industries

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cbse class 8 chapter from geography textbook

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INDUSTRIES INDUSTRIES

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INDUSTRIES Secondary Activities Classification Of Industries Factors Effecting Location Of Industries Industrial System Industrial Regions Industrial Disaster Distribution Of Major Industries Tata Iron And Steel Company,JAMSHEDPUR Sub topics:-

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INDUSTRY refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or provision of services. Thus we have iron and steel industry (production of goods), coal mining industry (extraction of coal) and tourism industry (service provider) The production side of business activity is referred as industry. It is a business activity, which is related to the raising, producing, processing or manufacturing of products. What is industry ?

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Primary sector

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Secondary sector

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Tertiary sector

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Secondary activities change raw materials into products of more value to people. As you have seen pulp was changed into paper and paper into a note book. These represent the two stages of the manufacturing process. The paper made from wood pulp and cloth made from cotton has had value added to them at each stage of the manufacturing process. In this way the finished product has more value and utility than that the raw material that it is made from. SECONDARY INDUSTRIES

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INDUSTRIES

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There are various types of industries. These are mentioned as follows : 1. Primary Industry Primary industry is concerned with production of goods with the help of nature. It is a nature-oriented industry, which requires very little human effort. E.g. Agriculture, farming, forestry, fishing, horticulture, etc. Classification of industries

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PRIMARY INDUSTRY

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2. Genetic Industry Genetic industries are engaged in re-production and multiplication of certain spices of plants and animals with the object of sale. The main aim is to earn profit from such sale. E.g. plant nurseries, cattle rearing, poultry, cattle breeding, etc. 3. Extractive Industry Extractive industry is concerned with extraction or drawing out goods from the soil, air or water. Generally products of extractive industries come in raw form and they are used by manufacturing and construction industries for producing finished products. E.g. mining industry, coal mineral, oil industry, iron ore, extraction of timber and rubber from forests, etc.

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GENETIC INDUSTRY

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EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY

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4. Manufacturing Industry Manufacturing industries are engaged in transforming raw material into finished product with the help of machines and manpower. The finished goods can be either consumer goods or producer goods. E.g. textiles, chemicals, sugar industry, paper industry, etc . 5. Construction Industry Construction industries take up the work of construction of buildings, bridges, roads, dams, canals, etc. This industry is different from all other types of industry because in case of other industries goods can be produced at one place and sold at another place. But goods produced and sold by constructive industry are erected at one place.

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MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

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CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

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6. Service Industry In modern times service sector plays an important role in the development of the nation and therefore it is named as service industry. The main industries, which fall under this category, include hotel industry, tourism industry, entertainment industry, etc.

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SERVICE INDUSTRY

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Industries can also be classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership: Agro based industries use plant and animal based products as their raw materials they use. Agro based: cotton, woolen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil. Mineral based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials ii. Mineral based: iron and steel, cement, aluminum , machine tools, petrochemicals. Raw materials

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AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES

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MINERAL-BASED INDUSTRIES

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On the basis of source of raw materials used : According to their main role: i. Basic or key industries which supply their products as raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminum smelting. ii. Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc. i . Small scale industry : having rupees one crore as the maximum investment on the assets of a unit. ii. If investment is more than one crore on any industry then it is known as a large scale industry. Size:

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SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES

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LARGE SCALE INDUSTRIES

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i.Public sector: owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL etc. ii. Private sector industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals –TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries. iii. Joint sector industries which are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by public and private sector. ownership

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The ownership structure( 200 8 )

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Before an industry is located at any place, certain basic requirements have to be considered. Not all of them are required all the time for each and every industry; however, nor can the location of an industry be guided by a single factor. All these factors must be researched and analyzed before an industry is established if the expectations of economic production are to be met . FACTORS EFFECTING LOCATION OF INDUS TRY

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Raw materials are basic requirements for manufacturing industries. Weight-losing industries e.g., cement, sugar (to quintals of sugarcane is needed to produce 1 quintal of sugar) are located near the source of raw material. On the other hand, foot-loose industries are independent of raw material sources, e.g., garment and electronics indus­tries, and can be established practically anywhere.

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Power resources are important for energy-intensive industries such as aluminium and polythene bags industries which are located near the energy sources .

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Labour supply is another important factor particularly for the labour-intensive industry, e.g., construction industry. To an extent, labour can be brought. to a site from other regions.

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Means of transportation and communication play a special role in bringing raw material to the factory and finished products to the market, e.g., cheap water transport has facilitated the development and concentration of jute mills in the Hooghly region.

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Market facility also influences industries, many of which are located near large urban centres because the potential buyers are easy available.

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Other factors like financial facilities, climate, industrial incentives and government facilities also matter. In India one could get more subsidized raw material, very low rate of interest on capital and 9!her incentives for establishing an industry in the 'Backward Regions' or in 'No Industry District' .

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Background It is now widely accepted that manufacturing industries are having a major influence on the deterioration of the global environment. Some experts suggest the industrial system can account for 30% or more of greenhouse gas generation in industrialized countries. Businesses, governments and consumers are beginning to react, but the complexity of the problem and diversity of views, make it difficult to identify widely acceptable courses of action. This confusion occurs at a time when the window of opportunity for action is rapidly closing. INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM

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The academic community has the opportunity, indeed arguably the responsibility, to contribute to the discussion and to the formulation of courses of action. Whilst climate change and environmental experts have made substantial contributions, there are major opportunities for academics concerned with the design and operation of the industrial system to use their particular expertise. This paper therefore seeks to highlight opportunities for the academic community to contribute to the development of sustainable, global industrial systems. It does not provide all the answers but hopefully provides a platform for an informed debate about the future shape of these systems, and identifies possible routes to achieve them.

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The report, published in September 2009, calls for a collaborative effort by academics, teachers, industrialists and policy makers to create a sustainable, global industrial system. The report's lead authors are Professor Steve Evans of Cranfield University, Professor Margareta Norell Bergendahl of the KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, Professor Mike Gregory of Ca mbridge University Institute for Manufacturing and Professor Chris Ryan of the University of Melbourne. It builds on discussions at the International Manufacturing Professors' Symposium and the UK Manufacturing Professors' Forum. Leading professors from the fields of design, production, operations management and service science gathered with thought leaders from I Industry and professional organisations to attempt to chart the route to a more integrated and mature understanding of sustainable industrial systems. The report presents cases where industry is already taking action towards more sustainable systems .

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INDUSTRIAL REGIONS Industrial regions emerge when a number of industries locate close to each other and share the benefits of their closeness. Major industrial regions of the world are eastern North America, western and central Europe, eastern Europe and eastern Asia. Major industrial regions tend to be located in the temperate areas, near sea ports and especially near coal fields. India has several industrial regions like Mumbai-Pune cluster, Banglore-Tamil nadu region, Hugli region, Ahemdabad-Baroda region, Chottanagar industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntar belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region and the kollam-Thiruvanathapuram industrial cluster.

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W orld’s Industrial R egions

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INDUSTRIAL DISASTER In industries accidents/disasters mainly occur due to technical failure or irresponsible handling of hazardous material. Here is such an example In the early morning hours of December 3, 1984, a poisonous grey cloud (forty tons of toxic gases) from Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL's) 1 pesticide plant at Bhopal spread throughout the city. Water carrying catalytic material had entered Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) storage tank No. 610. What followed was a nightmare. The killer gas spread through the city, sending residents scurrying through the dark streets. BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY

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It was only when the sun rose the next morning that the magnitude of the devastation was clear. Dead bodies of humans and animals blocked the streets, leaves turned black, the smell of burning chilli peppers lingered in the air. Estimates suggested that as many as 10,000 may have died immediately and 30,000 to 50,000 were too ill to ever return to their jobs. No alarm ever sounded a warning and no evacuation plan was prepared. When victims arrived at hospitals breathless and blind, doctors did not know how to treat them, as UCIL had not provided emergency information.

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DAMAGE CAUSED DURING BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY

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Lives of hundreds of innocent was taken away…… .

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Many were protesting for their justice !!!

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DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR INDUSTRIES MAJOR INDUSTRY DISTRIBUTION

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Industries with specific characteristics are located in four areas of the city: the waterfront, urban, inland and hilly areas. With major road development, transportation in the city and the wider surrounding areas has become more convenient, and the city is well connected to international transportation systems, such as the Kansai International Airport and the Sakai-Semboku Port. Also, Sakai is blessed with academic institutions and smaller business support facilities, including Osaka Prefecture University, Kansai University and Sakai City Industrial Promotion Center. It has an easy access to the Technology Research Institute of Osaka Prefecture and others in neighboring municipalities are also easily accessible.

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WATER FONT AREA GREEN FRONT SAKAI

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Sharp’s world’s largest class plants of liquid crystal display and solar cell and 19 promising related companies are located in the site, this occupies 1,270,000m2. This is a cutting-edge environmental industrial complex befitting the 21st century with plans for a large-scale solar power generation facility to be constructed onsite.

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SOLAR POWER GENERATION FACILITY One of the Japan’s largest photovoltaic power generation facilities Area: approx. 20ha Output: approx.10,000kW Full operation is scheduled to start in October 2011 (Partial operation commenced in Autumn 2010)

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SAKAI SOCCER NATIONAL TRAINING CENTER

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URBAN AREA Since olden times the urban area has been a developed commercial and business area. Machinery and metalwork industries are located in the northern and southern areas.

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INLAND AREA Industrial land usage potential in the inland area increased with road development and small and medium-sized business clusters formed in the Kena and Mihara areas. Around the Midosuji subway station, a commercial and business district that covers a large area has begun to form.

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Industrial land usage potential in the inland area increased with road development and small and medium-sized business clusters formed in the Kena and Mihara areas. Around the Midosuji subway station, a commercial and business district that covers a large area has begun to form. HILLY AREA

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URBAN AND DEVELOPMENT Development in commerce, business administration, culture and residential functions is planned for the urban areas. Maximizing the city’s rich historical and cultural resources, tourism and exchange facilities will be developed and an attractive cityscape will be formed to build a bustling city attracting many domestic and international visitors.

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IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES Like other industries iron and steel industry too comprises various inputs, processes and output. This is a feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries. The inputs for the industry include raw material such as iron ore, coal and lime stone, along with labour, capital, site and infrastructure. The process of converting iron ore into steel involves many stage. The raw material is put in the blast furnace where it undergoes smelting. It is then refined. The output obtained is steel which may be used by other industries as raw material.

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Steel is tough and it can be easily shaped, cut, or made into wire. Special alloys of steel can be made by adding small amounts of other metals such as aluminum, nickel and copper. Alloys give steel unusual hardness, toughness, or ability to resist rust. Steel is often called the backbone of modern industry. Almost everything we use is either made of steel or iron or has been made with tools or machinery with these metal.

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PRODUCTION OF IRON

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TATA, IRON AND STEEL COMPANY, JAMSHEDPUR Tata Iron and Steel Company , the first ever privatized iron and steel plant to be set up in Asia, has added many a feather to its already brimming cap. The company was established in the year1907 by Jamshedji Tata and is credited to be the largest private sector steel plant that dots the landscape of the Indian subcontinent. Tata Iron and Steel Company, also recognized by the acronym TISCO has been conferred the elite status of the EVA+ (Economic Value Added) company.

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The industrial conglomerate is famed as one of the few companies that produce quality steel at very economic rates. The strategic location of the plant near one of the most mineral rich areas of the country and the existence of a major rail head is also responsible for the factory's flourishing business. The use of the high tech 5 MTPA (million ton per annum) plant in Tatanagar as well as the easy availability of raw materials has ensured the company ranks among the key players of the global market. Tata Iron and Steel Company is an avant-garde of India's steel sector and has expanded to include NatSteel, Asia that makes use of a 2 MTPA steel plant and Millennium Steel or Tata Steel Thailand that is based on a 1.7 MTPA technology steel plant.

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The Tata group is rapidly spreading its wings across South East Asia as well as the countries that border the Pacific coast. The company adheres to all the standards and regulations of Total Quality Management and is the recipient of many awards and accolades. Some of the noteworthy recognitions include: World's best steel maker by World Steel Dynamics Prime Minister of India's Trophy for the Best Integrated Steel Plant Asia's Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise awa rd

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Iron and steel industry

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The role of information technology in modern organizations is becoming progressively critical. Organizations with effective IT management have achieved a wide range of benefits such as accurate reporting, effective monitoring and analysis of activities throughout business processes,a comprehensive view of customers,products and supplies and reduced errors and expenses. As a matter of fact, information technology is a business function, which uses process and technology regulations to define, manage and share master data across the organization. In addition, it facilitates the major tasks of planning, executing and controlling within an organization. A well-structured IT department sets objectives and selects the best course of action to meet these objectives through the coordination of human and intangible resources. Information technology

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Information technology is a part of corporate strategy. For instance, when the top management of a firm decides the installation of a CRM system, it has already decided on the set of values, goals, tactics and strategy. In order for this CRM system to function properly and meet the firm's strategic goals, employees need to be trained and motivated as to meet organizational goals. Therefore, the technological investments that the firm does are handled as part of the firm's strategic portfolio. Often, difficult and complex IT strategies determine organizational welfare. A prominent example is Dell Computer, which succeeded in attracting customer orders and improving service by placing configuration, ordering, and technical support capabilities on the web. Similarly, Steve Jobs' decision to restructure Apple or Procter &Gamble's "efficient consumer response" program resulted in increased product variety, convenience, and innovation through the direct computer links to scanner data and the electronic transfer of payments and invoices .

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To conclude, the future of IT seems bright. New modes of business thinking and operation are being applied towards improved organizational efficiency and success. Concepts like self-organizing systems, knowledge management and empowerment initiatives are particularly related to IT function. Moreover, using information technology to link data between information systems achieves a higher level of information quality and the ability to analyze activities across business functions. Therefore, information technology needs to get the same degree of analysis and study by management, as any other business function of the organization. In fact, information technology must be a "real" part of the organization.

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THE END THANKING YOU