8 - World War I Begins & Horrors of War

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Write a caption for this political cartoon “A Chain of Friendship” – Brooklyn Eagle, 1914 If Austria attacks Serbia, Russia will fall upon Austria, Germany upon Russia, and France and England upon Germany.

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Europe's War WWI...

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MAIN 4 Causes... Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism

THE BALKAN CRISIS Austria-Hungary and the Slavs:

THE BALKAN CRISIS Austria-Hungary and the Slavs Serbs , Bosnians , Croats , and Slovenes ( Southern Slavs or Yugoslavs ) sought to break free from Austria-Hungary The Serbs were the first to break free, forming Serbia Russia supported the Serbs while Austria-Hungary did not. In 1908, Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia. Serbia feared Austria-Hungary would never let the Slavic people in its empire become independent. Balkans = powder keg  One spark = War

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The spark that started WWI... ? The assassination of Franz Ferdinand

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Visiting Sarajevo : capital of Austrian province of Bosnia Heir to throne in Austria-Hungary Sophie Archduke Franz Ferdinand

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Assassination June 28, 1914 Both killed by Gavrilo Princip , member of the Black Hand , a secret society of Slavic extremists

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Triple Entente (Allies) : GB, France, & Russia Entangling Alliances

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Once war breaks out, the Triple Entente will become the ALLIED POWERS 1. G.B. 2. France 3. Russia 4. Plus Italy a little later

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Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Italy Central Powers : Germany, A-H, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria Their Rival?

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Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia WHY? How it went down...

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Russia is allied with Serbia...mobilizes troops down towards Serbia

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Germany declared war on Russia & France WHY? Russia & France are allies

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Germany invaded neutral Belgium on way to France WHY? 1st strike (avoid a two front war)

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Britain declared war on Germany WHY? Germans now too close to G.B.!

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Italy joined Allies later Remember this!

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Use the pull-down map: Austria-Hungary declared war on _________. O.K., now it's your turn

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Germany drives to within 30 miles of Paris but was stopped by British and French troops at the Battle of the Marne Both sides get locked in a bloody stalemate in TRENCHES that are hundreds of miles long

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Horrors of War

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Trench warfare Primary form of warfare

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No-man’s-land 30 Yards Space between opposing trenches

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“Frustrated Ingenuity”

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Soldiers fix their bayonets before going “over the top”

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Western Front was a stalemate , or tie Germany France WHY?

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Weeks turned into months Disease, rats, lice

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Rotten food

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Water logged trenches Led to...

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Trench Foot!

Medical Definition of Trench foot :

Medical Definition of Trench foot A condition of the feet produced by prolonged exposure of the feet to water. Exposure for 48 hours or more to warm water causes “tropical immersion foot” or “warm-water immersion foot” Trench foot results from prolonged exposure to cold, without actual freezing. It was common in trench warfare during world war I, when soldiers stood, sometimes for hours, in trenches with a few inches of cold water in them. Was common in Vietnam where troops were exposed to prolonged or repeated wading in paddy fields or streams. ( andrews' diseases of the skin, 8th ed , p27) (12 Dec 1998)

What about Trench Mouth?:

What about Trench Mouth ? Trench mouth earned its nickname because of its prevalence among soldiers who were stuck in the trenches during World War I without the means to take care of their teeth properly...for months at a time! Trench mouth is a severe form of gingivitis that causes painful, infected, bleeding gums and ulcerations. Although trench mouth is rare today in developed nations, it's common in developing countries that have poor nutrition and poor living conditions.

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Industrialized War Number of deaths are phenomenal! New technology, but old techniques

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2. Automatic machine guns 1. Tanks introduced! (Mud & trenches)

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British Howitzer 1914 Big Bertha 1914 3. Artillery

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4. Hand grenades One result of these new weapons...

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5. Flame Throwers

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6. Poison gas & gas masks First Germany, then Allies

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British soldiers blinded by mustard gas

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7. Aircraft - bombings & surveillance

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Dogfights & Aces Plane-to-plane combat

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8. U-Boats U = Untersee (under the sea) German subs Sunk supply ships

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U.S. position so far... Neutrality It’s Europe’s war!

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Wilson asks America not to choose sides Wilson knew U.S. interests leaned toward Allies But...

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