logging in or signing up Paper meimei26 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 864 Category: Entertainment License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: August 30, 2010 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: PAPER ABOUT ALL Slide 2: Table of Contents What is Paper? Different types of paper Different uses of paper How to make a recycle papers? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Slide 3: Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. Paper is a versatile material with many uses. Whilst the most common is for writing and printing upon, it is also widely used as a packaging material, in many cleaning products, in a number of industrial and construction processes, and occasionally as a food ingredient, particularly in Asian cultures. What is Paper? NEXT PREV HOME Slide 4: Paper is an incredibly versatile substance made from naturally occurring plant fibres called cellulose. Originally derived from cloth rags and grasses, paper is now predominantly made with wood (in Europe, non-wood based pulp accounts for just 1.3% of pulp production). Paper is wood (or plant) pulp flattened and compressed with a binder. It is usually bleached to provide a white contrasting surface for dark ink or pencil graphite--writing and drawing. Paper can come in many colors and sizes. The most common size of paper in Europe is A4. Paper originally was made from plants called papyrus. These plants grow along the Nile river, or any place where it's wet and moist. The ancient Egyptians first made paper (papyrus) out of this plant. Paper is still used today, but is made primarily from wood pulp. It can also be made from other vegetable matter, as noted above. The original US Constitution, for example, was written on paper made from hemp. Before paper people wrote on parchment, similar to vellum, which was generally made from sheep skin or goat skin. Paper is preferred to this due to the cost in time and effort required to prepare parchment for writing. Even earlier forms of writing involved impressing symbols into clay tablets, as was common with cuneiform, or carving symbols into stone, as with hieroglyphics. Greek school children (and philosopher/scientists) commonly wrote with chalk on sheets of slate, much like our modern chalk boards. Early American school children often wrote on shovels with pieces of charcoal, so to say that "paper is something you write on" is not particularly descriptive or accurate. People write on concrete walls with spray paint, for example, or they may write on concrete sidewalks NEXT PREV HOME Slide 5: What are the types of paper? BANK PAPER Bank paper is a thin strong writing paper of less than 50g/m2 commonly used for typewriting and correspondence. Bank paper are also securities which banks instead of governments issue. See also Commercial paper, securities issued by corporations. BANANA PAPER Banana paper is used in two different senses: to refer to a paper made from the bark of the banana plant, mainly used for artistic purposes, or paper made from banana fiber, obtained from an industrialized process, from the stem and the non utilizable fruits. This paper can be either hand-made or made by industrialized machine. NEXT PREV HOME Slide 6: BOND PAPER Bond paper is a high quality durable writing paper similar to bank paper but having a weight greater than 50 g/m2. The name comes from it having originally been made for documents such as government bonds. It is now used for letterheads, other stationery and as paper for electronic printers. Widely employed for graphic work involving pencil, pen and felt-tip marker, bond paper can sometimes contain rag fibre pulp, which produces a stronger, though rougher, sheet of paper. Nowadays, however, bond paper is currently known as being a smooth white sheet commonly made from normal eucalyptus pulp. BOOK PAPER A book paper (or publishing paper) is a paper which is designed specifically for the publication of printed books. Traditionally, book papers are off white or low white papers (easier to read), are opaque to minimise the show through of text from one side of the page to the other and are (usually) made to tighter caliper or thickness specifications, particularly for case bound books. Typically, books papers are light weight papers 60 to 90 g/m² and often specified by their caliper/substance ratios (volume basis). For example, a bulky 80 g/m² paper may have a caliper of 120 micrometres (0.12 mm) which would be Volume 15 (120×10/80) where as a low bulk 80 g/m² may have a caliper of 88 micrometres, giving a volume 11. This volume basis then allows the calculation of a books PPI (printed pages per inch) which is an important factor for the design of book jackets and the binding of the finished book. a NEXT PREV HOME Slide 7: COATED PAPER Coated paper is paper which has been coated by a compound to impart certain qualities to the paper, including weight and improved surface gloss and smoothness or lower ink absorbency. Kaolinite or calcium carbonate are used to coat papers used for high quality printing used in packaging industry and in magazines. The chalk or china clay is bound to the paper with a synthetic viscofiers, such as styrene-butadiene latexes, and natural organic binder such starches. Coatings formulation may also contain chemical additives as dispersants, resins, PE: to give water resistance and wet strength to the paper, to protect against ultraviolet radiation... Other types of paper coatings are for example polyethylene or polyolefin extrusion coating, silicone, wax coating to make release liners, paper cups, photographic paper. CONSTRUCTION PAPER Construction paper or sugar paper is a tougher type of coarse colored paper typically available in large sheets. The texture is slightly rough, and the surface is unfinished. Due to the nature of the source material from which the paper is manufactured, small particles are visible on the paper’s surface. NEXT PREV HOME Slide 8: COTTON PAPER Cotton paper (also known as rag paper) is made from 100% cotton fibers. Cotton paper is superior in both strength and durability to wood pulp-based paper, which may contain high concentrations of acids. ELECTRONIC PAPER Electronic paper, e-paper or electronic ink display is a display technology designed to mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper. Unlike a conventional flat panel display, which uses a backlight to illuminate its pixels, electronic paper reflects light like ordinary paper. It is capable of holding text and images indefinitely without drawing electricity, while allowing the image to be changed later. NEXT PREV HOME Slide 9: FISHPAPER Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper. It resists moderate heat and mechanical injury, and is often used for wrapping coils and insulating stove-top parts. It is hygroscopic and so must be treated with paraffin for use in moist environments. Some fish papers incorporate mica layers to increase the dielectric strength while still giving good mechanical strength. INKJET PAPER Inkjet paper is a special fine paper designed for inkjet printers, typically classified by its weight, brightness and smoothness, and sometimes by its opacity. NEXT PREV HOME Slide 10: KRAFT PAPER Kraft paper is paper produced from the chemical pulp of softwood processed by the kraft process. It is strong and relatively coarse. The grammage is normally from 50 - 135 g/m2. Kraft paper is usually a brown colour but can be bleached to produce white paper. It is used for paper grocery bags, multiwall sacks, envelopes and other packaging. LAID PAPER Laid paper is a type of paper having a ribbed texture imparted by the manufacturing process. In the 19th century its use diminished as it was largely supplanted by wove paper. Laid paper is still commonly used by artists as a support for charcoal drawings. In pre-mechanical papermaking (from the 12th century into the 1800s), the laid pattern was produced by the wire sieve in the rectangular mold used to produce single sheets of paper. A worker would dip the mold into a vat containing diluted linen pulp, then lift it out, tilt it to spread the pulp evenly over the sieve, and, as the water drained out between the wires, shake the mold to lock the fibers together. In the process, the pattern of the wires in the sieve was imparted to the sheet of paper. NEXT PREV HOME Slide 11: PARCHMENT Parchment is a thin material made from calfskin, sheepskin or goatskin, often split. Its most common use was as a material for writing on, for documents, notes, or the pages of a book, codex or manuscript. It is distinct from leather in that parchment is limed but not tanned, therefore it is very reactive with changes in relative humidity and is not waterproof. The finer qualities of parchment are called vellum. MUMMY PAPER Mummy paper is paper that is claimed to be made from the linen wrappings and other fibers (e.g. papyrus) from Egyptian mummies imported to America circa 1855. The existence of this paper has not been conclusively confirmed, but it has been widely discussed. SANDPAPER Sandpaper or glasspaper is a form of paper where an abrasive material has been fixed to its surface. Sandpaper is part of the "coated abrasives" family of abrasive products. It is used to remove small amounts of material from surfaces, either to make them smoother (painting and wood finishing), to remove a layer of material (e.g. old paint), or sometimes to make the surface rougher (e.g. as a preparation to gluing). NEXT PREV HOME Slide 12: TYVEK Tyvek (pronounced /taɪˈvɛk/) is a brand of flashspun high-density polyethylene fibers, a synthetic material; the name is a registered trademark of DuPont. The material is very strong; it is difficult to tear but can easily be cut with scissors or any other sharp object. Water vapor can pass through Tyvek (highly breathable), but not liquid water, so the material lends itself to a variety of applications: medical packaging, envelopes, car covers, air and water intrusion barriers (housewrap) under house siding, labels, wristbands, mycology, and graphics. Tyvek is used by the United States Postal Service for some of its Priority Mail and Express Mail packages. New Zealand used it for its driver's licenses from 1986 to 1999, and Costa Rica, the Isle of Man, and Haiti have made banknotes from it. These banknotes are no longer in circulation and have become collectors' items. WALLPAPER Wallpaper is a kind of material used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. It is usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. Wallpapers can come either plain (so that it can be painted), or with patterned graphics. NEXT PREV HOME Slide 13: WASHI Washi (和紙?) is a type of paper made in Japan. Washi is commonly made using fibers from the bark of the gampi tree, the mitsumata shrub (Edgeworthia papyrifera), or the paper mulberry, but also can be made using bamboo, hemp, rice, and wheat. Washi comes from wa meaning Japanese and shi meaning paper, and the term is used to describe paper made by hand in the traditional manner. Washi is generally tougher than ordinary paper made from wood pulp, and is used in many traditional arts. Origami, Shodo, and Ukiyo-e were all produced using washi. Washi was also used to make various everyday goods like clothes, household goods, and toys as well as vestments and ritual objects for Shinto priests and statues of Buddha. It was even used to make wreaths that were given to winners in the 1998 Winter Paralympics. Several kinds of washi, referred to collectively as Japanese tissue, are used in the conservation and mending of books. Washi was developed from the traditional Chinese paper-making process. WATERPROOF PAPER Waterproof paper is created and designed to be used in wet environments. The paper is created with special coatings and fibers to allow it to stay together and not change shape or texture when exposed to rain, dampness, or immersed in water. Waterproof paper is popular with military personnel as it can be used in any weather and is tough enough to meet the demands of life in some of the most extreme environments on the planet. NEXT PREV HOME Slide 14: WAX PAPER Wax paper (waxed paper) is a kind of paper that is made moisture proof through the application of wax. WOVE PAPER Wove paper is a writing paper with a uniform surface, not ribbed or watermarked. The papermaking mould's wires run parallel to each other to produce laid paper, but they are woven together into a fine wire mesh for wove paper. The originator of this new papermaking technique was James Whatman (1702-59) from Kent, England. XUAN PAPER Xuan paper (xuanzhi simplified Chinese: 宣纸; traditional Chinese: 宣紙; pinyin: xuānzhǐ), or Shuen paper, is a kind of paper originating in ancient China used for writing and painting. Xuan paper is renowned for being soft and fine textured, suitable for conveying the artistic expression of both Chinese calligraphy and painting. NEXT PREV HOME Slide 15: What are the uses of paper? Paper can be produced with a wide variety of properties, depending on its intended use. To represent a value: paper money, bank note, cheque, security (see Security paper), voucher and ticket For storing information: book, notebook, magazine, newspaper, art, zine, letter for personal use: diary, note to remind oneself, etc.; for temporary personal use: scratch paper for communication to someone else: by transportation of the paper from the place where it is written or printed to the place where it is read: delivered by sender, transported by a third party (e.g. in the case of mail), or taken by the receiver by writing at the same place as where it is read: if sender and receiver are not there at the same time, in the case of a posted notice if sender and receiver are both present, but use paper for illustration, or if communication by talking is not suitable: because one is mute or the other is deaf to avoid other people hearing it, because it is secret, or in order not to disturb them in a noisy environment NEXT PREV HOME Slide 16: For packaging: corrugated box, paper bag, envelope, wrapping tissue, Charta emporetica and wallpaper For cleaning: toilet paper, handkerchiefs, paper towels, facial tissue and cat litter For construction: papier-mâché, origami, paper planes, quilling, Paper honeycomb, used as a core material in composite materials, paper engineering, construction paper and clothing Other uses: emery paper, sandpaper, blotting paper, litmus paper, universal indicator paper, paper chromatography, electrical insulation paper (see also dielectrics and permittivity) and filter paper NEXT PREV HOME Slide 17: How to make a recycle papers? STEPS Frame seen from the bottom. Homemade frame seen from the top 1. Make a frame for preparing the paper. Stretch a fiberglass screen - for example, a window screen - over a wooden frame (an old picture frame work well for this, or you can build your own) and staple it or nail it to the frame. The screen should be pulled as tightly as possible. Make sure to construct the frame large enough to hold the size of paper you wish to make. NEXT PREV HOME Slide 18: 2. Find paper to be recycled. Newspaper may be the easiest source to start with, but you can also use old print-outs, notes, phone books - just about any unwaxed paper product. Keep in mind, however, that the color of the papers you use and the amount of dark ink on them will affect the "grayness" of your creation. 3. Remove plastic, staples and other contaminants. Especially if you're using junk mail, your paper scraps are likely to contain plastic from envelope windows. Try to remove such impurities as thoroughly as possible. 4. Soak the paper in water. You may be able to get away with skipping this step, particularly if you use a blender to pulverize the paper, but you'll probably have better luck if you presoak the paper for a day or two. Pulp ready for the basin. 5. Blend the paper. Rip the paper into tiny bits, and place it all into a blender until it's about half full. Fill the blender with warm water. Run the blender on "slow" at first, then increase the speed until the pulp looks smooth and well-blended - approximately 30 to 40 seconds - just until there are no flakes of paper remaining. Alternately, you can grind up the paper in small batches using a mortar and pestle. NEXT PREV HOME Slide 19: 6. Fill your basin about halfway with water. The basin should be a little wider and longer than your frame and approximately the same shape. 7. Add paper paste (pulp) to water in basin and stir to make a homogeneous mixture. How much you add will depend on personal preference and the size of the paper you're making. The amount of pulp you add to the water will determine the thickness of the paper, and while you want a dense suspension of pulp to fully cover your screen in the next steps, you don't need to make the whole tub into sludge. Experiment a bit. 8. Remove any large clumps of paper. Try to pick out any clumps; the smoother and finer your mixture, the more uniform your end product will be. 9. Make your paper ink-ready (optional). If the paper is going to be used for stationery, stir 2 teaspoons of liquid starch into the pulp mix. The starch helps prevent ink from soaking into the paper fibers. 10. Immerse the frame in the mixture. Place your wooden frame into the pulp, screen-side down, then level it while it is submerged. Lightly move it side-to-side until the pulp on top of the screen lies fairly uniformly flat. New paper just pulled from the basin. 11. Remove frame from basin and resolve any thickness problems. Slowly lift the frame up until it is above the water. Drip-drain it over the basin. Wait until most of the water has drained from the pulp, and you'll see the beginnings of a new piece of paper. If the paper is very thick, remove some of the pulp from the top. If it is too thin, add some more pulp and stir the mixture again. NEXT PREV HOME Slide 20: 12. Give it the pull. After the mold stops dripping (or nearly so), gently place a piece of fabric (felt or flannel, preferably) or a piece of Formica (smooth-side down) in the frame on top of the "paper". Very gently press down to squeeze out excess water. Use a sponge to press out as much water as possible from the other side of the screen, and periodically wring out the sponge. 13. Remove the paper from the frame. Gently lift the fabric or Formica out of the frame. The wet sheet of paper should remain on the fabric. If it sticks to the screen, you may have pulled too fast or not pressed out enough water. You can gently press out any bubbles and loose edges at this point. 14. Set the paper out to dry. Take the pieces of fabric and Formica with the paper on them and arrange them to dry on a flat surface. Alternatively, you can speed up the drying process by using a hair dryer on the low setting. 15. Repeat the above steps to make additional sheets. Continue adding pulp and water to the basin as needed. 16. Peel the paper off the fabric or Formica. Wait until the sheets of paper are thoroughly dried; then gently peel. PREV HOME NEXT Slide 21: GROUP 8 BSBA 2.1 Shierra Mae Lumas Gennicka Jane Bandojan Sikander Dass Maricor Sales Prepared by: Prepared to: Mr. Kris Edison Macomb You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.