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NASA - Shashank Mehta


NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA , pronounced /ˈnæsə/ ) is an Executive Branch agency of the United States government , responsible for the nation's civilian space program and aeronautics and aerospace research. Since February 2006, NASA's self-described mission statement is to "pioneer the future in space exploration , scientific discovery and aeronautics research .


HISTORY NASA was established by the National Aeronautics and Space Act on July 29, 1958, replacing its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The agency became operational on October 1, 1958. NASA has led U.S. efforts for space exploration since, including the Apollo moon-landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle . Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and has been developing the manned Orion spacecraft.

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Why is it important to us? 1-Studying how star shine may lead to improved Or new energy sources 2-Austronaut may learn to protect us from potential Catastrophes such as collision with asteroid. 3-Scientific study of universe. 4-The study of the origin, properties and evolution Of the universe. 5-To understand the big bang theory.

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Space based Astronomy Spacecraft that contains telescopes and other instrument have been sent to study distant object..These are robotic Spacecrafts. Some methods for space based astronomy are:- 1-Space telescopes 2-Other spacecrafts 3-Human space explorations


SPACE WEAR Astronauts wear special suits, made from lots of layers of material. They wear spacesuits outside the space craft because there is no AIR to breathe.


spacesuit It protect astronauts from radiation, keep the right pressure on their bodies and supply them with air.

How long can an astronaut work in space (space walks)? :

How long can an astronaut work in space (space walks)? An astronaut can work in space for up to seven hours in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU).




THE SPACE SHUTTLE It can transport people, materials, equipment and space craft into orbit. World’s first and only reusable space vehicle. It has wings to glide back to Earth. It usually takes 8 days to complete 1 mission.

The Space Shuttle:

The Space Shuttle Primary objective is to improve access to space . Has flown approximately 100 missions.



This is the flight deck. It has 5 computers and controls on the ceiling too:

This is the flight deck. It has 5 computers and controls on the ceiling too


SPACE STATIONS It is a large space craft circling the Earth. American space station is called SKYLAB and space travellers are called ASTRONAUTS. Russian space station is called MIR and space travellers are called COSMONAUTS. The cosmonauts do science experiments and learn how to live in space.




FOOD IN SPACE Special coke cans have been designed for space. Ordinary can would make coke go anywhere if opened in space. Food in space needs to be slightly sticky so that it sticks to the spoon or fork like dries pears, dried beef or peanut butter.


STAND- UP BEDROOM As there is no up and down in space, it is possible to sleep standing up!


KEEPING FIT AND HEALTHY Weightlessness in space means that muscles are not used for moving around. Cosmonauts exercise for several hours a day on exercise bicycles to keep healthy.


FLOATING VOICES In their spare time, cosmonauts have fun making music as they float in space!

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Shuttle Flights Flight days Orbits Longest flight First flight Most recent flight Mir/ISS docking STS Date STS Date Columbia † 28 300d 17h 46m 42s 4,808 17d 15h 53m 18s STS-1 Apr 12, 1981 STS-107 † Jan 16, 2003 0 / 0 Challenger † 10 62d 07h 56m 15s 995 08d 05h 23m 33s STS-6 Apr 04, 1983 STS-51-L † Jan 28, 1986 0 / 0 Discovery 38 351d 17h 50m 41s 5,628 15d 02h 48m 08s STS-41-D Aug 30, 1984 STS-131 Apr 05, 2010 1 / 11 Atlantis 32 293d 18h 29m 37s 4,648 13d 20h 12m 44s STS-51-J Oct 03, 1985 STS-132 May 14, 2010 7 / 11 Endeavour 24 280d 09h 39m 44s 4,429 16d 15h 08m 48s STS-49 May 07, 1992 STS-130 Feb 08, 2010 1 / 10 Total 132 1289d 09h 52m 48s 20,022 9 / 32 Flight Statistics

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All Space Shuttle missions are launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The weather criteria used for launch include, but are not limited to: precipitation, temperatures, cloud cover, lightning forecast, wind, and humidity. The shuttle will not be launched under conditions where it could be struck by lightning . Aircraft are often struck by lightning with no adverse effects because the electricity of the strike is dissipated through its conductive structure and the aircraft is not electrically grounded . Like most jet airliners, the shuttle is mainly constructed of conductive aluminum, which would normally shield and protect the internal systems. However, upon takeoff the shuttle sends out a long exhaust plume as it ascends, and this plume can trigger lightning by providing a current path to ground. The NASA Anvil Rule for a shuttle launch states that an anvil cloud cannot appear within a distance of 10 nautical miles . The Shuttle Launch Weather Officer will monitor conditions until the final decision to scrub a launch is announced. In addition, the weather conditions must be acceptable at one of the Transatlantic Abort Landing sites (one of several Space Shuttle abort modes ) to launch as well as the solid rocket booster recovery area. While the shuttle might safely endure a lightning strike, a similar strike caused problems on Apollo 12 , so for safety NASA chooses not to launch the shuttle if lightning is possible Launch of space shuttle

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Almost the entire Space Shuttle re-entry procedure, except for lowering the landing gear and deploying the air data probes, is normally performed under computer control. However, the re-entry can be flown entirely manually if an emergency arises. The approach and landing phase can be controlled by the autopilot, but is usually hand flown. The vehicle begins re-entry by firing the Orbital maneuvering system engines, while flying upside down, backside first, in the opposite direction to orbital motion for approximately three minutes, which reduces the shuttle's velocity by about 200 mph (322 km/h). The resultant slowing of the Shuttle lowers its orbital perigee down into the upper atmosphere. The shuttle then flips over, by pushing its nose down (which is actually "up" relative to the Earth, because it is flying upside down). This OMS firing is done roughly halfway around the globe from the landing site. Re-entry

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On January 28, 1986, Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrated 73 seconds after launch due to the failure of the right SRB, killing all seven astronauts on board. The disaster was caused by low-temperature impairment of an SRB O-ring, a mission critical component. Repeated warnings from design engineers voicing concerns about the lack of evidence of the O-rings' safety when the temperature was below 53 °F (12 °C) were ignored by NASA managers. On February 1, 2003, Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated during re-entry, killing its crew of seven, because of damage to the carbon-carbon leading edge of the wing caused during launch. Ground control engineers had made three separate requests for high-resolution images taken by the Department of Defense that would have provided an understanding of the extent of the damage, while NASA's chief thermal protection system (TPS) engineer requested that astronauts on board the Columbia be allowed to leave the vehicle to inspect the damage. NASA managers intervened to stop the Department of Defense's assistance and refused the request for the spacewalk, and thus the feasibility of scenarios for astronaut repair or rescue by the Space Shuttle Atlantis were not considered by NASA management at the time. Space Shuttle Disaster


VIDEOS RELATED TO SPACE YouTube - Space Shuttle Launch.htm

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