3 Phases of Attitudes Toward War + Criteria

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Brief History of Christian Attitudes Toward War : 

Brief History of Christian Attitudes Toward War

3 phases : 

3 phases

Slide 3: 

The First Three Centuries: Strong pacifism of the early Christians

The First Three Centuries: Strong pacifism of the early Christians : 

The First Three Centuries: Strong pacifism of the early Christians Until about 170 CE there was no apparent Christian involvement within the military structure. First statements regarding such involvement were condemned for running counter to the true teachings of Jesus Christ. http://www.mcauley.acu.edu.au/~yuri/ethics/war.html

The First Three Centuries: Strong pacifism of the early Christians : 

The First Three Centuries: Strong pacifism of the early Christians : “Christ’s followers should clothe themselves in the spiritual sword while casting away the warlike sword, and to be on guard lest 'for warfare, or for vindication of our rights, or for any occasion, we should take the sword; for no such occasion is allowed by this evangelical teaching.” 'We do not draw the sword against any nation, and we no longer learn to fight, because we have become, thanks to Jesus, Sons of Peace' (Dom Bede Griffith OSB, 72). http://www.mcauley.acu.edu.au/~yuri/ethics/war.html Origen:

Slide 6: 

Until the 4th century, Christians refused to do military service, and legends have handed down to us traditions of converted soldiers suffering a martyr's death rather than revert to military service.

Post-Constantinian Christianity : 

Post-Constantinian Christianity In January 313 Constantine legalized Christianity with an edict that read: Let this be so in order that the divine grace which we have experienced in such manifold ways, may always remain loyal to us and continue to bless us in all we undertake, for the welfare of the empire. (Stauffer, 263)

Rise of Christendom : 

Rise of Christendom Christianity gains respectability / status  Official STATE RELIGION Church linked to political stability of the State. Theological rationale: if Rome fall, the Church would also fall, so better protect Rome.

St. Augustine (354-430 AD) & Just War Doctrine : 

St. Augustine (354-430 AD) & Just War Doctrine Still no self-defense or vengeance. Killing in a war is permissible only when the person acts as a servant of authority and under the bonds of obedience.

Bans, punishments, & penances : 

Bans, punishments, & penances Christians had to undertake long penances after combat; this practice would continue till the eleventh century. Ecclesiastical synods of the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries placed heavy penances and penalties on all who shed blood in battle. Clergy was banned totally from participation in any war.

But shifts happen … : 

But shifts happen …

Feudal & Middle Ages: Crusades : 

Feudal & Middle Ages: Crusades In 1095 Pope Urban II issued an appeal to the whole western Church to join in a holy war against the Moslems, which, in the words of Pope Eugene II, was to 'free from the filth of the pagans that city where our Savior willed to suffer for us.” ' (Fremantle 1956, 67).

Feudal & Middle Ages: Crusades : 

Feudal & Middle Ages: Crusades “The worst inheritance of the Church from the age of the Crusades is that 'the primitive Christian traditions of non-violence have been practically submerged until the present day.

Slide 15: 

The horror of bloodshed, hatred and anger, regarded by the early Christians as a diabolical trio, has practically disappeared from ordinary Christian training; bloodshed, hatred and anger are regarded rather as justified - even sanctified - in defined circumstances’.” (Windass, 18, emphasis added)

The Rise of Just War Theory : 

The Rise of Just War Theory

Statement on IraqUnited States Conference of Catholic BishopsWashington, D.C.November 13, 2002 “Based on the facts that are known to us, we continue to find it difficult to justify the resort to war against Iraq, lacking clear and adequate evidence of an imminent attack of a grave nature. With the Holy See and bishops from the Middle East and around the world, we fear that resort to war, under present circumstances and in light of current public information, would not meet the strict conditions in Catholic teaching for overriding the strong presumption against the use of military force.” (Emphasis added) www.usccb.org/bishops/iraq.htm

Criteria : 

Criteria Just Cause Competent authority Comparative justice Right intention Last resort Probability of success Proportionality & Discrimination

Jus ad bello Criteria : 

Jus ad bello Criteria Proportionality Discrimination “For the first time it is possible to cause damage on such a catastrophic scale as to wipe out a large part of civilization and to endanger its very survival. The large scale use of such weapons could trigger major and irreversible genetic changes whose limits cannot be predicted” http://www.usccb.org/bishops/iraq.htm

Discrimination: : 

Discrimination: Depleted uranium Cluster bombs Nuclear Weapons

Discrimination & DU : 

Discrimination & DU Hundreds of tons of depleted uranium have been used since Kosovo. Effects: 12% increase in childhood cancers Severe birth anomalies and congenital defects.

Slide 22: 

Cancer Risk from Depleted Uranium Weapons in the Balkans

Discrimination : 

Discrimination According to VA sources, 26% of Gulf War veterans have been granted disabled status. At 2.5 times the disability rate for the Vietnam War, this is the disability rate in modern U.S. combat. Vets who parent have suffered statistically significant increases in infant stillbirths, birth anomalies and severe congenital defects. http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=30664 http://asterix.phys.unm.edu:8000/dureport/dureport.html

Discrimination: Cluster bombs : 

Discrimination: Cluster bombs According to Gen. Richard Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff,U.S. warplanes dropped 1,500 cluster bombs in Iraq, 26 of them within 1,500 feet of civilian neighborhoods. Estimates of. bombs that fail to detonate range from 5% - 20% “U.S. Under Fire for Use of Cluster Bombs in Iraq” Jack Epstein, San Francisco Chronicle, 5-15-2003



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