Heat Transfer Notes

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Heat is the transfer of thermal energy from one object to the other. Heat always transfers from an object with a warmer temperature to an object with a cooler temperature. There are three types of heat transfer: Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy when particles in a material collide with neighboring particles. warmer cooler

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Conduction When a fast particle collides with a slow particle, the slow particle speeds up. The faster the particles move in an object, the higher the temperature. Conduction can occur between objects that are touching . (Their particles collide where their surfaces touch .) (and the fast particle slows down) Low Temperature Higher Temperature

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The fast moving particles on the surface of a hot stove collide with the particles on the bottom of a pot. The pot’s particles speed up and its temperature rises. Let’s take a close up look at the particles here.

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The fast moving particles on the surface of a hot stove collide with the particles on the bottom of a pot. The pot’s particles speed up and its temperature rises. Pot particle Stove particle Temperature of bottom of pot: 25°C Temperature of stove: 200°C

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The fast moving particles on the surface of a hot stove collide with the particles on the bottom of a pot. The pot’s particles speed up and its temperature rises. Pot particle Stove particle Temperature of bottom of pot: 50°C Temperature of stove: 200°C

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The fast moving particles on the surface of a hot stove collide with the particles on the bottom of a pot. The pot’s particles speed up and its temperature rises. Pot particle Stove particle Temperature of bottom of pot: 150°C Temperature of stove: 200°C

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The fast moving particles on the surface of a hot stove collide with the particles on the bottom of a pot. The pot’s particles speed up and its temperature rises. The fast particles in a cup of hot tea collide with the particles on the surface of a spoon in a cup. The spoon particles speed up and its temperature rises.

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Conduction can occur within an object. The bottom of a pot is heated by a stove. The heat travels to parts of the pot that are not touching the stove as particles inside of the pot collide with each other.

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Conduction can occur within an object. The bottom of a pot is heated by a stove. The heat travels to parts of the pot that are not touching the stove as particles inside of the pot collide with each other.

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Conduction can occur within an object. The bottom of a pot is heated by a stove. The heat travels to parts of the pot that are not touching the stove as particles inside of the pot collide with each other.

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Conduction can occur within an object. The bottom of a pot is heated by a stove. The heat travels to parts of the pot that are not touching the stove as particles inside of the pot collide with each other.

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Conduction can occur within an object. The bottom of a pot is heated by a stove. The heat travels to parts of the pot that are not touching the stove as particles inside of the pot collide with each other. The bottom of a spoon is heated by hot tea. The heat travels up the spoon to the handle as particles inside the spoon collide with each other.

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All materials do not conduct heat the same. The handle of a metal spoon will heat up much quicker than the handle of a plastic spoon. Poor conductors of heat are called insulators .

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Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of particles in a liquid or a gas. High energy ( fast ) particles move from a warmer place to a cooler place taking their energy with them.

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High energy water particles at the bottom of a pot on a stove move to the top. All of the water gets hot as the water circulates . A fan blows high energy air particles around a house to heat the air.

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The uneven heating of the Earth can cause convection to occur. Currents in the atmosphere ( wind ) and water can occur as particles move from higher to lower temperatures. Convection currents are important factors in weather and climate.

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Radiation is the transfer of thermal energy through space without particles moving or colliding. Radiated energy warms an object when it is absorbed . Radiation can occur through empty space or through matter .

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