Rectification For rectification or concentration of the more volatile component, the top section of a column above the feed point is required. By means of series of trays and with reflux back to the top of the column, a solvent such as ethyl alcohol can be concentrated to over 95% by weight. Terminology

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ICE 38 2008 Turndown The turndown ratio of a column is an indication of the operating flexibility. If a column, for example has a turndown ratio of 3, it means that the column can be operated efficiently at 33% of the maximum design throughput. Terminology

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ICE 38 2008 Steam Stripping The term steam stripping can be applied to any system where rising steam vapours in a column strip out the volatile components in the liquid. In particular, the term is applied to systems where steam is used to strip out partially miscible organic chemicals, even though the organic chemicals have boiling points above water. Terminology

Slide 39: 

ICE 38 2008 VLE - Vapor/liquid equilibrium BCP - Bubble Cap Tray BDAT - Best demonstrated available technology HETP – Height equivalent theoretical plate MSA - Mass separating agent Acronyms

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ICE 38 2008 Movie Time Title: Distillation Column Application of distillation PLAY MOVIE

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ICE 38 2008 Michael Report

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments Major components of a typical distillation are: Vertical Shell Column internals Reboiler Condenser Reflux Drum

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments: Vertical Shell Vertical Shell It is where the separation of liquid components is carried out.

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments: Colum internals Column Internals Such as trays/plates and or packing which are used to enhance components separations.

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments: Colum internals Common types of tray or plates design are: Bubble cap trays – has a riser or chimney fitted over each hole and a cap that cover the riser.

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments: Colum internals Common types of tray or plates design are: Valve trays - perforations are covered by liftable caps.

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments: Colum internals Common types of tray or plates design are: Seive trays - are simply metal plates with holes in them.

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments: Colum internals Common types of tray or plates design are: Packing - are simply passive objects that are designed to increase the interfacial area available for vapor-liquid contacting. Segment of high efficiency metal mesh packing

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments: Reboiler Reboiler provide the necessary vaporization for the distillation process.

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments: Reboiler Common types of reboilers

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments: Reboiler Common types of reboilers

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments: Reboiler Common types of reboilers

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments: Reboiler Common types of reboilers

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments: Condenser Condenser to cool and condense the vapor leaving the top of the column.

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments: Condenser Reflux drum to hold the condensed vapor from the top of the column. The liquid (reflux) is recycled back to the column.

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ICE 38 2008 Distillation Equipments

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ICE 38 2008 Movie Time Title: Fractional distillation -refinery Application of distillation PLAY MOVIE

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Distillation Column

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column Two basic design of a distillation Column are: Plate Column Packed Column

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Plate Column Plate Column The basic components of a plate distillation column includes a feed line, feed tray, rectifying or enriching section, stripping section, down comer, reflux line, energy balanced system, condenser, Pre-heater, accumulator, feed tank, product tanks, bottom line, top line, side streams , advance instrumentation control system and have trays that can be classified as bcp, valve or sieve.

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Plate Column Typical distillation or Fractionating Column

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Plate Column Schematic of trays with bubble caps

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Packed Column Packed Column The basic components of a plate distillation column includes a feed line, feed distibutor, hold-down grids, random or structured packing, packing support grids, bed limiters, bottom outlet top vapor outlet, an energy balanced system, advance instrumentation control system. Packed with packing to enhance vapor liquid contact.

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Packed Column

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Packed Column Most common types of packing includes; Sulzer packing Berl Saddle Rasching ring Metal Intalox Flexiring Teller Rosette Pall ring Mining-ring packing Intalox saddle

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Packed Column

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Packed Column Characteristics of a Packed Column Packing can be random or structured. Packed columns are design for the pressure drops between 0.20 and 0.60 inches of water per foot of packing materials. Vertical alignment is very important because each degree of inclination 5% to 10% efficiency is lost when the column is tilted, dry section form in the column and liquid channelling occurs.

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Application Distillation Column Application Absorption Column Stripping Column Absorption Column Scrubber Column

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Application Absorption Column An Absorber column is a device used to removed selected components from a gas stream by contacting it with a gas or liquid. A typical gas absorber is a plate or packed distillation column that provides intimate contact between raw natural gas and absorption medium.

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Application Stripping Column Stripping Columns are used with absorption columns to remove liquid hydrocarbons from the absorption oil. To the untrained eye, a stripping and absorption column is identical.

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Application ABSORPTION COLUMN THE LIQUID PHASE REMOVES LIGHTER COMPONENTS FROM THE VAPOR PHASE. ONE DIRECTION COMPONENT REMOVAL. STRIPPING COLUMN REVERSES ABSORPTION PROCESS. STRIPS OUT HYDROCARBONS FROM ABSORPTION OIL. ABSORPTION AND STRIPPING COLUMN

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Application Adsorption Column During the adsorption process a device is filled with a porous solid designed to remove gasses or liquids from mixture. The adsorption material has a selective property that will remove specific components the mixture as it pass over it.

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Application ADSORPTION

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Application Scrubber Column A Scrubber is a device used to remove chemicals and solids from the process gases. Scrubber are cylindrical in shape and can be filled with packing material or left empty.

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ICE 38 2008 Basic Design of a Column: Application

ICE 38 2008 : 

ICE 38 2008 Distillation Process System Overview

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ICE 38 2008

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ICE 38 2008 The Distillation process is composed of - One Super-system - Four distinct systems

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ICE 38 2008 Utilities Super System - Boiler System - Compressor System Cooling Tower System Electrical System Water System

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ICE 38 2008 Four Distinct System - Feed System Tanks, Piping, Valves, Pumps - Pre-Heating and Heating System Heat exchangers and Furnace Process Distillation Column or Reactor Products Tanks, Piping, Valves, Pumps

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ICE 38 2008 Movie Time Title: How crude oil refined Application of distillation PLAY MOVIE

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ICE 38 2008 Application of Distillation

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ICE 38 2008 Histology & Pathology Solvent Recycling Xylene Solvent Recycling Alcohol Solvent Recycling Xylene Substitute Solvent Recycling Formalin Recycling Acetone Solvent Recycling Application of Distillation: Histology and Pathology

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ICE 38 2008 Purification of materials Natural Products Flavors Fragrances and Essential Oils Application of Distillation: Purification of materials

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ICE 38 2008 Typical Applications in Food Industry: manufacture of pectin by precipitation with alcohol production of hop extract production of egg lecithin decaffeination of coffee beans reprocessing of miscella Application of Distillation: Food Industry

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ICE 38 2008 Advances in Process Technology through Catalytic Distillation by CDTECH

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ICE 38 2008 Catalytic distillation is a unique system that combines two fundamental unit operations, namely reaction and distillation in a single piece of equipment. Advances in Technology: Catalytic Distillation

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ICE 38 2008 Catalytic distillation Highlights Fits into broader area of “process intensification”. It has the goal of making modern refining and chemical processes more compact and efficient. Advances in Technology: Catalytic Distillation

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ICE 38 2008 Catalytic distillation Highlights Technically superior to conventional fixed-bed reactor technology. Reduces capital cost. Integrated heat removal further simplifies the process. Overall utility requirements and operating expenses are reduced. Continuous washing of the reaction zone w/ internal liquid traffic in the column results in extended catalyst life. Advances in Technology: Catalytic Distillation

ICE 38 2008 : 

ICE 38 2008 Advances in Technology: Catalytic Distillation Catalyst Section Drawing

ICE 38 2008 : 

ICE 38 2008 Advances in Technology: Catalytic Distillation

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