FESTO Basic Pnuematics

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Air is our medium Motion is our business Service is our mission FESTO DIDACTIC

Industrial Pneumatics:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Industrial Pneumatics

Topic Outline: :

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Topic Outline: Physical principles of Pneumatic and Electrical system Functions and use of Electro-Pneumatic components Recognizing and drawing of pneumatic and Electro-Pneumatic symbols and circuit diagrams Reprensentation of motion sequences and operating status Drawing of pneumatic and electrical circuits diagrams Direct and indirect manual controls Direct and indirect stroke-dependent controls Logical AND/OR function of switch-on signals Time dependent controls with Time-Delay Valves Pressure-dependent controls with PE converters Pre-select counters Trouble-shooting Electro-Pneumatic controls

What is Pneumatics?:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 PNEUMA - Greek root term means “ breath ” It is the industrial implementation and application of air powered actuators ( cylinders and motors ) and their control devices ( valves ) needed in their operation. Branch of science which deals with the study of gases especially air, its properties and application at pressure higher ( compressed ) or lower ( vacuum ) than atmospheric. What is Pneumatics?

Compressed Air as a Working Medium:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Compressed Air as a Working Medium ADVANTAGES: Air is available everywhere Compressed air is easily conveyed in pipelines over large distances Compressed air is insensitive to temperature fluctuations Compressed air need not be returned Compressed air is explosion proof Compressed air is clean Compressed air is fast Straight line movement can be produced directly

Compressed Air as a Working Medium :

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Compressed Air as a Working Medium DISADVANTAGES Compressed air is a relatively expensive means of conveying energy Compressed air requires good conditioning It is only economical up to a certain force expenditure Air is compressible Exhaust air is loud (reduced by using silencers) The oil mist mixed with air for lubricating purposes exhaust or escapes to the atmosphere

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 COMPRESSOR

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Single acting cylinder

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Single Acting Cylinder Diameters 10mm to 32mm Stroke Lengths 5mm to 50mm Sample of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Piston Rod Spring Connection Seal Bearing Vent

Single Acting Cylinders:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Single Acting Cylinders If compressed air is supplied, air hits the piston surface and the piston rod moves out. When air is released, the return spring moves the piston to its initial position. Single acting cylinders do work in one way, therefore they are ideal for tensioning, ejecting, compressing etc.

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Force = Pressure x Area (piston) Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Force = Pressure x Area (piston) Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Force = Pressure x Area (piston) Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Force = Pressure x Area (piston) Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Force = Pressure x Area (piston) Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Force = Pressure x Area (piston) Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Single Acting Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Double acting cylinder

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 DOUBLE-ACTING CYLINDERS Stroke Length 100mm (max)

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Piston Rod Connections Base end Rod end Seals Bearing Wiper

Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning :

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning When the piston approaches its final position, the damping piston shuts off the direct air-outlet. Excess pressure sets up an air-cushion in the remaining cylinder volume and kinetic energy is converted into pressure. At this stage, air may only leave the cylinder through a controlled cross section of stream discharge.

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Cushioning sleeves Cushioning adjustment Seals Non-return valve Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Operation of Double Acting Cylinders with Air Cushioning

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August 28, 2006 Mechanically coupled Magnetically coupled Rodless cylinders or Linear Drives are used when long strokes are required or little fitting space is available. Rodless Cylinders

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Conventional Double Acting Cylinders require space to house the cylinder. Plus space to carry out the work. More effective use of the available space can be made by using Rodless Cylinders

PNEUMATIC VALVES:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 PNEUMATIC VALVES FUNCTIONS : open and close flow paths regulate pressure directs flow to various paths adjust flow volume

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Directional control valves

SWITCHING SYMBOLS FOR VALVES :

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 SWITCHING SYMBOLS FOR VALVES The valve switching position is shown by a square. The number of squares corresponds to the number of switching position. Lines indicate the flow paths, arrows indicate the direction of flow. Closed ports are shown by two lines drawn at right angles to one another. The connecting lines for supply and exhaust air are drawn outside the square.

Ports and Switching Position:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Ports and Switching Position Number of ports Number of switching positions 2/2 – way valve, normally open position 3/2 – way valve, normally closed position 3/2 – way valve, normally open position 5/2 – way valve, flow from 1-2 and from 4-5 3 1 3 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 4 5 1

Actuation methods:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Actuation methods MANUAL MECHANICA L ELECTRICAL PNEUMATIC General Push Button Lever Pedal Detent Spring Button Roller Idle Roller Solenoid Pneumatic ? ?

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 SWITCHES POSITONS : normally open normally closed CONTACT CONFIGURATIONS : normally open contact normally closed contact changeover contact Contact load---------------1A (max) Power consumption------0.48W

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Solenoid Valves

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 DEFINITION: a device which is primarily used as an electromagnet used to drive a plunger for the purpose of control actuation. OPERATING PRINCIPLE: passing an electric current through a coil of copper wire generates an electromagnetic field adding turns to the coil strengthens the EMF while the lines of force are concentrated through the circular form of the coil and the EMF is greatly increased SOLENOIDS

2/2 - way Directional Control Valve, Solenoid Actuated, Spring Returned:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 2/2 - way Directional Control Valve, Solenoid Actuated, Spring Returned Consists of a pneumatic valve as the signal output medium and an electrical switching part, called a solenoid. An electric current applied to the solenoid generates an electromagnetic force (EMF) which moves an armature connected to the valve stem. PILOT VALVE

3/2 - way Directional Control Valve, Solenoid Actuated, Spring Returned:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 3/2 - way Directional Control Valve, Solenoid Actuated, Spring Returned When an electric current is applied to the coil, an EMF is generated which lifts the lower sealing lips of the armature and opens the passage for pilot air. Pilot air then applies pressure on the diaphragm which then causes the valve to switch its position. Upon removal of the current, the pilot air passage closes and a spring returns the valve to its normal switching position.

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 ELECTRICAL SIGNAL APPLIED TO SOLENOID SOLENOID ACTUATES PILOT VALVE PILOT ACTUATES MAIN VALVE PILOT SIGNAL FLOW By using pilot control, the size of the solenoid Can be kept to a minimum. Main Advantages : @ It reduced power consumption @ it reduced heat generation

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006

Relays:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Relays Relays are electro-magnetically actuated switches. They consist of a housing with electromagnet and movable contacts. An electromagnetic field is created when a voltage is applied to the coil of the electromagnet. This results in attraction of the movable armature to the coil core. The armature actuates the contact assembly.This contact assembly can open or close a specific number of contacts by mechanical means. If the flow of current through the coil is interrupted, a spring returns the armature to its original position.

Relays:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Relays K A1 A2 1 2 4

Advantages of Relays:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Advantages of Relays Easily adapted to various operating voltages Not much affected by the temperature of their surroundings Relatively high resistance between contacts in the off state Several independent circuits can be switched

Disadvantages of Relays:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Disadvantages of Relays Working surface of contacts wear through oxidation Large space requirement compare to transistors Noise is created during the switching operation The contacts are affected by contamination Limited switching speed of 3ms - 17ms

5/2 - way Directional Control Valve, Solenoid Actuated, Spring Returned:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 5/2 - way Directional Control Valve, Solenoid Actuated, Spring Returned When the solenoid is energized, the armature moves and the pilot air passage opens. The pilot air applies pressure to the left side of the valve piston resulting to the valve switching its position. Upon removal of the electrical signal, a spring returns the valve to its neutral switching position. Used for the control of double acting cylinders.

5/2 - way Directional Control Valve, Double Solenoid Actuated:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 5/2 - way Directional Control Valve, Double Solenoid Actuated Because of the absence of a return spring, double solenoid actuated valves retain the last signal administered to them. They remain in their last switched position even with power removed from both solenoids. Effectively, this means that this valve has “memory characteristic” .

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Sensors

What are sensors? :

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 What are sensors? A sensor is a technical converter, which converts a physical value such as temperature, pressure, flow, or distance, into a different value which is easier to evaluate. This is usually an electrical signal such as voltage, current, resistance or frequency of oscillation.

Sensor Classifications:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Sensor Classifications

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Devices which convert physical variables into form of electrical signals to gather data, monitor or control a process. TYPES: Contact Sensors – mechanical in nature, subject to mechanical wear and with predictable failure rate. Contact sensors include limit switches, roller switches, and pressure sensors. Contactless Sensors – Proximity sensors (reed switch, inductive, capacitive, and optical sensors). SENSORS

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 + 18 to 30 Volts DC. Output 24v DC 0v PNP Type Output is Positive Positive switching

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 + 18 to 30 Volts DC. Output 24v DC 0v NPN Type Output switches through to 0v Negative switching

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 BN BK BU Note: For metallic materials only INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY SENSORS Switching Voltage --------------------------------- 10-30 V DC Nominal switching distance ---------------------- 4mm Switching frequency------------------------------- 800Hz (max) Output function ------------------------------------ NO contact, PNP switching Output current ------------------------------------- 400 mA (max)

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 BN BK BU CAPACITIVE PROXIMITY SENSORS Switching Voltage -------------------------- 10-30V DC Nominal switching distance --------------- 4mm Switching frequency ------------------------ 100 Hz (max) Output function ------------------------------ NO contact, PNP switching Output current ------------------------------- 200mA (max)

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 BN BK BU OPTICAL PROXIMITY SENSORS Switching Voltage -------------------------10-30 V DC Nominal Switching distance ------------- 0-100 mm (adjustable) Switching frequency ---------------------- 200 Hz (max) Output function ---------------------------- NO contact, PNP switching Output current ----------------------------- 100mA (max)

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 SENSORS Magnetic Sensor Optical Sensor Inductive Sensor Optical Sensor

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006

Pneumatic-Electric Converter:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Pneumatic-Electric Converter When a pneumatic signal of sufficient pressure to overcome the spring force is applied to the diaphragm, the resultant force operates the stem. The force required to operate the stem is controlled by the adjusting screw. Movement of the stem actuates a micro switch via a switching lever which results to switching of contacts.

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Electrical Timers Time relay with switch on delay Time relay with switch off delay

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Switch on Delay Timer S1 + - D1 R1 R2 C1 K1 When S1 is actuated, current flows to capacitor C1 through adjustable resistance R1. Diode D1, which is connected in parallel, does not permit the flow of current in this direction. After capacitor C1 has become charged to the switching voltage of the relay K1, the relay switches.

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Switch off Delay Timer S1 + - D1 R1 R2 C1 K1 When S1 is actuated, the current flows through diode D1, which is connected in the free flow direction, to capacitor C1 and the relay K1. The relay switches at once. After release of pushbutton S1, the circuit is interrupted. Capacitor C1 can now discharge solely via adjustable resistor R1 and resistance R2.

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 SUGGESTED PATTERN IN DESIGNING SEQUENCE CONTROL USING RELAYS 1. The CONTROL CIRCUIT is the part of the relay ladder, which processes input signals. 2. The POWER CIRCUIT is the part of the relay ladder, which directly controls the electrical loads. (ie., solenoid coils, motors, lamps, buzzers) 3. In the control circuit, each working step is assigned its own STEP RELAY. 4. Each step relay, except the last step relay, employs a self holding contact. 5. A NO contact of the step relay N is placed in series with the first step relay. 6. A NC contact of the last step relay is placed in series with the first step relay.

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Motion Sequences

Sequence Control System:

University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Sequence Control System This is a control system using a mandatory step by step sequence, in which the sequencing from one step to the next programmed step depends on certain conditions being satisfied .

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Representations Chronological Order Cylinder 1.0 extends and lifts the box Cylinder 2.0 extends and pushes the box Cylinder 1.0 retracts, then Cylinder 2.0 retracts Tabular Form Work Step Motion of Cylinder 1.0 Motion of Cylinder 2.0 1 out - 2 - out 3 in - 4 - in

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Abbreviated Notation Extension represented by : + 1.0 + Retraction represented by : - 2.0 + 1.0 - 2.0 - Representations Vector Diagram Extension represented by 1.0 Retraction represented by 2.0 1.0 2.0

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Representations 1.0 2.0 1 2 3 4 5 = 1 Motion Step Diagram

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 PNEUMATIC APPLICATIONS

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Pressing Welding Assembling Painting Automobile manufacturing Powertrain lines

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Pneumatics for Welding guns Welding

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Food and Packaging Industry

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Electronic Industry

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 FESTO PHILIPPINES: Head Office Festo, Inc. Km 18, West Service Road, Sucat, Para ñ aque City Tel. No. (02) 776-6888 E-mail: festo@festo.com.ph Website: http://www.festo.com Branch Office Festo, Inc. Mercedes Commercial Center, A. C. Cortes Ave., Mandaue City Tel. No. (032) 345-1120 E-mail: festoceb@skyinet.net CONTACT US. . . .

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University of Sto.Tomas August 28, 2006 Thank you for your attention

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