Sugarcane Plant Nutrient Diagnosis CANE DEVELOPMENT CELL, FSML MIAN SAJID HUSSAIN firstname.lastname@example.org +92-333-8382939 SOIL SCIENTIST : Sugarcane Plant Nutrient Diagnosis CANE DEVELOPMENT CELL, FSML MIAN SAJID HUSSAIN email@example.com +92-333-8382939 SOIL SCIENTIST Aluminium: Aluminium Aluminum toxicity does not directly show up on the leaves, but in the root system. Damage to the root system by Al toxicity resembles injury symptoms caused by nematodes. Few lateral roots form and those roots that are present have abnormally thickened tips. Plants become highly susceptible to moisture stress. On acid soils, land-forming operations or erosion can expose acid subsoils . Aluminum toxicity might be found with soil pH less than 5.2 and can be alleviated by liming, which increases soil pH and adds calcium. Aluminium and Calcium: Aluminium and Calcium Calcium added to the soil helps to alleviate the effects of Al toxicity, particularly if accompanied by an appropriate pH increase. Boron: Boron The symptoms of B deficiency appear on young leaves of sugarcane. Apical meristem may or may not remain alive. Immature leaves have varying degrees of chlorosis , but they do not wilt. Boron: Boron Boron-deficient plants have distorted leaves, particularly along the leaf margins on immature leaves. Immature leaves may not unfurl from the whorl when B deficiency is severe. Boron: Boron In B deficiency, the apical meristem may die. Boron: Boron Translucent lesions ("water sacks") along leaf margins may occur as B deficiency progresses. Boron: Boron In cases of severe B deficiency, young sugarcane plants tend to be brittle and bunched with many tillers. Boron: Boron Leaf margins become chlorotic with B toxicity. Calcium: Calcium The effects of Ca deficiency on older leaves are localized with mottling and chlorosis . Older leaves may have a "rusty" appearance and may die prematurely. Calcium: Calcium Spindles often become necrotic at the leaf tip and along margins when Ca deficiency is acute. Immature leaves are distorted and necrotic. However, Ca deficiency is uncommon. Chlorine: Chlorine Chlorine deficiency and toxicity are hard to identify in the field. Chlorine deficiency causes abnormally short roots and increases the number of lateral roots. Chlorine toxicity will also cause abnormally short roots with very little lateral branching (from left to right: 0, 1, and 100 ppm Cl ). Neither Cl deficiency nor toxicity are likely in commercially-grown sugarcane in Florida. Chlorine: Chlorine Chlorine deficiency and toxicity in young leaves (from left to right: 0 and 100 ppm Cl ). Cupper: Cupper Copper deficiency generally appears first in young leaves. Green splotches are an early symptom. Cupper: Cupper Apical meristems remain alive, but internode elongation will be greatly reduced when Cu deficiency is severe. Cupper: Cupper General vigor and tillering are reduced under Cu deficiency. Iron: Iron Iron deficiency is first evident on young leaves. Symptoms of Fe deficiency often occur adjacent to unaffected plants. Young plants may overcome symptoms as the plant matures and the root system develops. Iron: Iron Iron deficiency occurs on high pH calcareous soils . Iron: Iron On high pH calcareous soils, Fe deficiency is found adjacent to healthy maturing cane plants. Damage to the root system due to insects or adverse soil conditions (i.e., salts) give this deficiency unusual spatial characteristics. Magnesium: Magnesium Magnesium deficiency is first evident on older leaves. Red necrotic lesions result in a "rusty" appearance. Magnesium: Magnesium The "rusty" appearance can spread across all leaves and may also result in premature dropping of older leaves. Magnesium: Magnesium Under severe Mg deficiency, the stalk may become stunted and severely "rusted" and brown. Internal browning of the stalk may also occur. Manganese: Manganese Manganese deficiency first appears on younger leaves. Interveinal chlorosis occurs from the leaf tip toward the middle of the leaf. Manganese: Manganese Under severe Mn deficiency, the entire leaf becomes bleached. Molybdenum: Molybdenum Molybdenum deficiency is seen on older leaves. Short longitudinal chlorotic streaks on the apical one-third of the leaf. Nitrogen: Nitrogen Older leaves first show N deficiency. Symptoms become generalized over the whole plant and older leaves die back. Young leaves are pale-green and stalks are slender when under long-term N deficiency stress. Nitrogen: Nitrogen Internode growth is reduced with N deficiency. Nitrogen: Nitrogen With N deficiency, leaf sheaths prematurely separate from the stalk. Note pale-green to yellow color. Phosphorus: Phosphorus Older leaves first show symptoms of P deficiency. Leaf reddening usually occurs with P deficiency when the plant is young and when growing temperatures are <10°C (50°F). Phosphorus: Phosphorus Phosphorus deficiency causes short and slender stalks. Older leaves prematurely die back (note leaf sheaths). Potassium: Potassium Older leaves first show symptoms of K deficiency. The symptoms appear as localized mottling or chlorosis . Potassium: Potassium Red discoloration of upper surfaces of the midrib is characteristic of K deficiency. Insect feeding damage on the midrib may be misconstrued as K deficiency. Potassium: Potassium Under moderate K deficiency, young leaves remain dark green and stalks become slender. Potassium: Potassium Long-term K deficiency stress may affect meristem development indicated by spindle distortion and a "bunched top" or "fan" appearance. Sodium: Sodium High concentration of Na+ in the soil and resulting accumulation in the plant adversely affects root and shoot growth. Leaf tips and margins will dry out and have a scorched appearance. Sodium: Sodium With high Na, sugarcane leaves may be broad, but under excessively high concentrations the chlorophyll content decreases, lowering the net photosynthesis per unit leaf area. Under these conditions, leaves may have a pale-green to yellowish-green appearance. High Na is associated with high Cl levels. Silicon: Silicon Silicon deficiency symptoms of cane grown on sand media under drip-irrigation. In the field, symptoms appear as minute circular white leaf spots (freckles) and are more severe on older leaves. Sulfur: Sulfur Young leaves affected by SO 2 toxicity. Symptoms are mottled chlorotic streaks running the full length of the leaf blade. Sulfur: Sulfur Leaf tips and margins may become necrotic within 3 to 7 days after SO 2 exposure. Sulfur: Sulfur Sulfur-deficient leaf (right), with symptoms of chlorosis and purple leaf margins contrasted with a healthy leaf (left) treated with ammonium sulfate. Sulfur: Sulfur Sulfur deficiency in a sandy soil. Leaves are narrower and shorter than normal; stalks are slender. Zinc: Zinc Zinc deficiency is first evident on the younger leaves. A broad band of yellowing in the leaf margin occurs. The midrib and leaf margins remain green except when the deficiency is severe. Zinc: Zinc Red lesions are often noticed. The lesions may be associated with a fungus which prefers to grow in Zn deficient tissues.