TQM dalam Pendidikan

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By: anilzas77 (39 month(s) ago)

salam dr m bustaman, sy mohon jasa baik dr agar dpt attach-email ppt TQM DLM Pendidikan ini kpd email add sy, anilzas77@gmail.com dan sy dahului dgn ucapan terima kasih :)

By: Balasupramaniam (45 month(s) ago)

I would like to download this presentation . I would like to use it as training material in my office. TKU Bsala

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Slide 1: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 1 TQM DALAM PENDIDIKANoleh Muhamad Bustaman b. Abdul ManafKetua Jabatan Pengurusan KualitiInstitut Aminuddin Baki, KPM0199890524/0361056307mbustaman@iab.edu.my

BIODATA PENCERAMAH : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 2 BIODATA PENCERAMAH MUHAMAD BUSTAMAN BIN HAJI ABDUL MANAF Ketua Jabatan Jabatan Pengurusan Kualiti, Instutut Aminuddin Baki, KPM 1. Pengalaman memberi kursus Pengurusan Strategik dan Pengurusan Kualiti di Institut Aminuddin Baki semenjak 1995 2. Menulis buku: 1. Perancangan Strategik (2006/2007). 2. Pengurusan Kualiti Dalam Pendidikan (1998). 3. Buku ketiga: Perancangan Strategik Sekolah (terbaru, Julai 2009) 3. Pernah mengikuti Latihan Profesionalisme dalam bidang Pengurusan Strategik dan Pengurusan Kualiti Latihan Luar Negara (selain dalam negara): i. Strategic Management & Leadership: World Trade Institute, New York, USA (1996) ii. TQM in Education: SEAMEO Innotech, Manila. Philippine (1998) iii. Strategic planning in education: Uni of York, England (2000- 2004) iv. Strategy Performance Measurement (BSC): Uni of Adelaide, Australia (2005) 4. Mempunyai sijil profesional Juruaudit (Lead Auditor) MS ISO 9000 sejak 1998 (berdaftar dengan IRCA London. Memberi khidmat konsultasi dalam Pengurusan Strategik dan KPI untuk semua peringkat Bahagian dalam Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. Ahli Panel Penilai Sistem Star Rating (SSR) KPM- 2008/2010 Pembentang kertas pernyataan baru MISI, VISI dan Matlamat KPM Kepakaran lain: Kursus KMK, Benchmarking, Quality Tools, Quality from Islamic Perspectives, Strategic Change, Strategic Leadership Skills, Strategic Thinking Skills. 2

Slide 3: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3 KURSUS-KURSUS YANG DIKENDALIKAN Pengurusan strategik (bermula dari tahun1996) Pembinaan KPI dan Balanced Scorecard Benchmarking Audit Kualiti Dalaman MS ISO 9000 (1997) Pengenalan dan dokumentasi MS ISO 9001: 2008 Kumpulan Meningkatkan Mutu Kerja (KMK) Pengenalan amalan kualiti 5S Quality Tools Pemikiran Strategik untuk pemimpin pendidikan TQM dalam pendidikan (1996) Pengenalan kepada TPM (total preventive Management) Amalan kepimpinan strategik & membuat keputusan strategik (baru) Teambuilding (baru)

Buku Terbaru- ketiga : 

Buku Terbaru- ketiga Hak Milik MBAM IAB 4

Pengenalan Diri:1. Nama2. Organisasi3. “Your Own Specialty” : 

Pengenalan Diri:1. Nama2. Organisasi3. “Your Own Specialty” Team leader selection Hak Milik MBAM IAB 5

Taklimat Kursus : 

Taklimat Kursus Objektif Kursus Jadual Kursus Maklumat tambahan operasi kursus Hak Milik MBAM IAB 6

Objektif Utama Kursus : 

Objektif Utama Kursus Diakhir kursus ini, peserta akan memahami tentang cara untuk mengamalkan prinsip pengurusan kualiti menyeluruh (Total Quality Management-TQM) bagi meningkatkan prestasi pengurusan organisasi pendidikan melalui memperkasakan amalan berikut: Pengurusan berfokus kepada pelanggan & stakeholders Kepimpinan Strategik dan Perancangan strategik Peningkatan kualiti proses dan sistem organisasi (SSR) Pembinaan pasukan kerja kualiti (team building) Pengurusan berasaskan fakta (quality tools) Pengurusan berasaskan prestasi (KPI) Hak Milik MBAM IAB 7

Kandungan Kursus : 

Kandungan Kursus Pengenalan kepada konsep kualiti dan TQM Tinjauan Amalan TQM di sekolah Kepimpinan dan Perancangan Strategik Pengurusan Proses – SSR Teambuilding & Gaya Kepimpinan Program Penambahbaikan Berterusan: KIK, BPR, 5S Pengurusan berasaskan fakta: Benchmarking & Quality tools Pengukuran dan penilaian prestasi (KPI) Hak Milik MBAM IAB 8

Slide 9: 

HARI PERTAMA Hak Milik MBAM IAB 9

Pengenalan: Perkembangan Pengurusan Kualiti Dalam perkhidmatan Awm : 

Pengenalan: Perkembangan Pengurusan Kualiti Dalam perkhidmatan Awm Inisiatif kualiti dalam Perkhimatan Awam: 3 dekad. 1980an: Budaya Kerja Cemerlang 1990an: Penguruan Kualiti Menyeluruh 2000: Penandaarasan- amalan terbaik luar negara & GLC- pelaksanaan SSR dan KPI Hak Milik MBAM IAB 10

PENGENALAN : 

PENGENALAN 1. Kajian kes (Edaran dan Bacaan) Myron Tribus TQM di Mt. Edgecumbe High School, Sitka, Alaska 2. Tayangan Video Tema: Kerja berkualiti teras kejayaan Hak Milik MBAM IAB 11

Apa itu Kualiti? : 

Apa itu Kualiti? Hak Milik MBAM IAB 12

Apa itu Kualiti? : 

Apa itu Kualiti? Should be aimed at the needs of the consumer, present and future (Deming, 1986) Is “fitness for use” Product features meet the customer needs Freedom from deficiencies (Juran 1988 ) Kualiti ialah akur kepada kehendak pelanggan – menyifatkan keperluan pelanggan dapat didokumentasikan, keakuran kepada kehendak pelanggan, boleh diselidik dan dapat diukur. (Crosby (1984) Hak Milik MBAM IAB 13

Kesimpulan: Definisi : 

Kesimpulan: Definisi “memenuhi kehendak pelanggan” “ Meeting the customer’s requirement” Hak Milik MBAM IAB 14

Quality in education (sallis,1996): : 

Quality in education (sallis,1996): Education is goal oriented. Accordingly , quality of education has been seen to the following goals: Fitness of educational outcomes. Conformance of education output to planed goals. Defect avoidance in education process. Meeting and exceeding customers expectations of education. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 15

PENGURUSAN KUALITI MENYELURUH : 

PENGURUSAN KUALITI MENYELURUH Hak Milik MBAM IAB 16

TQM : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB TQM Total - Made up of the whole Quality - degree of excellence a product or service provides Management - Act, art or manner of planning, controlling, directing,…. Therefore, TQM is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence. 17

Slide 18: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 18 KONSEP KUALITI MENYELURUH (TQM) Kualiti menyeluruh ialah keadaan di mana ciri-ciri kualiti bukan sahaja di pamerkan pada Keluaran Perkhidmatan Tetapi juga pada seluruh operasi dan urusan organisasi Kecekapan pengurusan Staf berdedikasi Persekitaran pejabat yang kondusif Sistem pengurusan kualiti Sistem pengurusan Kewangan & pejabat ATAU

Slide 19: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 19 CIRI-CIRI PENGURUSAN TQM TQM Pelaksana Strategi Fokus Matlamat Pengurusan atasan Seluruh staf Pasukan kerja Penambahbaikan Total involvement Tindakan strategik Matlamat jangka panjang Pengawalan kos kualiti Sistem dan proses Budaya organisasi Pelanggan Pembekal Kepuasan hati Pelanggan Output tidak cacat Output sentiasa tepat

Total Quality School (Sallis, 1996) : 

Total Quality School (Sallis, 1996) Definition: Total quality school apply principles and practice of total quality management to their administrative and instructional functions. The following elements are: Understanding customer need. Strategic Quality planning. Understanding system and processes. Using problem-solving team and team work. Using data for decision-making. Using measurement (KPI) to control and continuous improvement. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 20

Difference b/w a quality institution and ordinary institution: : 

Difference b/w a quality institution and ordinary institution: Customer focused. Focused on preventing problems. Invest in people. Has a quality policy and plans. Improvement process involved every body. Plan long-term Focused on internal need Focused on detecting problems. No staff development. Has no quality plans. Only the management team is involved. Plan short-term Hak Milik MBAM IAB 21

Latar Belakang TQM : 

Latar Belakang TQM Pelopor konsep – Dr. William Edward S. Deming, Joseph M. Juran dan Dr. Phillip B. Crosby Konsep TQM mula diguna pada tahun 1920-an apabila statistik diguna untuk kawalan kualiti di USA. Tahun 1950-an syarikat korporat Jepun mula menggunakannya. Tahun 1980-an mula diguna di seluruh dunia. Pengurus mula sedar TQM berkesan untuk memuaskan kehendak pelanggan, menjimatkan kos dan meningkatkan kecekapan operasi. PKPA Bil. 1/92 bth 31 Julai 1992. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 22

Quality Gurus : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-23 Quality Gurus Walter Shewart In 1920s, developed control charts Introduced the term “quality assurance” W. Edwards Deming Developed courses during World War II to teach statistical quality-control techniques to engineers and executives of companies that were military suppliers After the war, began teaching statistical quality control to Japanese companies Joseph M. Juran Followed Deming to Japan in 1954 Focused on strategic quality planning

Quality Gurus (cont.) : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-24 Armand V. Feigenbaum In 1951, introduced concepts of total quality control and continuous quality improvement Philip Crosby In 1979, emphasized that costs of poor quality far outweigh the cost of preventing poor quality In 1984, defined absolutes of quality management—conformance to requirements, prevention, and “zero defects” Kaoru Ishikawa Promoted use of quality circles Developed “fishbone” diagram Emphasized importance of internal customer Quality Gurus (cont.)

Deming’s 14 Points : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-25 Deming’s 14 Points Create constancy of purpose Adopt philosophy of prevention Cease mass inspection Select a few suppliers based on quality Constantly improve system and workers

Deming’s 14 Points (cont.) : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-26 Institute worker training Instill leadership among supervisors Eliminate fear among employees Eliminate barriers between departments Eliminate slogans Deming’s 14 Points (cont.)

Deming’s 14 Points (cont.) : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-27 Remove numerical quotas Enhance worker pride Institute vigorous training and education programs Develop a commitment from top management to implement above 13 points Deming’s 14 Points (cont.)

Deming Wheel: PDCA Cycle : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-28 Deming Wheel: PDCA Cycle

Essential elements of (TQM) in education : 

Essential elements of (TQM) in education A clear mission. Awareness and commitment of quality for everyone. Teaming replacing hierarchy. Focus on mastery learning. Measurement for improvement Cahange in teaching concepts: In traditional classroom, teachers often follow this sequence : 1) plan……..2)teach……..3) test. the total quality management alternative is: 1) plan…….2 teach (do)….3) check ….4) revised teaching (act)…) 5) test. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 29

BENGKEL : 

BENGKEL Hak Milik MBAM IAB 30 Manakah antara ‘Deming’s ’14 points’ tersebut telah di laksanakan di sekolah anda.

RUMUSAN KONSEP TQM : 

RUMUSAN KONSEP TQM Hak Milik MBAM IAB 31

Applying 4 TQM pillars in schools : 

Applying 4 TQM pillars in schools 1. Synergistic relationship: Everyone is both a customer & supplier (refer to case study) 2. Continuous improvement and self evaluation. (LO & training very important, assessment-portfolios, focus the strength, teaching method-self inquiry, teach & learn- is fun) 3. System of on going process: organisation- a system & work people do-ongoing processes. Focus quality more on learning outcomes. Innovation & creative 4 Leadership: Quality is responsibility Top management. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 32

Rumusan Konsep Kualiti : 

Rumusan Konsep Kualiti Hak Milik MBAM IAB 33

Slide 34: 

KRA & KPIs Proses Utama Analisis Proses ISO 9000 Penilaian kendiri (Analisa Jurang) Benchmarking (Keupayaan proses) Kenalpasti peluang utk penambahbaikan Pembangunan sumber manusia Tentukan keutamaan proses Gambarkan proses yang ideal Kejuruteraan semula Process perniagaan Penambahbaikan berterusan Pendidikan, Latihan dan pembangunan Pengukuran kejayaan Kerangka bagi kecemerlangan organisasi yang menyeluruh maklumbalas Mandat Misi ,Visi, Nilai Hak Milik MBAM IAB 34

TQM Gurus [1] W.Edwards Deming : 

TQM Gurus [1] W.Edwards Deming Deming's Seven Deadly Diseases Lack of constancy of purpose Emphasis on short-term profits/outcomes Evaluation of performance, merit rating, or annual review Mobility of top management Running a company on visible figures alone ("counting the money") Excessive medical costs Excessive costs of warranty, fuelled by lawyers that work on contingency fees Hak Milik MBAM IAB 35

TQM Gurus [1] W.Edwards Deming : 

TQM Gurus [1] W.Edwards Deming Deming's Obstacles Neglect of long-range planning and transformation The supposition that solving problems, automation, gadgets, and new machinery will transform industry Search for examples Our problems are different Obsolescence in schools Reliance on quality control departments Blaming the workforce for problems Hak Milik MBAM IAB 36

Slide 37: 

Deming's Obstacles (con..) 8. Quality by inspection 9. False starts 10. The unmanned computer 11. Meeting specifications 12. Inadequate testing of prototypes 13. "Anyone that comes to try to help us must understand all about our business" Hak Milik MBAM IAB 37

BS2914 Quality Management & Customer Care3: TQM Gurus [1] W.Edwards Deming : 

BS2914 Quality Management & Customer Care3: TQM Gurus [1] W.Edwards Deming Deming’s Action Plan Management struggle over 14 points, 7 Deadly Diseases, Obstacles Management takes pride and develops courage for new direction Management explain to personnel in the company why change is necessary Divide every company into stages identifying the next stage as ‘the customer’ Hak Milik MBAM IAB 38

BS2914 Quality Management & Customer Care3: TQM Gurus [1] W.Edwards Deming : 

BS2914 Quality Management & Customer Care3: TQM Gurus [1] W.Edwards Deming Deming’s Action Plan Start an organisation to guide quality control (using Deming Cycle) Everyone can take part in a team to improve input and output at any stage Embark on construction of organisation for quality (involving knowledgeable statisticians) Hak Milik MBAM IAB 39

Slide 40: 

Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge Appreciation for a system Knowledge of statistical theory Theory of Knowledge Knowledge of Psychology Hak Milik MBAM IAB 40

Working as a whole group: : 

Working as a whole group: Which of Deming’s ’14 points’ apply most to (a)schools/colleges (b) work organisations Which of Deming’s ‘Seven Deadly Diseases’ apply most to:(a)schools/colleges (b) work organisations One individual in the group reports back… Hak Milik MBAM IAB 41

Hari Kedua : 

Hari Kedua Fokus: Amalan Prinsip-Prinsip TQM Hak Milik MBAM IAB 42

7 Prinsip Utama TQM : 

7 Prinsip Utama TQM Hak Milik MBAM IAB 43

1. Kepimpinan : 

1. Kepimpinan Peranan Pemimpin Sangat Penting Bagi Menjayakan TQM Hak Milik MBAM IAB 44

Penambahbaikan Berterusan Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti (PDCA) : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 45 Penambahbaikan Berterusan Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti (PDCA) PELANGGAN & STAKE- HOLDERS KEPERLUAN TANGGUNGJAWAB PENGURUSAN ATASAN (5.0) PENGURUSAN SUMBER (6.0) PENGUKURAN, ANALISIS & PENAMBAHBAIKAN (8.0) PENZAHIRAN PRODUK (7.0) (Product Realization) PELANGGAN & STAKE- HOLDERS BERPUAS- HATI PRODUK INPUT OUTPUT Aktiviti Penambahan Nilai Aliran informasi 4.0 Model Proses Sistem Pengurusan

The Baldrige Framework - Education : 

The Baldrige Framework - Education Hak Milik MBAM IAB 46

Self Evaluation on Total Quality Leader : 

Self Evaluation on Total Quality Leader To what extent it is true to you? Prepared by Muhamad Bustaman Hak Milik MBAM IAB 47

Slide 48: 

. TAKE 5 Hak Milik MBAM IAB 48

2. Perancangan Strategik : 

2. Perancangan Strategik Hak Milik MBAM IAB 49

Aktiviti : 

Aktiviti Menjawab kaji selidik perancangan strategik Sila semak status perlaksanaan amalan perancangan strategik yang berkualiti di organisasi anda Hak Milik MBAM IAB 50

Slide 51: 

. TAKE 5 Hak Milik MBAM IAB 51

Model Sistem Kualiti : 

Model Sistem Kualiti TQM Hak Milik MBAM IAB 52

Analisis Sistem & Proses : 

Analisis Sistem & Proses Process Measurement Cycle Process Inputs Outputs suppliers customers . Hak Milik MBAM IAB 53

Work Processes : 

Work Processes WORK PROCESS ADDS VALUES Customer requiements Outputs to customers Input from supplier Requirements to supplier Hak Milik MBAM IAB 54

Components of Work Processes : 

Components of Work Processes WORK PROCESS Resources Skills and Training Quality Criteria and procedures Communication Inputs Outputs Hak Milik MBAM IAB 55

Slide 56: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 56

Slide 57: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 57 INPUT OUTPUT PROSES P D C A @ OUTCOME

Aktiviti/ Bengkel : 

Aktiviti/ Bengkel Bagaimana anda menggunakan pendekatan pengurusan proses untuk mengadakan satu lawatan. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 58

Dokumentasi : 

Dokumentasi SSR (Bahagian B & C) ISO9000:2008 (Klausa 7) Hak Milik MBAM IAB 59

Star Rating : 

Star Rating mekanisme pengukuran prestasi budaya kecemerlangan agensi Perkhidmatan Awam Hak Milik MBAM IAB 60

Slide 61: 

Komponen Pengurusan Komponen Perkhidmatan Teras Komponen Pengurusan Pelanggan KRITERIA PENILAIAN STAR RATING Star Rating Hak Milik MBAM IAB 61

Slide 62: 

MODEL PENARAFAN STAR RATING Hak Milik MBAM IAB 62

Markah Penarafan Bintang : 

Markah Penarafan Bintang Hak Milik MBAM IAB 63

Slide 64: 

. TAKE 5 Hak Milik MBAM IAB 64

Teambuilding : 

Teambuilding Hak Milik MBAM IAB 65

Slide 66: 

TEAM BUILDING Hak Milik MBAM IAB 66

Slide 67: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 67

Slide 68: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 68

Slide 69: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 69

PEMBENTUKAN DAN PENYENGGARAAN PASUKAN KUALITI : 

PEMBENTUKAN DAN PENYENGGARAAN PASUKAN KUALITI Hak Milik MBAM IAB 70

Ciri-ciri pasukan kualiti yang berkesan : 

Ciri-ciri pasukan kualiti yang berkesan Hak Milik MBAM IAB 71

Halangan keberkesanan pasukan : 

Halangan keberkesanan pasukan Hak Milik MBAM IAB 72

Jenis-jenis Pasukan : 

Jenis-jenis Pasukan Hak Milik MBAM IAB 73

Communicating in Teams : 

Communicating in Teams Lina Melkonian SJSU Career Center Hak Milik MBAM IAB 74

Slide 75: 

Teambuilding Lessons From Geese Why do geese fly in a V formation? What happens when a goose falls out of formation? What happens when the lead goose gets tired? Why do geese in formation honk from behind? What happens when a goose gets sick or wounded? Hak Milik MBAM IAB 75

Slide 76: 

What is a Team? Communicating in Teams A team is a unit of two or more people who work together to achieve a goal. Team members share a mission and the responsibility to achieve it. From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Hak Milik MBAM IAB 76

Slide 77: 

Problem Solving Committees Taskforces Virtual Teams From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Types of Workplace Teams Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 77

Slide 78: 

Advantages Information & knowledge Diversity of views Acceptance of solutions Performance Disadvantages Groupthink Hidden agendas Free riders High costs From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Overview of Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 78

Slide 79: 

Rules Identity Norms From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Group Dynamics Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 79

Slide 80: 

Orientation Conflict Brainstorming Emergence Reinforcement From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Team Decision Making Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 80

Slide 81: 

Controlling Withdrawing Attention Seeking Diverting Encouraging Harmonizing Compromising Initiating Information Seeking Coordinating Procedure Setting Self- Oriented Group- Maintenance Task- Facilitating From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Roles People Play in Groups Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 81

Slide 82: 

Being a Facilitator is like being a Referee Facilitators focus on the process the team is using to get results. On effective teams, every member feels responsible for the process, not just the leader. A facilitator like a referee, makes sure the team operates in an organized manner. A referee does not supervise team strategies, but rather makes sure that the teams are observing the rules of the game. Making sure that the team is operating in a fair, organized and respectful manner is called facilitation, and it is the responsibility of all team members. Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 82

Slide 83: 

Team Leadership As employers reduce their layers of management and as companies become flatter, individual contributors are increasingly asked to lead teams. Leaders Lead, Don’t Rule! Successful team leaders demonstrate the ability to listen to other team members first, then share their points of view. Team Leaders Are Great Facilitators Facilitation is a vital communication tool for effective team leaders. Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 83

Slide 84: 

Effective Teams Collaborative Relationships Clear Purpose Creative Thinking Focused Efforts Open Communication Conflict Resolution Consensus Decision Making From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 84

Slide 85: 

Conflicting Goals Power Struggles Attitudes and Values Poor Communication Task Responsibilities Scarce Resources From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Conflict in Teams Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 85

Slide 86: 

Proaction Communication Openness Research Flexibility Fairness Alliance From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Resolving Conflict Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 86

Slide 87: 

Express understanding Raise awareness Evaluate objections Withhold arguments From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Overcoming Resistance Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 87

Slide 88: 

Purpose PRODUCTIVE MEETINGS Participants Agenda Location From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 88

Slide 89: 

Focus Procedures Participation Closing Follow-Up Effective Meetings From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 89

Slide 90: 

From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 90

Slide 91: 

From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Barriers to Listening Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 91

Slide 92: 

Check Points for Meeting Facilitators Is this discussion being productive? Are agreements being reached? Are new ideas being generated? Are people understanding each other? What is being committed to? What is the best use of the group’s time now? Are we meeting the objectives of the meeting? Communicating in Teams Bruce Withrow, Conversation Types, Affinity Consulting Hak Milik MBAM IAB 92

Slide 93: 

From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Nonverbal Communication Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 93

Slide 94: 

From Business Communication Today, Prentice Hall, 2003 Communicating in Teams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 94

Slide 95: 

Commitment Connections Change Management Conflict Management Cooperation Communication Contribution Communicating in Teams Suzanne Willis Zoglio, 7 Keys to Building Great Workteams Hak Milik MBAM IAB 95

Leadership style : 

Leadership style Hak Milik MBAM IAB 96

Slide 97: 

S1 is appropriate when attempting to influence low levels of readiness. It is called “Telling” because the reader provides the what, when, where, and how. But the leader needs to be careful not to provide too much supportive behavior or it may be interpreted as permissive, easy, or rewarding a lack of performance. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 97

Slide 98: 

S2 is appropriate when attempting to influence low to moderate levels of readiness. It is called “Selling” because the leader is providing the direction and guidance. Through explaining why and clarification the leader attempts to get the follower to buy into it psychologically. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 98

Slide 99: 

S3 is appropriate when attempting to influence moderate to high levels of readiness. It is called “Participating” because both the leader and the follower share in providing the guidance and direction. The leader’s major role is facilitating and encouraging input and involvement from the followers. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 99

Slide 100: 

S4 is appropriate when attempting too influence high levels of readiness. It is called “Delegating” because the leader turns over the responsibility for decision making and implementation to the follower. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 100

Slide 101: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 101

Kumpulan Inovatif dan Kreatif(KIK) : 

Kumpulan Inovatif dan Kreatif(KIK) Hak Milik MBAM IAB 102

Perbezaan KIK dengan KMK : 

Perbezaan KIK dengan KMK Hak Milik MBAM IAB 103

Kitaran PDCA dalam KIK : 

Kitaran PDCA dalam KIK Hak Milik MBAM IAB 104 PROSES P D C A Mengenal pasti projek Pemilihan projek Analisis Projek Penetapan Objektif / Sasaran Projek Cadangan Pennyelesaian/Penambahbaikan 6. Pelaksanaan 7. Penilaian 8. Pemantauan 9. Penyeragaman

Slide 105: 

HARI KETIGA Hak Milik MBAM IAB 105

Konsep Benchmarking : 

Konsep Benchmarking Hak Milik MBAM IAB 106

Penandaarasan : 

Penandaarasan amalan- amalan terbaik drp organisasi yg sama / lain Hak Milik MBAM IAB 107

Slide 108: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 108

Slide 109: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 109

Business Process Reengineering (BPR)/Business Process Improvement(BPI) : 

Business Process Reengineering (BPR)/Business Process Improvement(BPI) Tindakan-tindakan yang perlu diambil oleh KIK untuk menjalankan BPR/BPI di organisasi masing-masing : Merancang penambahbaikan dari segi kepimpinan, kefahaman dan komitmen Memahami proses semasa dari semua dimensi Memperkemas dan menambah baik proses bagi semua penyesuaian serta meningkatkan kecekapan dan keberkesanannya Mengukur dan mengawal pelaksanaan proses untuk memastikan inovasi/penambahbaikan memberi faedah Melaksanakan inovasi penambahbaikan proses berterusan Hak Milik MBAM IAB 110

APA ITU 5S? : 

APA ITU 5S? Hak Milik MBAM IAB 111

Alat Kawalan Kualiti : 

Alat Kawalan Kualiti Analisis Sebab dan Akibat Kertas atau Lembaran Semak Analisis Pareto Carta Histogram Carta Aliran Kerja (Carta/graf: pai,garis, radar, bar, gantt, aliran kawalan) Rajah Taburan Carta Kawalan Hak Milik MBAM IAB 112

Seven Quality Control Tools : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-113 Seven Quality Control Tools Pareto Analysis Flow Chart Check Sheet Histogram Scatter Diagram SPC Chart Cause-and-Effect Diagram

Pareto Analysis : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-114 Pareto Analysis

Pareto Chart : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-115 Pareto Chart

Flow Chart : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-116 Flow Chart

Check Sheet : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-117 Check Sheet

Histogram : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-118 Histogram

Scatter Diagram : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-119 Scatter Diagram

Control Chart : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-120 Control Chart

Cause-and-Effect Diagram : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 3-121 Cause-and-Effect Diagram

Alat Kawalan Kualiti Tambahan : 

Alat Kawalan Kualiti Tambahan Rajah Hubung kait Rajah Pokok Rajah Silang Rajah Matriks Berkepentingan dll. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 122

Slide 123: 

Penyeliaan, Pengukuran & Penambahbaikan Berterusan: KPI Hak Milik MBAM IAB 123

Penambahbaikan Berterusan Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti (PDCA) : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 124 Penambahbaikan Berterusan Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti (PDCA) PELANGGAN & STAKE- HOLDERS KEPERLUAN TANGGUNGJAWAB PENGURUSAN ATASAN (5.0) PENGURUSAN SUMBER (6.0) PENGUKURAN, ANALISIS & PENAMBAHBAIKAN (8.0) PENZAHIRAN PRODUK (7.0) (Product Realization) PELANGGAN & STAKE- HOLDERS BERPUAS- HATI PRODUK INPUT OUTPUT Aktiviti Penambahan Nilai Aliran informasi 4.0 Model Proses Sistem Pengurusan

The Baldrige Framework - Education : 

The Baldrige Framework - Education Hak Milik MBAM IAB 125

Slide 126: 

126 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 126 Hak Milik MBAM IAB

KPIs For Cabinet MinistersPUTRAJAYA: Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Abdul Razak yesterday unveiled a leaner cabinet of 28 ministers…………….. – and subjected them to Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and six-monthy performance review. To this end, he introduced a new paradigm of performance and achievement through the KPI ‘which will’ push for impact and not input, results rather than output and will ensure the public service delivery is value for money”. (The SUN Friday April 10 2009, page 2) : 

127 KPIs For Cabinet MinistersPUTRAJAYA: Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Abdul Razak yesterday unveiled a leaner cabinet of 28 ministers…………….. – and subjected them to Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and six-monthy performance review. To this end, he introduced a new paradigm of performance and achievement through the KPI ‘which will’ push for impact and not input, results rather than output and will ensure the public service delivery is value for money”. (The SUN Friday April 10 2009, page 2) Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 128: 

128 128 APAKAH ITU KPI ATAU KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR KPI adalah petunjuk-petunjuk yang menerangkan sejauhmanakah sebuah organisasi atau program mencapai objektifnya atau hasil akhirnya (results). KPI ialah tanda-tanda yang menunjukkan keberhasilan (outcomes) yang dibina dalam perancangan organisasi, digunakan berterusan untuk mengawal dan mengukur tahap prestasi organisasi. Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Apakah yang dimaksudkan Key Performance Indicators (KPI)? : 

Apakah yang dimaksudkan Key Performance Indicators (KPI)? KPI adalah pengukuran kuantitatif, yang dipersetujui oleh organisasi dalam proses perancangan yang mencerminkan faktor-faktor penentu kejayaan organisasi. Alat untuk memberi maklumat bagi pihak pengurusan organisasi mengawal operasinya untuk mencapai sesuatu objektif yang telah ditetapkan. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 129

Sambungan: Apakah itu KPI : 

Sambungan: Apakah itu KPI Jenis & jumlah KPI akan berbeza bergantung pada jenis organisasi dan proses yang terlibat. Organisasi perniagaan mungkin sebagai salah satu KPI peratusan pulangan pelaburan. Organisasi sekolah : peratus kelulusan para pelajar dalam peperiksaan awam. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 130

Kepentingan KPI - sumber JPA 2010 : 

Kepentingan KPI - sumber JPA 2010 Untuk memantau prestasi dan pencapaian penjawat selari dengan bidang tanggungjawab dan keutamaan strategik negara dengan fokus ditumpukan kepada kesejahteraan rakyat. Sebagai satu cara untuk menjajarkan (align) dengan pencapaian hasil. Sebagai satu bentuk komunikasi iaitu memberi satu gambaran pada semua pekerja dalam organisasi tentang apa yang penting dan apa yang mereka perlu buat untuk mencapainya. Hak Milik MBAM IAB 131

Kepentingan Penggunaan KPI : 

132 Kepentingan Penggunaan KPI KPI berfungsi sebagai satu alat untuk mempengaruhi prestasi yang diharapkan daripada anggota organisasi Anggota organisasi lebih peka kepada apa yang diukur, bukan kepada apa yang diharapkan Pengukuran memberi halatuju kepada setiap individu mengenai peranan mereka dalam pencapaian strategi organisasi Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 133: 

133 Measures or KPIs are Meant to Generate Strategic Information We don’t just measure our strategy to be compliant …. We measure our strategy so that we can see: Where we are going well (Yellow) Where we need to improve ( Amber) Where we are having problems (Red) SMART –A Measures are more likely to generate ‘strategic Information’ Rankings (Benchmarks) Absolute Numbers Rating (surveys) Ratio Percentages Indices Strategic Information Generated Complexity of Analysis Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Mengapa Organisasi perlu mengunakan KPI? (Charles Parker, 2000) (apakah faedahnya?) : 

134 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 134 Mengapa Organisasi perlu mengunakan KPI? (Charles Parker, 2000) (apakah faedahnya?) 1. Mengenalpasti kemajuan kejayaan2. Mengenalpasti samada anda sudah memenuhi kehendak pelanggan/stakeholders3. menolong untuk memahami proses kerja organisasi.4. Mengenalpasti dimana punca masalah- ‘bottlenecks’, pembaziran, dll.5. Memastikan keputusan dibuat berasaskan fakta (not on supposition, emotion or intuition)6. menunjukkan amalan penambahbaikan berterusan Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Example KPI: DIALS IN AN AIRPLANE COCKPIT : 

135 135 Example KPI: DIALS IN AN AIRPLANE COCKPIT Weather Fuel Height Latitude Temperature Time Frequency …. hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Mengapa kita mesti guna KPI untuk mengukur prestasi? : 

136 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 136 Mengapa kita mesti guna KPI untuk mengukur prestasi? Kaplan (2003): Jika kita tidak boleh mengukur proses kerja kita, kita tidak boleh mengurus proses kerja kita. Jika kita tidak boleh mengurus proses kerja kita, kita tidak boleh ubah proses kerja untuk penambahbaikan Jika kita tidak boleh ubah proses kerja untuk lebih baik, kita tidak boleh berjaya MEASURE - MANAGE – CHANGE - EXCEED Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Pendekataan Dalam Pembinaan KPI : 

Pendekataan Dalam Pembinaan KPI Proses /IPOO Balanced Scorecard Hak Milik MBAM IAB 137

Slide 138: 

138 138 MISI & VISI Tetapkan Perkhidmatan Teras Tentukan Proses-proses Utama Ukur dan Nilai Prestasi Wujudkan KPI dan Tetapkan Sasaran Prestasi bagi setiap perkhidmatan Pantau Tahap Prestasi Tambah Baik Prestasi Perkhidmatan Yang Memuaskan Hati Pelanggan Nilai Secara Berterusan Kaji Semula Prestasi Agensi Kenalpasti Perkhidmatan-perkhidmatan Yang Disampaikan di bawah setiap Proses Utama Maklumbalas Pelanggan MODEL PENGUKURAN PRESTASI BERASASKAN PROSES Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 139: 

139 139 PROSES-PROSES (tambahan) MELAKSANAKAN PENGUKURAN PRESTASI-BERTERUSAN Ukur dan Nilai Prestasi Pantau Tahap Prestasi Tambah Baik Prestasi Penambahbaikan Berterusan Tahap Prestasi Masa Langkah 1 Langkah 4 Langkah 3 Langkah 2 Wujudkan KPI , Sasaran Prestasi, Inisiatif Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Fasa 2 : 

Fasa 2 Pembinaan KPI: Langkah Demi Langkah Hak Milik MBAM IAB 140

Model Pengurusan Strategik Untuk Institusi Pendidikan Awam (ms 15) : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 141 Model Pengurusan Strategik Untuk Institusi Pendidikan Awam (ms 15) . 1. Pra-Perancangan 7. Penilaian Prestasi& Penambahbaikan berterusan Halatuju Organisasi: Mandat Kerajaan, Misi, Visi & Nilai (Termasuk Nilai, Piagam pelanggan, Slogan, Logo, Warna Korperat) 5. Strategi, Taktikal (Belanjawan& Operasi) 6. Implementasi Strategi 3. Analisa Persekitaran: Maklumat Dalaman & Luaran Organisasi 4. Isu Strategik (KRA), Matlamat, Objektif & KPI Pusingan Semula Sumber Asal: Bryson, J.M. (2003) Strategic Planning for Public & Nonprofit Organization. S.Fra: Jossey-Bass.

Proses-Proses Utama (keseluruhan) : 

Proses-Proses Utama (keseluruhan) 1. Semak Hala Tuju Organisasi & Persekitaran 2. Bina Matlamat strategik atau Bidang Keberhasilan Utama (KRA-Key Result Areas) 2.1 Bina ‘Strategy Mapping’ bagi pendekatan BSC 3. Bina Objektif berasaskan konsep SMART. 4. Bina KPI, Sasaran Prestasi & Inisiatif/strategi 5. Kamus data KPI 6. ‘Cascading’ KPI : Pelan tindakan, Pelan Operasi dan Sasaran Kerja Tahunan individu (SKT) 6.1 Cascading BSC 7. Pelaporan KPI 142 Hak Milik MBAM IAB

1. Semak Outcomes : 

1. Semak Outcomes Hasil Akhir ( Final General Outcomes) yang ingin dicapai. Bersifat umum dan luas. Pandangan ‘helicopter’/bird view’ Asas: a. Mandat kerajaan b. Misi c. Visi d. Nilai &Piagam Pelangan e. Analisis persekitaran Hak Milik MBAM IAB 143 Rujuk muka surat 66 (misi) & 71 (visi)

Proses Kedua:Semak Matlamat Strategik atau KRA : 

Proses Kedua:Semak Matlamat Strategik atau KRA “Key Result Areas” or KRAs refer to general areas of outcomes or outputs to achieved the mission & vision (or for which the department's role is responsible) Strategic goals define what must be done to achieved the mission & vision. (Niven, 2003) Apakah bidang-bidang (general areas) yang kritkal untuk mencapai misi & visi? Hak Milik MBAM IAB 144

KRA or Strategic Goals : 

145 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 145 Govt’ Mandate & Mission Vision Goals/KRA Objectives Measures Targets Actions/ Initiatives Why we exist What we want to be What we must achieve to be successful Indicators and Monitors of success Desired level of performance and timelines Planned Actions to Achieve Objectives O1 O2 AI1 AI2 AI3 M1 M2 M3 T1 T1 T1 Specific outcomes expressed in measurable terms (NOT activities) KRA or Strategic Goals KRA or Goals serve as the starting point for developing Objectives, Initiatives, and KPIs down through the organization Hak Milik MBAM IAB

PROSES KETIGA : 

PROSES KETIGA PEMBINAAN OBJEKTIF (Specific Outcomes) Hasil Khusus (specific OUTCOMES) yang ingin dicapai oleh organisasinya semasa melaksanakan misi asasnya (David, 2003) Dinyatakan berasaskan ciri SMART-A Hak Milik MBAM IAB 146

Slide 147: 

147 What are SMART-A Measures? When creating a ‘balanced’ set measures for an organization, aligning measures where possible is also critical for your success …. TIMELY REALISTIC AGREED TO MEASURABLE SMART MEASURES SPECIFIC ALIGNED Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 148: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 148

Metrik Pengukuran Prestasi : 

149 149 Metrik Pengukuran Prestasi Metrik Prestasi boleh disediakan dalam bentuk: Ratio (Jumlah output rosak:jumlah output) Rating (CGPA 3 keatas) Ranking (Top 10, Best in the World) Peratus ( Peningkatan sebanyak 20% bagi tahun 2006) Bilangan (Absolute Numbers) Tahap Pencapaian Jumlah: KOS (RM) atau Masa (hari/jam/minit) Gred atau Skor Indeks Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 150: 

150 Identifying & Creating KPIs … That Can Present in Different Forms Rankings (Benchmarks) Absolute Numbers Rating (surveys) Ratio Percentages Indices Strategic Information Generated Complexity of Analysis Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 151: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 151 2. We must understand the IPO System

Categories of Performance Measures : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 152 Categories of Performance Measures Input measures (e.g., staff time, materials, equipment, resources) are useful in showing resources or effort used to provide services; however does not show effectiveness You may be a spending a lot of effort doing the wrong things Output measures (e.g., number of products produced or services provided) are useful in defining program or service; however, does not reveal quality or efficiency You may be producing or providing a lot of the wrong things inefficiently or with poor quality

Slide 153: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 153 Outcome measures (e.g., score on standardized test, distance from proposed targets) are useful in showing the impact or benefit of the program or service Efficiency measures (e.g., cost per unit of output, outputs per unit of input, outputs per unit time) are useful in showing productivity and cost effectiveness Quality measures (e.g., reliability, accuracy, courtesy, competence, responsiveness) are useful in measuring the effectiveness in meeting customer expectations Lack of quality can be measured (e.g., error rates)

The Measurement Pyramid : 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 154 The Measurement Pyramid Strategic Goals/Objectives End-Outcomes Longer-Term Intermediate Outcomes Shorter-Term Intermediate Outcomes & Outputs Outputs & Inputs

Setiap KPI mesti dihubungkan dengan satu Target : 

155 Setiap KPI mesti dihubungkan dengan satu Target Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Link KPI with target & Initiatives : 

156 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 156 Link KPI with target & Initiatives Target: Desired level of performance for a performance measure (e.g., % of customer satisfaction target = 95%) Initiatives: Action programs that will achieve our performance goals (e.g., license renewals via Internet) (source: Balanced Scorecard Institute, USA. 2005) Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 157: 

157 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 157 Bidang-bidang yang berpotensi untuk penetapan target: 1. ‘TOV or Baselines and trends’ 2. Standard Kebangsaan, Negeri, daerah atau zon. 3. Penandaarasan 4. Maklumbalas dari pelanggan dan ‘stakeholders’ 5. Analisis Persekitaran –(SWOC) 6. Misi dan Visi Hak Milik MBAM IAB

KAMUS DATA KPI : 

KAMUS DATA KPI Mengapa ia sangat penting dalam pembinaan dan pengukuran KPI? Hak Milik MBAM IAB 158

Contoh Perhubungan: Isu strategik,Matlamat Strategik, Objektif, KPI dan Sasaran Prestasi. : 

159 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 159 Contoh Perhubungan: Isu strategik,Matlamat Strategik, Objektif, KPI dan Sasaran Prestasi. Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 160: 

160 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 160 Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 161: 

161 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 161 ISU STRATEGIK, MATLAMAT STRATEGIK, KPI, OBJEKTIF & SASARAN Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 162: 

162 Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Alignment : 

163 Alignment by Soichiro Honda-Honda Motors: 1. Craft a vision: what we will be 2. Create goals and performance measures: What 4 or 5 things we must do to get there 3. Alignment: Translate the work of each person into alignment with the goals. hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM 163 Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 164: 

164 164 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Cascading KPI : 

Cascading KPI Hak Milik MBAM IAB 165

PELAN TAKTIKAL : 

166 PELAN TAKTIKAL Hak Milik MBAM IAB

PELAN TAKTIKAL BAGI STRATEGI 1 : 

167 PELAN TAKTIKAL BAGI STRATEGI 1 Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 168: 

168 CONTOH PELAN OPERASI & KPI Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 169: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 169 ANGGOTA ALIRAN KERJA MASA SEBENAR(MINIT) CONTOH KPI DAN SASARAN PRESTASI UNTUK PERKHIDMATAN PENGELUARAN PASPORT MALAYSIA Terima dan semak permohonan 5 Sah dokumen dan lulus 3 Terima bayaran 2 Tangkap imej 1 Cetak muka surat utama 2 Laminate 1 Kepastian cip dan cetak muka surat pemerhatian 2 Encoding 1 Sah keluar 2 Serahan 11 JUMLAH SEBENAR: 30 minit 9 PI 5 PIT 9 PI 3 PI 3 PI 3 PI 3 PI 1 PI 4 PI 3 PI

Slide 170: 

170 Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 171: 

171 Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Slide 172: 

Hak Milik MBAM IAB 172

Contoh cascading KPI : 

Contoh cascading KPI Dari pelan strategik hingga ke SKT individu Hak Milik MBAM IAB 173

Slide 174: 

174 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 174 Contoh: BORANG PELAPORAN PRESTASI MATLAMAT: Hak Milik MBAM IAB

Bengkel terakhir?‘cascading KPI’ : 

Bengkel terakhir?‘cascading KPI’ Pilih satu KRA Bina objektif , KPI, sasaran & inisiatif Cascade ke Jabatan/panatia/unit hingga ke SKT individu Hak Milik MBAM IAB 175

Implementasi TQM : 

Implementasi TQM Bengkel – Strategi untuk meningkatkan lagi tahap pelaksanaan amalan prinsip TQM di sekolah anda? Hak Milik MBAM IAB 176

Slide 177: 

RUMUSAN KURSUS PENGURUSAN KUALITI MENYELURUH/TQM DALAM PENDIDIKAN 25-27 MEI 2010

Objektif Utama Kursus : 

Objektif Utama Kursus Diakhir kursus ini, peserta akan memahami tentang cara untuk mengamalkan prinsip pengurusan kualiti menyeluruh (Total Quality Management-TQM) bagi meningkatkan prestasi pengurusan organisasi pendidikan melalui memperkasakan amalan berikut: Pengurusan berfokus kepada pelanggan & stakeholders Kepimpinan Strategik dan Perancangan strategik Peningkatan kualiti proses dan sistem organisasi (SSR) Pembinaan pasukan kerja kualiti (team building) Pengurusan berasaskan fakta (quality tools) Pengurusan berasaskan prestasi (KPI) Hak Milik MBAM IAB 178

7 Prinsip Utama TQM : 

7 Prinsip Utama TQM Hak Milik MBAM IAB 179

Slide 183: 

“Kejayaan sebenar ialah bila anda merasai kenikmatan atas hasil perubahan….” SEKIAN TERIMA KASIH dari Muhamad Bustaman Abd Manaf IAB- 0199890524/mbustaman@iab.edu.mu Hak Milik MBAM IAB 183

Jumpa lagi : 

Jumpa lagi Hak Milik MBAM IAB 184