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All slides are copyrights and trademarks of the owner. No part of this slides may be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, reproduced or distributed in any way, including but not limited to digital copying without the prior agreement of the author. Author Muhamad Bustaman Haji Abdul Manaf firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: 0199890524/0360571582: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 1 Legal Information I have made my best effort to produce a high quality and helpful guide on strategic performance management system in public and nonprofit organization. All slides are copyrights and trademarks of the owner. No part of this slides may be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, reproduced or distributed in any way, including but not limited to digital copying without the prior agreement of the author. Author Muhamad Bustaman Haji Abdul Manaf email@example.com Tel: 0199890524/0360571582DEVELOPING KPI AND BALANCED SCORECARD FOR PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 2 DEVELOPING KPI AND BALANCED SCORECARD FOR PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS PRESENTED BY Muhamad Bustaman Abdul Manaf Senior Lecturer (DG 52) Institute Aminuddin Baki National Institute of Educational Management and Leadership Ministry of Education April 2011Welcoming Note: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 3 Welcoming Note Welcome to the KPI workshop! Measuring performance allows an organization to objectively determine what is working and what is not. In addition, by measuring success, managers can reward and learn from best practices. KPI’s provide the high-level snapshots of the organization so essential for providing feedback to guide change and serve as a diagnostic tool to identify areas for improvement and set priorities. The terms “KPI” originates from three different words: Key, Performance, and Indicators. These terms can be described in the manner that the KPI should be seen as only Key when it is of fundamental importance in gaining competitive advantage and is a make or break component in the success or failure of an organization; only relating to Performance when it can be clearly measured, quantified and easily influenced by the organization; and only an Indicator if it provides leading information on future performance. Indeed, it is an honor to be with you for facilitating the workshop and I sincerely hope you will find this workshop useful, informative and practical. With best regards, Muhd.Bustaman Abd.Manaf Workshop Manager and FacilitatorWelcome to Generating Powerful KPIs!: Welcome to Generating Powerful KPIs! There are four main reasons for you all to be here: 1. To be involved in the learning process 2. To contribute your thoughts and ideas to the group ( so we can learn from you and your experiences!) 3. To network with others 4. To enjoy the experience…… hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM 4Objektif Kursus: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 5 Objektif Kursus Kursus lima hari ini direkabentuk untuk membantu peserta : Memahami konsep perubahan dan sistem pengurusan prestasi strategik di organisasi awam . Membangunkan sistem pengurusan prestasi melalui pembinaan dan pelaksanaan KPI (Key Performance Indicator) bagi menterjemah Misi , Visi dalam kerja seharian setiap staf . Melengkapi peserta dengan Konsep Balanced Scorecard untuk mengenal pasti KPI yang tepat dan seimbang . Memahami konsep Personal Balanced ScorecardMemperkenalkan Fasilitator: Memperkenalkan Fasilitator hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM 6BIODATA PENCERAMAH : BIODATA PENCERAMAH MUHAMAD BUSTAMAN BIN HAJI ABDUL MANAF Pensyarah Kanan DG52 ( jawatan Hakiki ) Pengurus Projek IAB Pusat Premier Instutut Aminuddin Baki , KPM 1. Pengalaman memberi kursus Pengurusan Strategik dan Pengurusan Kualiti di Institut Aminuddin Baki semenjak 1995. (paling lama dalam bidang ini di IAB) 2. Menulis buku : 1. Perancangan Strategik (IAB). 2. Pengurusan Kualiti dalam pendidikan ( Utusan Pub) 3. Buku ketiga : Pengurusan Strategik untuk sekolah - di terbit oleh PTS. 3. Pernah mengikuti Latihan Profesionalisme dalam bidang Pengurusan Strategik dan Pengurusan Kualiti Latihan Luar Negara ( selain dalam negara ): i . Strategic Management & Leadership: World Trade Institute, New York, USA (1996) ii. TQM in Education: SEAMEO Innotech , Manila. Philippine (1998) iii. Strategic planning in education: Uni of York, England (2000- 2004) iv. Strategy Performance Measurement (BSC): Uni of Adelaide, Australia (2005) 4. Mempunyai sijil profesional Juruaudit (Lead Auditor) MS ISO 9000 sejak 1998 ( berdaftar dengan IRCA London. Memberi khidmat konsultasi dalam Pengurusan Strategik dan KPI untuk semua peringkat Bahagian dalam Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. Ahli Panel Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti Star Rating (SSR) KPM Pembentang pernyataan baru MISI, VISI dan Matlamat KPM Kepakaran lain: Kursus KMK, Benchmarking, Quality Tools, Quality from Islamic Perspectives, Strategic Change, Strategic Leadership Skills, Strategic Thinking Skills. 7Buku Terbaru- ketiga: Buku Terbaru- ketigaPengenalan Diri: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 9 Pengenalan Diri Nama , Organisasi Pengalaman berkaitan Pengurusan Prestasi Strategik : KPI & Balanced Scorecard .Course Outline: Course Outline 8.00-10.00 10.30- 12.30 2.15-4.15 8.15- 10.15 Monday Introduction change mgt PMS & KPI Introduction: change mgt PMS & KPI Step 1: Setting the direction (clarify the outcomes) Homework & Group Discussion Tuesday Step 1: Setting the direction (clarify the outcomes) Step 2: Define Strategic Themes, KRA & Perspectives Step 3: Define Outcomes (Objectives) & Strategy Maps Homework & Group Discussion Wednesday Step 3: Define Outcomes (Objectives) & Strategy Maps Step 4: Develop Measure (KPIs), Target & Initiatives Step 4: Develop Measure (KPIs), Target & Initiatives Homework & Group Discussion Thursday Step 5: KPI Data Dic ’ & Cascading KPI Step 6: Cascading KPI Execution of the KPI & Reporting KPI Homework & Group Discussion Friday Presentation Presentation & House Keeping Back HomeIntroduction To: MANAGING CHANGE & SPMS: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 11 Introduction To: MANAGING CHANGE & SPMS MEASURE - MANAGE – CHANGE - successSlide 12: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 12Slide 13: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 13Slide 14: Hello Sir, I’m Mr. Muhd. Bustamante from IAB to …………..SENARIO SEMASA: SENARIO SEMASA Organisasi Persaingan Krisis Pelanggan Kos Operasi persidangan pengurusan&profesional kinabalu@UMSKESAN TERHADAP ORGANISASI : KESAN TERHADAP ORGANISASI SYNDROM “survival of the fittest” persidangan pengurusan&profesional kinabalu@UMSSlide 17: PERLUNYA MEMBUAT TRANSFORMASI Jangan bernostalgia tentang masa lalu Jangan kekal dengan keadaan sekarang Berubahlah mengikut rentak Berubahlah mengikut masa (Do not dwell with the past Do not stay with the present Change with the trend Change with the time) -Guan Zhong - (Chinese Scholar,”Spring and Autumn Period) Hak milik mbam iab kpm 2011Slide 18: PENGURUSAN TRANSFORMASI Berfikir Kreatif Inovatif Bertindak Berkesan Cekap “Untuk membuat sesuatu perubahan,kita mesti terlebih dahulu berubah” (For things to change,we have to change first) Bersikap Positif persidangan pengurusan&profesional kinabalu@UMSSlide 19: Bila Anda mengubah fikiran Anda Anda mengubah keyakinan Anda Bila Anda mengubah keyakinan diri Anda Anda mengubah harapan-harapan Anda Bila Anda mengubah Harapan-harapan Anda Anda mengubah sikap anda Bila Anda mengubah sikap Anda Anda mengubah tingkahlaku Anda Bila Anda mengubah tingkahlaku Anda Anda mengubah prestasi kerja Anda Bila Anda mengubah prestasi kerja Anda Anda mengubah nasib Anda Bila Anda mengubah nasib Anda Anda mengubah HIDUP Anda! KUASAI MINDA ANDA,KUASAI MASA DEPAN (MASTER YOUR MIND,DESIGN YOUR DESTINY by M Bustaman IAB KPM)Slide 20: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 20Slide 21: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 21The Change Model: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 22 The Change Model Strategy is about change C= [D.V.f] > R C – change D – dissatisfaction V – vision f – first step of action R – resistance Change (C) occurs when dissatisfaction (D), vision (V) and first step of action (f) exceed resistance (R)Slide 23: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 23 Change ( C ) means to move from one state to another, to become different from what it was. Dissatisfaction (D) then can be used as a lever. Change will happen when the product of D.V.f greater than R Resistance (R) to be transferred into productive energy. People get excited when they participatedWhat’s An Organization’s Strategic Planning Like?: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 24 What’s An Organization’s Strategic Planning Like? snake wall spear treeSlide 25: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 26: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 27: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 28: The individual needs of each student are met Our students enjoy a positive and enjoyable learning experience Our students demonstrate exemplary behaviour Providing quality & varied extra curricula activities Effective teaching methods that instil the joy of learning Knowledgeable, efficient, competent, nurturing & highly motivated staff who display our core values Transparency & Accountability Financial viability FIDUCIARY LEARNING INTERNAL CUSTOMER School Strategy Mapping - 2011 Our students strive towards academic excellence Safe welcoming, efficient, comfortable facilities and working environment Ongoing maintenance & upgrading of facilities Ample supply of resources – teaching aids, technology, equipment Consistent discipline Providing opportunity for Learning religion Principles Responsive curriculum that encompasses the motto “work, play and learn together” Our students are well rounded & excel in all fields Our students enjoy a safe, welcoming, efficient, comfortable and family oriented environmentSlide 29: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 29Basic Scorecard Terminology (Southwest Airlines Example): Basic Scorecard Terminology (Southwest Airlines Example) Objectives Fast ground turnaround Objectives: What the strategy is trying to achieve Targets 30 Minutes 90% Targets: The level of performance or rate of improvement needed Cycle time optimization Initiatives: Key action programs required to achieve targets Initiatives Measures On Ground Time On-Time Departure Measures: How success or failure (performance) against objectives is monitored Strategic Theme: Operating Efficiency Profits and RONA Financial Learning Ground crew alignment Lowest prices Fewer planes Customer Internal Fast ground turnaround Strategy Map On-time Service Attract & Retain More Customers Grow RevenuesSlide 31: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 32: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 33: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 34: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 35: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 36: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 37: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 38: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 39: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 40: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 41: mbustaman.iab.edu.mySlide 42: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 42Introduction to PMS & KPI: Introduction to PMS & KPI mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 43What is Performance Management: What is Performance Management A means of getting better results form the organization, teams, and individuals by understanding and managing performance within an agreed framework of planned goals, standards and attribute/competence requirement .(Armstrong, M.1994) (a process/shared understanding/an approach to managing & developing people) mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 44Pengurusan Prestasi Strategik: Pengurusan Prestasi Strategik Proses di mana organisasi memastikan adakah staf mereka: mempunyai matlamat yang selaras dengan pencapaian tujuan organisasi secara keseluruhan, dan mencapai matlamat prestasi mereka sendiri. mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 45Slide 46: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 46Slide 47: 47 47 Pengenalan KPI di sektor awam Arahan Y.A.B. Perdana Menteri semasa MAPA pada 9 Januari 2004 Budaya pengurusan berasaskan pengukuran prestasi secara berterusan perlu diterapkan dalam Perkhidmatan Awam untuk meningkatkan kecekapan dan keberkesanan sistem penyampaian perkhidmatan agensi Kerajaan kepada pelanggan, khususnya orang ramai Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Slide 48: 48 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 48 Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 KPIs For Cabinet Ministers PUTRAJAYA: Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Abdul Razak yesterday unveiled a leaner cabinet of 28 ministers…………….. – and subjected them to Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and six-monthy performance review. To this end, he introduced a new paradigm of performance and achievement through the KPI ‘which will’ push for impact and not input, results rather than output and will ensure the public service delivery is value for money”. (The SUN Friday April 10 2009, page 2) : 49 KPIs For Cabinet Ministers PUTRAJAYA: Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Abdul Razak yesterday unveiled a leaner cabinet of 28 ministers…………….. – and subjected them to Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and six- monthy performance review. To this end, he introduced a new paradigm of performance and achievement through the KPI ‘which will’ push for impact and not input, results rather than output and will ensure the public service delivery is value for money”. (The SUN Friday April 10 2009, page 2) Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Slide 50: 50 50 MISI & VISI Tetapkan Perkhidmatan Teras Tentukan Proses-proses Utama Ukur dan Nilai Prestasi Wujudkan KPI dan Tetapkan Sasaran Prestasi bagi setiap perkhidmatan Pantau Tahap Prestasi Tambah Baik Prestasi Perkhidmatan Yang Memuaskan Hati Pelanggan Nilai Secara Berterusan Kaji Semula Prestasi Agensi Kenalpasti Perkhidmatan-perkhidmatan Yang Disampaikan di bawah setiap Proses Utama Maklumbalas Pelanggan MODEL PENGUKURAN PRESTASI BERASASKAN PROSES Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Slide 51: 51 51 APAKAH ITU KPI ATAU KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR KPI adalah petunjuk-petunjuk yang menerangkan sejauhmanakah sebuah organisasi atau program mencapai objektifnya atau hasil akhirnya (results). KPI ialah tanda-tanda yang menunjukkan keberhasilan (outcomes) yang dibina dalam perancangan organisasi , digunakan berterusan untuk mengawal dan mengukur tahap prestasi organisasi . Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Why do organisations measure performance? (Charles Parker, 2000): mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 52 Why do organisations measure performance? (Charles Parker, 2000) 1. identify success 2. identify whether they are meeting customer requirement 3. help them to understand their process. 4. identify where problems bottlenecks, waste, etc. 5. ensure decisions are based on fact, not on supposition, emotion or intuition 6. show if improvements planned, actually happened.Performance Measurement Study Findings: 53 Performance Measurement Study Findings hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMWhy we must measuring performance?: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 54 Why we must measuring performance? Kaplan (2003): If we can’t measure our processes, we can’t manage our processes If we can’t manage our processes, we can’t change our processes for improvement If we can’t improve our processes, we can’t meet or exceed our customers’ expectations MEASURE - MANAGE – CHANGE - EXCEEDThe important of KPI: The important of KPI Source: Few, Stephen. 2006. Information Dashboard Design: The Effective Visual Communication of Data . Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, Inc. p. 34. Let’s think of the dashboard of a car. It includes the most important information to help you get where you must go. You can see fuel levels, speed, oil pressure, and mileage. You don’t see tire pressure or a list of items in your trunk. While those latter items might be important at some time, they’re not key or critical to driving the car at that time. They can – and perhaps should – be monitored separately and less frequently . hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM 55DIALS IN AN AIRPLANE COCKPIT: 56 DIALS IN AN AIRPLANE COCKPIT Weather Fuel Height Latitude Temperature Time Frequency …. hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 57: Let’s also think of balance – from Kaplan and Norton’s book on balanced scorecards they imagine a conversation with the pilot of a plane : “Q: I’m surprised to see you operating the plane with only a single instrument. What does it measure? “A: Airspeed. I’m really working on airspeed this flight. “Q: That’s good. Airspeed certainly seems important. But what about altitude. Wouldn’t an altimeter be helpful? “A: I worked on altitude for the last few flights and I’ve gotten pretty good on it . Now I have to concentrate on proper air speed. “Q: But I notice you don’t even have a fuel gauge. Wouldn’t that be useful? “A: You’re right; fuel is significant, but I can’t concentrate on doing too many things well at the same time. So on this flight I’m focusing on air speed. Once I get to be excellent at air speed, as well as altitude, I intend to concentrate on fuel consumption on the next set of flights.” Kaplan & Norton 1996. The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy Into Action. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. P. 1. hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM 57Any one of us getting on such a plane might find a way to leave quickly! : 58 Any one of us getting on such a plane might find a way to leave quickly!Why use KPIs?: 59 Why use KPIs? Helps us to know whether we are succeeding in our mission. They are an important management tool for tracking progress against strategic goals. Working with KPIs encourages system thinking. In most systems 85% of problems can usually be attributed to the system and 15% to the individual (Juran). KPIs direct and prioritize behaviour towards achievement of the mission, vision, goals and objectives . hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMWhy Do We Need KPIs?: Why Do We Need KPIs? KPIs are critical to the strong management of all organizations KPIs are used in: Balanced Scorecards Cascading strategy Performance management Risk management Governance = managing + reporting mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 60Why Do We Need KPIs?: Why Do We Need KPIs? There are two main reasons for using KPIs: 1 . To Motivate the Organization. Measure to motivate for higher performance on both individual and group basis Measure to encourage changes in behaviour mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 61Why Do We Need KPIs?: Why Do We Need KPIs? There are two main reasons for using KPIs: 2 . To Monitor the Organization. Measure to track progress of strategy Measure as the basis for a fair reward and recognition program mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 62To use KPIs Effectively, You need to be able to:: To use KPIs Effectively, You need to be able to: Identify /create KPIs Analyse KPIs Cascading KPIs Make strategic decisions based on your KPIs mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 63Slide 64: Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 64 IPO-Framework Program Logic Model The “Critical Few” Set of Measures Performance Dashboards Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award EFQM Kanji's Business Excellence Model (KBEM) The Balanced Scorecard Performance Prism Pendekatan Proses (PKPA, Bil 2. 2005) Performance Measurement FrameworksPendekataan Dalam Pembinaan KPI: Pendekataan Dalam Pembinaan KPI Proses /IPOO Balanced Scorecard Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 65Slide 66: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 66Slide 67: “I am impressed with the IIUM’s achievement and considers it a ‘success story’ for transforming ‘just a university’ into a ‘center of education excellence’ to be emulated by other universities in the world,” PROF. DR. ROBERT KAPLAN CREATOR OF BSC HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOLWhy Do We Want A Balanced Scorecard?: Why Do We Want A Balanced Scorecard? 1. Measurements are one-sided 2. Goals are disintegrated 3. Measurements are unstructured 4. Causes and effects are confused 5. Vision and Strategy not actionable 6. Strategy not linked to Division/Team Goals 7. Feedback is Tactical, not Strategic 8. … in a word, things are not well balanced... 69 Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Introduction to BSC: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 70 Introduction to BSC Less than 10% of strategies Effectively formulated are effectively Executed ( Fortune, 1999) In majority of cases – we estimate 70% -- the real problem isn’t Bad strategy It’s bad execution WHY? They can’t DESCRIBE their strategy They don’t MANAGE Their strategy They haven’t made strategy execution a core COMPETENCYHistory of Balanced Scorecard: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 71 History of Balanced Scorecard Key Milestones: BSC as Performance Measurements ( “ The Balanced Scorecard — Measures that Drive Performance ” January - February 1992, HBR) BSC as Strategic Management System ( “ Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System ” January - February 1996, HBR) BSC as basis for “ Strategy-focused Organization ” . ( The Strategy-focused organization.) 1992 1996 2000Slide 72: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 72Slide 73: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 73STRATEGY-FOCUSED ORGANIZATION: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 74 STRATEGY-FOCUSED ORGANIZATION 1 2 3 4 5What is the Balanced Scorecard?: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 75 What is the Balanced Scorecard? The Balanced Scorecard is a methodology by which operational procedures are aligned with strategic mission and vision. It is a framework that helps organizations translate strategy into operational objectives that drive both behavior and performance (Kaplan & Norton, 2000)What is a BSC?: What is a BSC? BSC is simply a framework to manage and execute strategy . BSC is made up of six key elements: Top Level Strategy Map Top Level BSC-KPIs Top level Strategic Initiatives Cascaded Strategy Map Cascaded BSC-KPIs Cascaded Strategic Initiatives mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 76Slide 77: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 77 The Balanced Scorecard is a management system designed by Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton (2000) as described in their book, The Balanced Scorecard . The Balanced Scorecard is used to guide current as well as target future performance by looking at measures in four categories: 1) financial performance, 2) customer knowledge, 3) internal business processes, and 4) learning and growth. More specifically the organization considers: 1) How do we look to resource providers? 2) How do customers see us? 3) Are we productive and effective? And 4) Can we sustain excellence over time (Givens, 2000)?4 perspectives of BSC: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 78 4 perspectives of BSCSlide 79: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 79Slide 80: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 80The Balanced Scorecard: The Balanced Scorecard Can we continue to improve and create value? What must we excel at? How do we look to shareholders? How do customers see us? Organizational GoalsSlide 82: 82 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 83: Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 83Slide 84: Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 84TRANSLATING A MISSION INTO DESIRED OUTCOMES USING BSC-KAPLAN& NORTON (2003): 85 TRANSLATING A MISSION INTO DESIRED OUTCOMES USING BSC-KAPLAN& NORTON (2003) . MISSION Why we exist STRATEGY Our game plan PERSONAL OBJECTIVES What I need to do VISION What we want to be CORE VALUES What we believe in STRATEGIC INITIATIVES What we need to do BALANCED SCORECARD Implementation & focus Motivated & Prepared workforce Effective Processes STRATEGIC OUTCOMES Satisfied stakeholders Delighted Customers hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMMAKE STRATEGY EVERYONE’S JOB: 86 Top-Down “ Bridging Process ” To Share the Strategy & Align the Workforce Bottom-Up Process to Internalize & Execute the Strategy CORP SBU The Strategy Focused Workforce EDUCATION PERSONAL GOAL ALIGNMENT BALANCED PAYCHECKS MAKE STRATEGY EVERYONE’S JOB hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMCascading KPI: Cascading KPISlide 88: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 88Strategy Development or Strategy Execution? Organizations Need Both: Strategy Development or Strategy Execution? Organizations Need Both Strategic Success At Risk Doomed From The Start Missed Opportunity Strategy Formulation Flawed Sound Flawed Sound Strategic success requires going beyond successful strategy formulation to successful strategy execution Source: 1 Execution: The Discipline of Getting Things Done, by Larry Bossidy, 2002. Strategy Execution 1Strategy Execution Challenge: Strategy Execution Challenge There are generally accepted tools to manage finances, customers, processes, and people. But what about strategy? The Balanced Scorecard is the vehicle that fills the Strategy Management Gap Financial Management Tools EVA Balance Sheets Income Statements Shareholder Value Analysis Customer Management Tools Customer Satisfaction Measurement Customer Relationship Management Segmentation Analysis One-to-One Marketing Process Management Tools Six Sigma Supply Chain Integration Cycle Time Reduction TQM People Management Tools Core Competencies Knowledge Management Pay for Performance HRIS Strategy Management Tools ?Slide 91: 91 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 92: Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM 92Slide 93: Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM 93Kesimpulan: Kesimpulan mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 94Step 1: Setting the direction (clarify the outcomes) : Step 1: Setting the direction (clarify the outcomes) mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 95Slide 96: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 96Slide 97: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 97Slide 98: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 98 GOVERNMENT MANDATEWhat is Mandate?: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 99 What is Mandate? Mandates are written and unwritten rules that govern and guide an institution and its stakeholders. Its maybe directly tied to laws, by laws, ordinances, acts and charters (Sevier, 2000)Apakah itu Mandat?: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 100 Apakah itu Mandat? Kamus Dewan- DBP (2005): 1. Amanah yang diberikan oleh orang ramai. 2. Kuasa yang diberikan oleh oleh pihak yang lebih tinggi. 3. Surat kuasa, surat perintah 4. Kuasa yang diberikan untuk mentadbirApakah itu misi?: Apakah itu misi? Kamus Dewan (2005): Tugas khusus yang dipertanggungjawabkan kepada atau yang akan dilakukan oleh seseorang atau sesuatu kumpulan.What is a Mission Statement?: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 102 What is a Mission Statement? A mission statement describes the primary purpose for our organisation existence, who we serve, what we produce and how we do it. Example: INSTITUTE AMINUDDIN BAKI “Building Educational Leadership Capacity For Quality Organisation”3 Basic Elements of the Organizational Mission: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 103 3 Basic Elements of the Organizational Mission 1. What? REASON FOR EXIST/PURPOSE, CORE BUSINESS 3. WHAT? (OUTCOME, GRAND STRATEGY, VALUES, UNIQUE 2. Who? (TARGET,CUSTOMER) MISSIONApakah itu MISI?: Ia adalah satu pernyataan (deklarasi) ringkas dan padat menjelaskan perkara-perkara berikut: 1. Tujuan atau sebab penubuhan organisasi anda? (What is our basic purpose or Why do we exist?) Ianya menjawab soalan tentang apakah urusan/tugas utama (core business) yang dipertanggungjawabkan ke atas organisasi anda. 2. Kepada siapa perkhidmatan diberikan? ( Who we serve? , as our customers: geography, segments, names) Ianya menjawab siapakah pelanggan utama organisasi anda? 3. Apakah yang hasil akhir yang diingini? ( What we produce- outcome benefits: products, services, uses) atau Keperluan pelanggan apakah yang dapat organisasi anda penuhi. 4. Apakah nilai organisasi anda kepada pelanggan anda? ( Our distinctive competence. ( How we do it "differently", "better", "more effectively" than others) Apakah itu MISI?Sampel Misi: Bincangkan?: Sampel Misi : Bincangkan ? 3M : To solve unsolved problem innovatively. Wal-Mart : To give ordinary folk the chance to buy the same things as rich people. Walt Disney : To make people happy mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 105Slide 106: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 106 Notes: For now it is enough to note simply that foundation of any good vision of success is an organization’s mission statement or statement of purpose and values (Bryson, 1995, page 67).Value Statement: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 107 Value Statement Value statement describes the principle that guide the organization’s work and includes a description of an organization’s philosophy and beliefs and often explains the organization’s relationship to its environment and resources.Konsep Nilai: Konsep Nilai Nilai dapat diertikan sebagai asas oleh masyarakat menilai, mengukur atau membuat keputusan terhadap sesuatu perkara, darjat, mutu, kualiti, taraf perilaku dan benda mengenai seseorang atau kelompok orang sebagai baik, berharga dan bernilai.What are Values?: What are Values? Niven (2003,2006) : “ values are the timeless principles that guide an organization. They represent the deeply held beliefs within the organization and are demonstrated through the day-to-day behaviors of all employees”. mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 109NILAI PERKHIDMATAN IAB ( VALUES) : NILAI PERKHIDMATAN IAB ( VALUES) 1 Integriti (Integrity) Menghayati nilai integriti diri melalui pemikiran, amalan dan tindakan 2. Profesionalisme (Profesionalism ) Memupuk budaya kerja yang profesional bagi merealisasikan mandat yang diamanahkan kepada Institut Pengurusan dan Kepimpinan Pendidikan Negara, menerusi pengamal profesional latihan dan pembangunan ( master trainer) kepimpinan dan pengurusan pendidikan 3. Budaya Permuafakatan (Team Work Culture) Membentuk sinergi jalinan perkongsian ilmu, kemahiran dan pengalaman di kalangan warga IAB yang boleh menyumbang ke arah pembangunan dan pembaharuan organisasi pendidikan yang berprestasi tinggi. 4. Organisasi Pembelajaran ( Learning Organisation) Pembentukan budaya pembelajaran berterusan melalui pengwujudan iklim tempat kerja yang boleh menjadi pemangkin ke arah peningkatan ketrampilan individu, pembelajaran kolaborasi, amalan terbaik , perkongsian misi dan visi, serta aplikasi pendekatan sistem untuk penambahbaikan berterusan dan berfikiran terbuka memberikan idea, pandangan serta teguran bagi kemajuan organisasi dan negara. 5. Prestasi Tinggi (High Performance) Membentuk budaya kerja yang berprestasi tinggi melalui tenaga kerja yang kompeten dan berpotensi untuk menjana ilmu bagi meningkatkan pengetahuan, kemahiran dan komitmen seiring dengan perkembangan tubuh ilmu Pengurusan dan Kepimpinan Pendidikan.Values of Visionary Companies: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 111 Values of Visionary Companies Sony : “Being a pioneer – not following others, but doing the impossible” Walt Disney : “To bring happiness to millions” Wall Mart : “We exist to provide value to our customers” Motorola : “To honorably serve the community by providing products and services of superior quality at a fair price” Marriott : “Customers are guest” Johnson & Johnson : “The company exists to alleviate pain and disease” Hewlett_Packard : “We exist as corporation to make contribution” General Electric : “Improving the quality of life through technology and innovation” 3M : “Respect for individual initiative and personal growth” Citicorp : “Expansionism – of size, of service offered, of geographic presence” Boeing : “To eat, breathe, and sleep the world of aeronautics”Examples: Value Statement : mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 112 Examples: Value Statement We value education and we believe that providing lifelong learning and personal development opportunities are the primary objectives of the college We value students and we believe that commitments to students is our primary focus We value our employees and we believe that it is the right and responsibility of all employees to take an active role in their professional development in order to continue achieve institutional excellence We value freedom and fairness and we believe in academic freedom, freedom of speech, and the free exchange of ideasSlide 113: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 113 Examples: The Guiding Principles XYZ Corporation will make every effort to deliver the highest-quality products and services to its customers At XYZ Corporation, all stakeholders (customers, suppliers, and employees) will be treated as partners At XYZ Corporation, employee input will be actively sought, carefully considered, and strategically used At XYZ Corporation, continual improvement of products, processes, and people will be the norm XYZ Corporation will provide employees with a safe and healthy work environment that is conducive to consistent peak performance XYZ Corporation will be a good corporate neighbor in all communities where its facilities are located XYZ Corporation will take all appropriate steps to protect the environmentSlide 114: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 114Visioning: Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 115 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 115 Visioning Apakah yang anda boleh pelajari dari gambar ini?Bengkel 1: Bengkel 1 Aktiviti individu & Kumpulan: 1. Semak pernyataan Mandat , Misi , Visi , Nilai . 2. Pilih perkataan yang boleh mengambarkan setiap satu pernyataan di atas ( secara umum ). 3. Lukiskan ? Galeri ? 4. Lakukan analisis persekitaran ( rujuk buku ms 89-104) 5. Persembahan ? Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 116What is a Vision?: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 117 What is a Vision? … What the organization intends to become ultimately A vision is like a dream. It’s the mental image of your organization’s ideal. It’s where you want to go, what you want to be. It’s perfectly acceptable for your vision, your dream to be unattainable, to be just out of reach. It’s what you reach for. The vision statement is where you describe this dream to the people who work for you in your business or on your team. Example: For years Pepsi’s vision statement was simply, ‘Beat Coke’Apakah itu visi/wawasan?: Apakah itu visi/wawasan? Kamus Dewan (2005): Pandangan yang jauh (terutamanya yang berkaitan dengan perkembangan masa depan dsb) bagi mencapai matlamat penting sesebuah organisasi atau negara.Sample: Vision Statement: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 119 Sample: Vision Statement IAB as a centre of distinction for educational leadershipSlide 120: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 120 Characteristics of Good Vision Statement Easily understood by all stakeholders Briefly stated, yet clear and comprehensive in meaning Challenging, yet attainable Lofty, yet tangible Capable of stirring excitement for all stakeholders Not concerned with numbers Sets the tone for employees Conveys the organization’s strategic emphasisSlide 121: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 121 Vision is used for communication Mission is used for planning Vision is long in length and narrow in focus Mission is short in length and broad in focus Vision inspires Mission informs Vision is for seeing Mission is for knowing and doing Vision comes from the heart and is for the heart Mission comes from the head and for the head Our vision is unique to our organization Our mission may be in common with other organizations A vision is caught A mission is taught Vision Statement Mission Statement Next: valuesPrimary Questions That Are Central to Your Personal Mission and Vision: Primary Questions That Are Central to Your Personal Mission and Vision Personal Mission Personal Vision Who am I? What is my philosophy of life? Why am I on this earth? What are my overall life objectives? What do I live for? What are my deepest aspirations? Why do I do what I do? What are my unique talents? Where do I stand now? What are my core beliefs? Where am I going? Which values and principles guide my way? What do I want to help realize? What do I want to achieve? What are my long-term intentions? What is my ideal? What do I stand for? What do I believe in? Which contribution to society do I strive to make? How do I see myself? (What is my self-image and my sense of self-worth?) Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM 122 Refer to al fatihah & azanSlide 123: Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM 123Slide 124: Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM 124Slide 125: Definition of Customer Organisation or person that receives a product or services. A customer can be internal or external to the organisation. (ISO 9000:2000)Slide 126: KENAPA KEPUASAN PELANGGAN PENTING Pelanggan yang tak berpuas hati akan berhenti berurus niaga Pelanggan yang tak berpuas hati akan bercerita kepada rakan dan keluarga Pelanggan yang berpuas hati akan membeli lebih kerap dan banyak Pelanggan yang berpuas hati akan memperkenalkan kepada rakan dan keluarga mereka Complaint 126 Hak Milik MBAM@IAB KPM 09Kesan Cendawan Masalah: Kesan Cendawan Masalah 1,000 mengetahui tentang aduan tersebut 10 org membuat aduan 100 masalah yang sama dirasai oleh orang lain tetapi tidak mengadu “Sekira kita mendengar 10 aduan dari pelanggan, bermaksud terdapat 100 masalah yang sama telah pernah berlaku kepada pelanggan tetapi mereka tidak membuat aduan, tetapi seorang telah menyebarkan kepada 10 orang. Ini bermaksud 100 orang telah menyebar kepada 1000 orang 127 Hak Milik MBAM@IAB KPM 09Slide 128: “ APABILA KAMU SEKELIAN DIBERIKAN PENGHORMATAN DENGAN SESUATU SALAM, MAKA HENDAKLAH KAMU MEMBALAS SALAM ITU DENGAN LEBIH BAIK DARIPADANYA ATAUPUN DENGAN YANG SEPERTINYA.” (an-Nisa’:86) 128 Hak Milik MBAM@IAB KPM 09Slide 129: SENYUM & SALAM Hak Milik MBAM@IAB KPM 09Ciri-ciri Piagam Pelanggan: Ciri-ciri Piagam Pelanggan Jelas;(boleh diukur) Senang disebar; Kebolehpercayaan; Praktikal; Khusus; dan Boleh ditambahbaik. Piagam PelangganKonsep Piagam Pelanggan: Konsep Piagam Pelanggan satu komitmen bertulis, jabatan/agensi Kerajaan terhadap penyampaian keluaran atau perkhidmatannya kepada pelanggan (termasuk stakeholders ). Satu jaminan jabatan/agensi kerajaan untuk menyampaikan keluaran atau perkhidmatan mengikut standard kualiti yang ditetapkan. Standard kualiti yang dapat memenuhi kemahuan dan citarasa pelanggan.PERNYATAAN PIAGAM PELANGGAN IAB: PERNYATAAN PIAGAM PELANGGAN IAB IAB komited untuk memberi kepuasan kepada stakeholder berdasarkan piagam pelanggan seperti berikut dan akan memastikan: Melaksanakan sekurang-kurangnya 80% program latihan yang didaftarkan dalam dokumen Program Latihan IAB pada tahun berkenaan; Memastikan sekurang-kurangnya 95% peserta kursus berpuas hati dengan program latihan IAB; Memastikan sekurang-kurangnya 80% peserta yang mengikuti program latihan berpuas dengan pengendalian sesi latihan oleh Pensyarah IAB dan Pensyarah Jemputan; Memaklumkan pelanggan tentang kelulusan sesuatu kursus yang dipohon sekurang-kurangnya empat minggu (4) sebelum kursus bermula; Memastikan prasarana latihan dan semua keperluan serta peralatan latihan berfungsi dengan baik dan dalam keadaan siap sedia untuk digunakan dalam tempoh satu (1) hari sebelum kursus bermula; Menjalankan sekurang-kurangnya sembilan (9) penyelidikan dan pembangunan sistem maklumat setahun;sambungan: sambungan 7. Menghasilkan sekurang-kurangnya sepuluh (10) penerbitan setahun ; 8. Menjalankan sekurang-kurangnya enam (6) program konsultansi termasuk khidmat pasukan pemikir setahun; 9. Menghasilkan indeks keperluan latihan dan pembangunan profesioanal pemimpin sekolah bagi setiap negeri setiap tahun ; 10. Memastikan sekurang-kurangnya 80% peserta kursus berpuas hati dengan perkhidmatan sajian dan penginapan; 11. Menyediakan perkhidmatan perpustakaan pada setiap hari bekerja mulai 8.15 pagi hingga 4.45 petang; Memastikan semua staf IAB mendapat peluang untuk mengikuti latihan sekurang-kurangnya 7 hari setahun; Memastikan maklum balas kepada semua pertanyaan dan aduan pelanggan mengenai pengurusan perkhidmatan di IAB adalah menepati tempoh-tempoh berikut: akuan penerimaan dalam tempoh 1 hari maklum balas awal dalam tempoh 15 hari laporan status aduan dalam tempoh 5 mingguTake 5!: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 134 Take 5! Next: Environmental AnalysisSlide 135: 135 Analisa Perubahan Persekitaran mbustaman IAB 10THE ORGANIZATION AS AN ICEBERG : 136 THE ORGANIZATION AS AN ICEBERG 14.5 mbustaman IAB 10Jenis Radas Kualiti (quality tools) Untuk Analisa Maklumat Persekitaran Organisasi: 137 Jenis Radas Kualiti (quality tools) Untuk Analisa Maklumat Persekitaran Organisasi 1 . Matrik KLAP (SWOT) 2. Matrik Portfolio (BSG/ GEC) 3. Analisis Senario 4. Matrik NDTS (Space) 5. Analisis Titik Pulangan Modal 6. PEST ( Persekitaran Luar ) 7. 7S McKinsley 8. 6 SIGMA mbustaman IAB 10Taxonomy of Strategic Data Collection: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 138 Taxonomy of Strategic Data Collection Area for Analysis Data Needed Available Approaches The Environment National & regional trend International trend PESTLE The school customer & stakeholder Existing and potential customers-their values, wants and needs Market segmentation Demographic, survey data The school’s product and service Areas of strength, weakness, growth& contraction Perceptions of the school SWOT analysis International evaluation External evaluation Attitude surveys The Competitors The products &services offered, their strength & weakness SWOT analysis Customer survey data Competitor analysis Inspection reportsSlide 139: Proses mengumpul maklumat dari persekitaran untuk menentukan : Isu-isu , cabaran-cabaran , ‘trends’ ( ekspektasi masyarakat , globalisasi , perkembangan teknologi ?) Yang akan memberi kesan kepada organisasi Alat-alat analisa yang boleh digunakan : Analisa Jurang , 7’s, PEST, SWOT, PESTEL ( untuk menganalisa persekitaran dalaman dan luaran ) 2. Analisis PersekitaranSlide 140: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 140Slide 141: Kekuatan : Ciri-ciri sesebuah organisasi yang boleh membantu organisasi mencapai objektif Kelemahan : Ciri-ciri sesebuah organisasi yang boleh mengagalkan organisasi mencapai objektif Peluang : Situasi luaran yang boleh membantu organisasi mencapai objektif Ancaman : Situasi luaran yang boleh membantu mengagalkan organisasi mencapai objektif Dalaman Luaran ANALISA SWOTPEST: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 142 PEST Political Legislation and Regulation International relations, world peace Economic Economic cycles, recession, boom Currency rates, interest rates, tariff/taxes/quotas Capital, labour and commodity markets Social Demographics, foreigners Tastes, fashion, perception, worldview Environmental awareness Technological Process effect development Product capability ICTORGANIZATIONAL STAKEHOLDERS : mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 143 ORGANIZATIONAL STAKEHOLDERS 3.18Slide 144: 144 mbustaman IAB 10Take 5!: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 145 Take 5! Next: dev’ KRALangkah 2: Tema Strategik & KRA: Langkah 2: Tema Strategik & KRA Dibangunkan dari analisis mandat,misi , visi , nilai dan persekitaran organisasi Mengenalpasti isu-isu utama untuk capai misi dan visi ( isu strategik ) Mewujudkan bidang fokus : bidang keberhasilan utama ( untuk capai misi & visi ) mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 146KRA or Strategic Goals: 147 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 147 Govt’ Mandate & Mission Vision Goals/KRA Objectives Measures Targets Actions/ Initiatives Why we exist What we want to be What we must achieve to be successful Indicators and Monitors of success Desired level of performance and timelines Planned Actions to Achieve Objectives O1 O2 AI1 AI2 AI3 M1 M2 M3 T1 T1 T1 Specific outcomes expressed in measurable terms (NOT activities) Strategic Planning Action Planning Implementation / Measures KRA or Strategic Goals KRA or Goals serve as the starting point for developing Objectives, Initiatives, and KPIs down through the organization Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Proses Kedua: Pembinaan Matlamat Strategik atau KRA: Proses Kedua : Pembinaan Matlamat Strategik atau KRA Strategic goals define what must be done to achieved the mission & vision. ( Niven , 2003) “Key Result Areas” or KRAs refer to general areas of outcomes or outputs to achieved the mission & vision (or for which the department's role is responsible). Apakah bidang-bidang (general areas) yang perlu cemerlang untuk capai misi & visi ? Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 148Slide 149: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 149 Goals: Strategy components; action items that must be done (e.g., improve students achievement, increase staff skills, develop a new teaching & learning process). They are long-range performance targets. (BSC Collaborative Inc.2005)Value of Identifying KRAs: Value of Identifying KRAs Identifying KRAs helps individuals: · 1. Clarify their roles · 2. Align their roles to the organisation’s business or strategic plan · 3. Focus on results rather than activities. 4. Communicate their role’s purposes to others · 5. Set goals and objectives · Prioritize their activities, and therefore improve their time/work management · Make value-added decisions Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 150Bagaimana membina KRA?: Bagaimana membina KRA? How we will get there? General outcomes but more focus than mission & vision Stated in general themes (not smart) High impact- mission & vision Strategic issues to achieve mission & vision Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 151Bengkel 2: Bengkel 2 Aktiviti : 1. Senaraikan KRA bagi mencapai hala tuju organisasi anda ( rujuk hasil bengkel 1) 2. Tuliskan pernyataannya 3. Persembahan Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 152Slide 153: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 153Slide 154: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 154 The Balanced Scorecard is a management system designed by Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton (2000) as described in their book, The Balanced Scorecard . The Balanced Scorecard is used to guide current as well as target future performance by looking at measures in four categories: 1) financial performance, 2) customer knowledge, 3) internal business processes, and 4) learning and growth. More specifically the organization considers: 1) How do we look to resource providers? 2) How do customers see us? 3) Are we productive and effective? And 4) Can we sustain excellence over time (Givens, 2000)?4 perspectives of BSC: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 155 4 perspectives of BSCSlide 156: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 156Slide 157: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 157The Balanced Scorecard: The Balanced Scorecard Can we continue to improve and create value? What must we excel at? How do we look to shareholders? How do customers see us? Organizational GoalsSlide 159: 159 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 160: Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 160Slide 161: Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 161Slide 162: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 162‘Desired OUTCOMES’ or ‘impact measures’: ‘Desired OUTCOMES’ or ‘impact measures’ mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 163What is an objective?: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 164 What is an objective? Definition: A outcomes (target) we hope to achieve within the time frame Is much more specific than a broad goal Good objectives are SMART: S= Specific M=Measurable A=Action Oriented R=Realistic T=Time OrientedSlide 165: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 165Guiding Principles of Writing Objectives: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 166 Guiding Principles of Writing Objectives The process of writing outcome objectives and measures assumes that “doing good” cannot be taken for granted. It must be assessed by “reality testing.” Is internally driven Is focused upon continuous program improvement. Goal is not to prove “are we good or not” but rather: What did we do? How much did we do” What worked? What didn’t? Under what circumstances? What could be altered or improved? What do we need to do what we said we could do?Why Write Objectives and Outcome Measures?: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 167 Why Write Objectives and Outcome Measures? Provides the department with information for decision making and planning Provides the department with useful “lessons learned” If your activities are not being implemented as you had planned, your department can make mid-course corrections and get back on track Aids in planning, training, and resource allocationWhy Write Objectives and Outcome Measures?: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 168 Why Write Objectives and Outcome Measures? “Ritualism” and inertia can be overcome Allows for organizational empowerment: Increased understanding of problems/concerns Increased ownership of programs Increased satisfaction---”what we do matters” Increased organizational commitmentWhy Write Objectives and Outcome Measures?: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 169 Why Write Objectives and Outcome Measures? Unfortunately, we will not be able to get firm answers about whether or not our department is reaching its goals and objectives from the following: Poignant vignettes told by staff, faculty, students Testimonials about how much people like our department Staff/faculty reports about how well they have done or how hard they have worked **Although these can all be useful supplements**Slide 170: 170 What are SMART-A Measures? When creating a ‘balanced’ set measures for an organization, aligning measures where possible is also critical for your success …. TIMELY REALISTIC AGREED TO MEASURABLE SMART MEASURES SPECIFIC ALIGNED Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Specific: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 171 Specific Has a single aim or purpose Don’t lump multiple objectives together Uses strong verbs (e.g., “to increase”, “to improve/ retain”)Measurable: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 172 Measurable Can be measured quantitatively Provides a numeric indicator of what you are trying to accomplish Evidence can be collected to document achievement of your objectiveAction Oriented: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 173 Action Oriented Shows how each objective is linked to the overarching goal of the school Specifies what activities will need to occur to attain the objectiveRealistic: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 174 Realistic Good objectives are attainable They can be accomplished with your department’s current capacities and resources Ask yourself, “Do I have everything that I need to do this?” Is this a reasonable expectation for the department?Time Oriented : mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 175 Time Oriented Objectives are time specific States when the activities to reach each objective will begin States the time by which each objective will be accomplishedSlide 176: Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 176Root Cause Analysis Technique - Five Why’s: 177 of 58 Root Cause Analysis Technique - Five Why’s Five Why's refers to the practice of asking, five times, why the problem exists in order to get to the root cause of the problem Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? Employee turnover rate has been increasing Employees are leaving for other jobs Employees are not satisfied Employees feel that they are underpaid Other employers are paying higher salaries Demand for such employees has increased in the marketSlide 178: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 178An old story ………. ……… but still true: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 179 An old story ………. ……… but still true “Any organisation which boasts one Statement of Mission (Purpose), one Vision, five Values, six Goals, seven Strategic Priorities (Objectives) and eight Key Performance Indicators without any clear correlation between them is producing a recipe for total confusion and exasperation.” Learmont Report, October 1995 on the Prison ServiceSlide 180: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 180Slide 181: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 181Slide 182: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 182Slide 183: The individual needs of each student are met Our students enjoy a positive and enjoyable learning experience Our students demonstrate exemplary behaviour Providing quality & varied extra curricula activities Effective teaching methods that instil the joy of learning Knowledgeable, efficient, competent, nurturing & highly motivated staff who display our core values Transparency & Accountability Financial viability FIDUCIARY LEARNING INTERNAL CUSTOMER School Strategy Mapping - 2011 Our students strive towards academic excellence Safe welcoming, efficient, comfortable facilities and working environment Ongoing maintenance & upgrading of facilities Ample supply of resources – teaching aids, technology, equipment Consistent discipline Providing opportunity for Learning religion Principles Responsive curriculum that encompasses the motto “work, play and learn together” Our students are well rounded & excel in all fields Our students enjoy a safe, welcoming, efficient, comfortable and family oriented environmentSlide 184: IUM 2015 Strategic Direction: Towards becoming a Research-Intensified University S1. Produce well-rounded personalities and employable graduates Customer Stakeholder Financial Learning & Growth Internal Process Research & Academic Excellence C1. Achieve status as a leading international academic & research institution imbued with Islamic values L1. Strengthen staff development and competency F1. Achieve budgetary sufficiency and efficiency P1. Strengthen quality integrated curriculum P8. Increase income contribution from SBUs/RMC/IHSB S2. Become centre of reference in niche areas of research P6. Secure bigger research grant P5. Have a significant pool of distinguished scholars P2. Intensify quality research output and publication P4. Increase academic staff who are engaged in high impact research L2. Ensure quality of research facilities through key compliance P3. Strengthen postgraduate studies P7. Enhance quality service L3. Improve library facilities to support research L4. Enhance morality within the university community IIUM Strategy Map 2007-2015 SAMPLE 184 Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Slide 185: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 185Bengkel 3: Bengkel 3 Aktiviti : 1. Senaraikan objektif bagi mencapai hala tuju organisasi anda ( rujuk hasil bengkel 1 & 2) 2. Bina pemetaan objektif 3. Masa : 20 minit Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 186Take 5!: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 187 Take 5!Developing KPI: 188 Developing KPI hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 189: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 189Slide 190: 190 Key Performance Indicators, also known as KPI or Key Success Indicators (KSI), help an organisation define and measure progress toward organisational goals. Once an organisation has analysed its mission, identified all its stakeholders, and defined its goals, it needs a way to measure progress toward those goals. Key Performance Indicators are those measurements hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMWhat are Quality Indicators?: 191 What are Quality Indicators? They measure the quality of outputs (e.g., quality of students graduates) as well as quality of schooling inputs (e.g., teacher quality) They measure performance relative to some given standards hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 192: 192 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 193: 193 Performance indicators are measures that describe how well a program is achieving its objectives. What are performance indicators? Key Performance Indicators are quantifiable measurements, agreed to beforehand, that reflect the critical success factors of an organisation. They will differ depending on the organisation hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 194: 1.3 Identifying & Creating KPIs There are Two Types of Strategic Measures … Lagging Measures: Measure the outcomes of your strategy- Your customer stakeholder/financial outcomes Usually found in the ‘top half’ of the Strategy Map Tend to indicate what has happened in the past Are usually quantitative in nature Leading Measures: Measure the drivers in your organization- Your people and your processes Usually found in the ‘bottom half’ of the Strategy Map Tend to indicate what will happen in the future if an action is taken now Are usually qualitative in natureLag & Lead Indicators: 195 Lag & Lead Indicators Performance Measures (Lagging): Indicators of success. The final results (e.g., no. or % of students success in national exam) Performance Measures (Leading): Predictors (performance drivers) of future success (e.g., % of increase in teachers knowledge and skills) (source: Balanced Scorecard Institute, USA. 2005) hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMPerformance Measures: 196 Performance Measures 1. Percentage of… 2. Number of… (hours, times per month, donation, activities, km etc) 3. Frequency of …. 4. Level of …. 5. Total of …(score, costs, hours, ..) 6. Average 7. Grade 8. Ratio of 9. Degree of hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 197: 1.3 Identifying & Creating KPIs … That Can Present in Different Forms Rankings (Benchmarks) Absolute Numbers Rating (surveys) Ratio Percentages Indices Strategic Information Generated Complexity of AnalysisSlide 198: Absolute Numbers vs. indexes Absolute Numbers Positives: Objective – ‘the number is the number’ Easy to measure and analyse Easy to communicate performance required ( i.e. what needs to be done) Negatives: Are simplistic in the information that they generate Direct comparisons between departments/ divisions/ organizations is difficult because the relative importance of what is being measured may be different for each E.g. Number of tons of exported Number of patients admitted Number of days of sick leave taken Number of passenger journeysSlide 199: Absolute Numbers vs. indexes Indices Positives: Generate a lot of strategic information Able to make comparisons across a wide range of areas Able to weight areas of importance Negatives: Difficult to communicate what needs to be done Results can be skewed by one factor if weighting is done incorrectly (or not at all) Results can be interpreted in different ways by different people Individual component performance often cancel out so index performance generally does not change rapidly E.g. Index of customer satisfaction - Happiness index Index of employee engagement - Economic prosperity indexSlide 200: Ranking vs. Ratings Rankings (Benchmarks) Positives: Relatively easy to measure and analyse Relatively easy to communicate what needs to be done Negatives: Are simplistic in the information that they generate Direct comparisons between departments/ divisions/ organizations is difficult because different organizations: May use different criteria for ‘best’ Performance spreads from best to worst may vary greatly Brand recognition ranking ‘Employer of Choice’ ranking Pharmaceutical distributor ranking University ranking E.g.Slide 201: Ranking vs. Ratings Ratings (surveys) Positives: Relatively easy to measure and analyse Relatively easy to communicate what needs to be done Generate a lot of strategic information Able to make comparisons across a wide range of areas Negatives: Results can be skewed by one factor Results can be interpreted in different ways by different people. Rating achieved on customer satisfaction survey Rating achieved on employee engagement survey rating achieved on product acceptance in market E.g.Slide 202: Ratios vs. Percentages Ratios Positives: Easy to measure and analyse Able to make comparisons across a wide range of areas Negatives: Need to be reviewed to ensure organizations aren’t managing the denominator Number of complaints per passenger journey Number of calls completed per operator Number of students matriculating per school E.g.Slide 203: Ratios vs. Percentages Percentages Positives: Everything is normalised to ‘100’ therefore easier to understand as everything is related back to the whole Easy to communicate improvements required easy to measure and analyse Able to make comparisons across a wide range of areas Negatives: Need to be reviewed to ensure organizations aren’t managing the denominator Percentage of new vs. old customers Percentage of actual vs. budget Percentage of IT projects completed on time and on budget percentage of staff trained E.g.Slide 204: How to identify Potential Strategic Measures Review Existing Measures, i.e.: Own organizations (i.e. reports, other BSCs etc.) Industry benchmarks Develop New Measures, i.e.: Identify critical success factors for the objective Determine which ones are acting as the biggest ‘choke point’ Develop a specific measure for the ‘choke point’Slide 205: A word of caution! Your current measures are possibly generic in nature and / or lagging measures ….Slide 206: Shared vs. Derived Measures Shared Measures: Some measures can be shared with the sum of the targets adding up to the whole Typically happens in the Financial and Learning & Growth perspectives Typically happens across Strategic Business Units Can be used to determined individual KPIs A +B+C+D A+B C+D A B C D Derived Measures: Some measures can be derived from a higher order measure Typically happens in the Customer/ Stakeholder and Internal Process perspectives Typically happens within Business Units Can be used to determined individual KPIs A X Y ZBengkel 4: Bengkel 4 Aktiviti : 1. Senaraikan KRA dan Objektif , KPI, dan Sasaran bagi mencapai hala tuju organisasi anda ( rujuk hasil bengkel 1, 2, 3 ) 2. Tuliskan pernyataannya 3. Persembahan Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 207Slide 208: What do we mean by SMART-A Measures? SMART-A Description Right Wrong Specific Measures must be specific to the organization, division, individual etc. Generic measures won’t drive specific changes in performance or behavior which defeats the purpose of performance management % $ Value of Inventory > 6 months in warehouse Inventory Turnover Specific to situation Too genericSlide 209: What do we mean by SMART-A Measures? SMART-A Description Right Wrong Measurable Financial and productivity areas are easily measured so this rule doesn’t necessarily apply to these and other areas where quantitative measures are used. Qualitative measures for areas such as people management skills or customer service levels are harder to measure and therefore harder to find a real measure ( without defaulting to surveys) Average rating for Leadership in Staff Focus Groups % Managers with Leadership Capabilities This is probably more of a proxy for what is wanted but is more easily measured Although this measure may generate very useful information it would be difficult to measureSlide 210: What do we mean by SMART-A Measures? SMART-A Description Right Wrong Agreed To Where possible, involve all levels (including down to the employee level) directly in developing their measures. This consultation is more likely to result in measures that are relevant and valid, increased buy-in etc. Panels can be used to ensure time and staff are effectively used % Sales to New Customers vs. Existing customers Actual Sales vs. Budget This style of measure gives the employee more ‘control’ over the outcome This could be seen as too ‘demanding’Slide 211: What do we mean by SMART-A Measures? SMART-A Description Right Wrong Realistic Measures must be achievable and the employee (or groups of employees) must have a significant degree of control over achievement of the measure. % On Time Running (Excluding Delays Caused by special Events) % On Time Running More realistic as it eliminates uncontrollable events Not realistic as there are certain things outside of your span of controlSlide 212: What do we mean by SMART-A Measures? SMART-A Description Right Wrong Timely Focus on measures that provide relevant information either ‘as it happens’ or within a short time afterwards. If the time interval between measurement is too long, the measure will lack relevance (i.e. it will be seen as being ‘out of date’) Rolling quarterly customer satisfaction survey Annual customer satisfaction survey Rolling measures are more timely in nature This takes too long to measure again to check progressSlide 213: What do we mean by SMART-A Measures? SMART-A Description Right Wrong Aligned Department level measures need to be directly linked to the organization’s objectives and measures. These measures should also reflect the overall organization’s culture and values, by indicating the types of behavior and performance the organization will recognise as ‘successful’ and reward employees for At lower levels, measures should emphasise the nature of the job as well. If the outcome of the job is its most important aspect, emphasize actual results. If the process is most important, focus on actual behavior and performance Finally, measures need to reflect the priorities of the job. There is no such thing as multiple #1 priorities. When measures are given equal value it inevitably creates confusion and erodes motivation Actual Spend vs. budget Sales vs. Budget Actual Spend vs. Budget Actual Spend vs. budget % Cost of Sales to Actual Sales $ Value Bad DebtSlide 214: A word of caution! Measures or KPIs are just the Start of a strategic discussion! Measures cannot: Solve problems, they can only tell you generally where the problem is! Can’t tell you why your strategy is not succeeding, they can only tell you if you are on track or not! In other words – you need to analyse measures or kpis to help you understand the why, what, how, who and whenSlide 215: Measures or KPIs are Meant to Generate Strategic Information We don’t just measure our strategy to be compliant …. We measure our strategy so that we can see: Where we are going well (Yellow) Where we need to improve ( Amber) Where we are having problems (Red) SMART –A Measures are more likely to generate ‘strategic Information’ Rankings (Benchmarks) Absolute Numbers Rating (surveys) Ratio Percentages Indices Strategic Information Generated Complexity of AnalysisSlide 216: Best Practice Measures or KPIs Measures or KPIs needs to be able to be analyzed so that they can generate strategic information about your strategy ‘Good’ Measures or KPIs have five key elements: They focus you on motivating staff or monitoring performances They focus you on what how you can beat the competition, fix something that is broken or clear something that is blocked They are SMART-A They are not generic in nature They are regularly reported and analysed! A ‘strategic’ Measure or KPI is NOT operational!Categories of Performance Measures: 217 Indicator type Categories of Performance Measures Outcome Output Process Input What is the impact of this service? Is the project achieving its objectives? What level of service is being provided? How many units of service are being delivered? Is what needs to be done being done? Are we on track to meet targets? What resource are used to deliver the service? Question hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMDefinition: 218 Definition hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMCategories of Performance Measures: 219 Categories of Performance Measures Input measures (e.g., staff time, materials, equipment, resources) are useful in showing resources or effort used to provide services; however does not show effectiveness You may be a spending a lot of effort doing the wrong things Output measures (e.g., number of products produced or services provided) are useful in defining program or service; however, does not reveal quality or efficiency You may be producing or providing a lot of the wrong things inefficiently or with poor quality hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 220: 220 Outcome measures (e.g., score on standardized test, distance from proposed targets) are useful in showing the impact or benefit of the program or service Efficiency measures (e.g., cost per unit of output, outputs per unit of input, outputs per unit time) are useful in showing productivity and cost effectiveness Effectiveness measures (e.g., participation rate, graduation rate, failure rate, completion rate) Quality measures ( e.g., reliability, accuracy, courtesy, competencme, responsiveness) are useful in easuring the effectiveness in meeting customer expectations.Lack of quality can be measured (e.g., error rates ) hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 221: 221 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMTips: 222 Tips hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 223: 223 Stakeholder / Customer Internal Processes Learning and Growth Investments % of facility assets fully funded for upgrading % of IT infrastructure investments approved # of new hire positions authorized for filling % of required contracts awarded and in place Percentage employee absenteeism Hours of absenteeism Job posting response rate Personnel turnover rate Ratio of acceptances to offers Time to fill vacancy Number of unscheduled maintenance calls Production time lost because of maintenance problems Percentage of equipment maintained on schedule Average number of monthly unscheduled outages Mean time between failures Current customer satisfaction level Improvement in customer satisfaction Customer retention rate Frequency of customer contact by customer service Average time to resolve a customer inquiry Number of customer complaints Examples of Measurements by Perspective hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMDesigning Good KPIs: 224 Designing Good KPIs Objectives – what are we trying to achieve? May be more than one indicator for each objective. Each objective will have strategies on how to achieve them. Indicators – what are you going to measure? Used to assess the present state of progress and to suggest an appropriate course of action. Measures – how are you going to measure it? Can be qualitative or quantitative data related to inputs, progresses or outputs. Targets – what is the result that you want? Can be minima targets, stretch targets or a combination. Results – what have you actually achieved? hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMConstructing Good KPIs: 225 Constructing Good KPIs Objectives High quality training / teaching. Indicators Student satisfaction with the training/ teaching they experience. Measures Mean student response per class to the question e.g. Overall, how satisfied are you with this teacher/trainer? On a 1 to 5 Likert-type scale or (IAB- Percentage of satisfaction) Targets At least 3.6 on a 1 to 5 scale, or (IAB- 80%) Best in class compared with benchmark partners. ( Case IAB – INTAN) hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMExample Goal: To provide timely response to undergraduate applicants: 226 Example Goal: To provide timely response to undergraduate applicants Input measure : The number of file managers Output measure : The average number of applications processed per day Outcome measure : The application processing time for applications based on the time from receipt of an application in the Admissions Mail room to the key-in of the admission decision as recorded in PeopleSoft Efficiency measure : The average number of applications processed per file manager per day Quality measure : The satisfaction of applicants with the application processing time as measured by a survey hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMGenerating Performance Measures then Objectives: 227 Generating Performance Measures then Objectives Goal: To provide timely response to undergraduate applicants Objective 1: to increase the productivity of the file managers by 10% PM: Average number of applications processed per file manager per day Objective 2: To reduce the application processing time to less than 14 days for 95% of applications PM: Number of days to process each application hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 228: 228 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMCriteria For Selecting Performances Measures: 229 Criteria For Selecting Performances Measures 1. Linked to strategy 2. Easy to understand 3. Link in a chain of cause and effect. 4. Updated frequently- timely 5. Accessible- data availability hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMCriteria For Selecting Performances Measures: 230 6. Portray the true picture of the process 7. Resistant to “date” – related measures. (An action taken to assure success on the measure- than a measure itself) 8. Quantitative- to ensures any subjective biases are barred from the system. 9. Dysfunctional Criteria For Selecting Performances Measures hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMTips: 231 Tips hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMKAMUS DATA KPI: KAMUS DATA KPI Mengapa ia sangat penting dalam pembinaan dan pengukuran KPI? Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 232Tips: 233 Tips hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 234: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 234Slide 235: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 235Slide 236: 236 PERFORMANCE MEASURE RECORD SHEET Measure A good self explanatory title Purpose Why are we measuring this? Relate to To which top level business object does this relate? Target What is to be achieved and by when? Formula How is this measured? Be precise Frequency How often is this measured and reviewed? Who Measures? Who collects and reports the data? Who acts on the data? Where does the data comes from? What do they do? What are the general steps which should be taken? Notes & Comments (Adapted from Neely et al, 1996) hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 237: 237 PERFORMANCE MEASURE RECORD SHEET Measure Customer complaints Purpose To understand what upsets customers so service and products can be improved Relate to Satisfying customers and retaining their business in the future Target Maintaining a customer complaint level of under 5 per cent per annum. Formula Number of customer complaints Number of orders despatched X 100 Frequency Monthly. Who Measures? Julie Carter, Customer Service Manager. Who acts on the data? Julie Carter, Customer Service Manager. What do they do? Analyse complaints by type, ensure relevant managers are informed of problems in their area and that those managers report back corrective action taken. Flag any major trends for discussion at quarterly management meeting. Notes & Comments A customer complaint is an email, letter or problem highlighted by telephone call to call centre staff which is logged on to the complaints system. hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMTips: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 238 TipsTips: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 239 TipsTen Characteristics of a Good KPI By Wayne Eckerson, Director of Research, TDWI : mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 240 Ten Characteristics of a Good KPI By Wayne Eckerson, Director of Research, TDWI #1. KPIs Reflect Strategic Value Drivers KPIs reflect and measure key drivers of business value. Value drivers represent activities that, when executed properly, guarantee future success. Value drivers move the organization in the right direction to achieve its stated financial and organizational goals. Examples of value drivers might be “high customer satisfaction” or “excellent product quality.” In most cases, KPIs are not financial metrics. Rather, KPIs reflect how well the organization is doing in areas that most impact financial measures valued by shareholders, such as profitability and revenues. As such KPIs are “leading” not “lagging” indicators of financial performance. In contrast, most financial metrics (especially those found in monthly or annual reports) are lagging indicators of performance.Slide 241: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 241 2. KPIs Are Defined by “Top Management” Top management must define value drivers in planning sessions which determine the short- and long-term strategic direction of the organization. To get the most from these value drivers, executives need to define how they want to measure their organizations’ performance against these drivers. Unfortunately, too many top management quit strategic planning sessions before they define and validate these measurements, otherwise known as KPIs. The results are predictable, giving proof to the adage, “You can’t manage what you don’t measure.”Slide 242: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 242 3. KPIs Cascade throughout an Organization All KPIs are based on and tied to the overarching corporate strategy and value drivers. In this way, top-level KPIs cascade throughout an organization, and the data captured by lower-level KPIs roll up to corporate wide KPIs. This linkage among all KPIs, which can be modeled using strategy mapping and reporting at any level of of the organization.Slide 243: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 243 4. KPIs Are Based on Corporate Standards The only way cascading KPIs work is if an organization has established standard measurements. Only with enough top management support can organizations overcome the political obstacles associated with standardizing definitions for commonly used KPIs.Slide 244: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 244 5. KPIs Are Based on Valid Data Before finalize a KPI, they need to ask a technical analyst if the data exists to calculate the metric and whether it’s accurate enough to deliver valid results. Often, the answer is no! In that case, it need either to allocate funds to capture new data or clean existing dirty data. Or they need to revise the KPI.Slide 245: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 245 6. KPIs Must Be Easy to Comprehend One problem with most KPIs is that there are too many of them. As a result, they lose their power to grab the attention of employees and modify behavior. According to TDWI research, the median number of KPIs that organizations deploy per user is seven. More KPIs than this makes it difficult for employees to peruse them all and take requisite action. In addition, KPIs must be understandable. Employees must know what’s being measured, how it’s being calculated, and, more importantly, what they should do (and shouldn’t do) to positively affect the KPI. This means it is not enough to simply publish a scorecard; you must train individuals whose performance is being tracked and follow up with regular reviews to ensure they understand and are acting accordingly. As one IT manager said, “Measurements without meetings is useless.”Slide 246: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 246 7 KPIs Are Always Relevant To ensure that KPIs continually boost performance, you need to periodically audit the KPIs to determine usage and relevance. If a KPI isn’t being looked at, it should probably be discarded or rewritten. In most cases, KPIs have a natural lifecycle. When first introduced, the KPI energizes the workforce and performance improves. Over time, KPIs lose their impact and should probably be revised. Most organizations review and revise KPIs quarterlySlide 247: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 247 8. KPIs Provide Context Metrics always show a number that reflects performance. But a KPI puts that performance in context. It evaluates the performance according to expectations. The context is provided using 1) thresholds (i.e. upper and lower ranges of acceptable performance), or 2) targets (i.e. predefined gains, such as 10% new customers per quarter), or 3) benchmarks, which can be based on industrywide measures or various methodologies, such as Six Sigma. In addition, most KPIs indicate the direction of the performance, either “up,” “down,” or “static.”Slide 248: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 248 9. KPIs Empower Users To be effective, KPIs must be reinforced with incentives. Almost 40 percent of organizations surveyed by TDWI say they restructured incentives systems when implementing KPIs. However, it’s important not to link incentives to KPIs until the KPIs have been fully vetted. The business process needs to empower users to take the appropriate action in response to KPIs. The last thing you want is informed but powerless users. That’s a recipe for disillusionment and poor morale. Forty percent of organizations said they modified business processes when implementing KPIs, according to TDWI research.Slide 249: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 249 10. KPIs Lead to Positive Action Finally, KPIs should generate the intended action—improved performance. Unfortunately, many organizations allow groups to create KPIs in isolation. This leads to KPIs that undermine each other. For example, a KPI for a retail store might track stock outs (when it lacks enough merchandise on hand to meet demand) but the regional warehouse has an incentive to carry minimal inventory. If the regional warehouse does too good a job, it may not have enough inventory to keep the retail shelves stocked when there is a surge in demand for certain merchandise. Another problem is human nature. People will always try to circumvent KPIs and find loopholes to minimize their effort and maximize their performance and rewards. Good KPIs are vetted before deployed and closely monitored to ensure they engender the intended consequences.Define Targets: How Will We Know We Are There?: Define Targets: How Will We Know We Are There? mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 250What is target?: What is target? Targets are quantified and time-based Target: Desired level of performance *a performance measure (e.g., % of customer satisfaction target = 95%) (source: Balanced Scorecard Institute, USA. 2005) * Remember to set the baselines or take of values (TOV)/ a point to start measurement) mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 251Why Do it?: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 252 Why Do it? 1. to make objectives explicit and tangible 2. to quantify the expected value of the strategy 3. to motivate desired behaviors 4. to set timing for performance-improvement expectations 5. to calibrate strategic evaluation and learningWhat To Do: What To Do mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 253Slide 254: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 254 1. Choose the Right Achievement Targets Potential areas to consider when setting targets: 1. TOV or Baselines and trends 2. National, state, local or Education Standards. 3. Benchmarking 4. Feedback from customers and stakeholdersSlide 255: 2. Understand the predictive (lead) and outcomes Metrics 3. Review the existing portfolio of metrics 4. Listen the voices of customer,stakeholders and others 5. Consider Noneconomic 6. Be careful with expensive benchmarking mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 255The most useful targets don’t come out of thin air: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 256 The most useful targets don’t come out of thin airTip (target): mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 257 Tip (target)Tips: 258 Tips hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMTips: 259 Tips hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 260: 260 Tips (Stacey Barr,2006) When you are setting a target, involve the people that will participate in achieving it. It more motivating if you set a series of staged targets that give you more managable milestones to achieve which collectively work up to the ultimate target. If you are writing goals or objective statements, a good recipe is: the strategic direction + KPI + target + timeframe. hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 261: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 261Step 6: The step six is…: mbam@copyright Step 6: The step six is … develop strategies for each objective in step five . Strategies are statements of major approach or method for attaining objectives and resolving specific issues. The information from organizational analysis is important for strategy development. Print out the strategic plan and present the draft strategic plan for review by all staff to get more wide participation and to create a ‘sense of ownership among all staff, which is needed to build commitment during implementation of the plan.Slide 263: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 263Slide 264: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 264Slide 265: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 265Slide 266: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 266Design Template with Balanced Scorecard Designer software: Design Template with Balanced Scorecard Designer software Balanced Scorecard TemplatesFinancial Indicators: Financial Indicators Finance Objectives Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Measures Targets InitiativesCustomer Indicators: Customer Indicators Finance Objectives Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Measures Targets InitiativesInternal Indicators: Internal Indicators Finance Objectives Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Measures Targets InitiativesEducation Indicators: Education Indicators Finance Objectives Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Measures Targets InitiativesSlide 272: Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 272 CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE KRA: … Strategic Objective Strategic Measures (2011, 2012,2013) Strategic Initiatives 2011 Strategic Initiatives Accountability KPI Target KPI Owner C1. C1.1 Tov :: 2011: 2012: 2013: C1.2 BL: NEW ST: LTSlide 273: 273 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 273 MATLAMAT STRATEGIK OBJEKTIF KPI SASARAN PRESTASI BIDANG: KURIKULUM TOV (08) 09 10 11 12 13 Meningkatkan kecemerlangan akademik Meningkatka Pencapaian Cemerlang dalam PMR, SPM dan STPM 1. Peratus (%) Kelulusan Peperiksaan PMR 2. (% As) 3. ( Gred Purata ) 80.9 82.0 84.0 90.0 95.0 100 % Kelulusan SPM (% As) ( Gred Purata ) 94.8 96.0 97.0 98.0 99.0 100 % Kelulusan STPM (% As) ( Gred Purata ) 97.5 98.0 100 100 100 100 Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Slide 274: 274 mbam@IAB.MOE 07 274 ISU STRATEGIK BIDANG KURIKULUM MATLAMAT STRATEGIK OBJEKTIF KPI SASARAN PRESTASI TOV 07 08 09 2010 Pencapaian akademik murid masih lagi belum cemerlang. Meningkatkan kecemerlangan pencapaian akademik pelajar Meningkatkan kelulusan peperiksaan UPSR dan bilangan pelajar mendapat 5A 1. % kelulusan Peperiksaan 2. % pelajar mendapat 5A 3. GPS 91.7 % 33% 94% 35% 97% 37% 99% 39% 100% 40% BIDANG ISU STRATEGIK MATLAMAT STRATEGIK KPI SASARAN PRESTASI TOV 07 08 09 2010 KO-KURIKULUM Pencapaian kokurikulum masih lagi di tahap minimum Memastikan pencapaian kokurikulum mencapai tahap yang cemerlang. Bilangan pelajar mencapai kejayaan -peringkat Negeri 3 7 11 13 15 Objektif jangka panjang : 15 orang pelajar mencapai kejayaan peringkat negeri pada tahun 2010 Objektif jangka pendek : 7 orang pelajar mencapai kejayaan peringkat negeri pada tahun 2007 ISU STRATEGIK, MATLAMAT STRATEGIK, KPI, OBJEKTIF & SASARAN Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Slide 275: Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 275 STAKEHOLDER PERSPECTIVE Strategic Objective Strategic Measures (ST–2010; LT-2015; BL-2006) Strategic Initiatives 2007 Strategic Initiatives Accountability KPI Target ST / LT KPI Owner S1. Produce well-rounded personalities and employable graduates S1.1 Rating of IERS for students BL: NEW ST/LT: 80% DR-S&AA Finalize IERS survey for students as the focus target audience Department of Psychology IRKHS by end of May 2007 S1.2 Percentage of graduates employed at the point of convocation BL: 60.87% ST: 70% LT: 80% DR-S&AA As per Office of DR-S&AA Balanced Scorecard 2007-2010 1. Enhance entrepreneurship as employment option Student Bazaar Create opportunities through strategic partnerships 2. Finishing School Programme as graduation requirement ACSD, S-DEVSlide 276: Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 276 CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE Strategic Objective Strategic Measures (ST–2010; LT-2015; BL-2006) Strategic Initiatives 2007 Strategic Initiatives Accountability KPI Target ST / LT KPI Owner C1. Achieve status as a leading international academic & research institution imbued with Islamic values C1.1 World University Ranking according to Times Higher Education Supplement (THES) ST: Top 500 LT: Top 200 Rector IIUM representatives in the OIC secretariat to play active role in the discussion of the OIC university ranking criteria Highlight the following in the IIUM website: academic linkages with reputable universities of the world important international experts’ engagement with the IIUM achievements of IIUM staff and students Published articles in top journals Books published by international publishers IIUM representatives in the OIC Secretariat ITD/PRO C1.2 University Ranking among the OIC countries BL: NEW ST: Top 25 LT: Top 10 RectorTake 5!: 277 Take 5! Next: Cascading Down KPI hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMMY KEY ROLES: MY KEY ROLES In order to achieve my mission, the following key roles have top priority: Wife: My wife is the most important person in my life. Father : I want to promote the capabilities and creativity of my children continuously and to help them reach a happy existence. Muslim: God (Allah) can count on me to keep my duty towards others. Manager: Help the organization (IAB, KPM) where I work become successful and by doing this serve society/nation. Student: I want to learn something new every day, I will always be a scholar. Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM 278Critical Success Areas & Factors of M.Bustaman: Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM Critical Success Areas & Factors of M.Bustaman 279 Financial Perspective External Perspective Financial health Extra Income Be appreciated by family, friends, colleagues, and employer Deliver high-quality work Internal Perspective Learning Perspective working together harmoniously, helping each other, inspiring others, and sharing knowledge with each other Strive for physical and mental health Take initiative , learn from my mistakes, continuously improve and develop myself Learn something new every day and always be a scholarKRA, Objectives, KPI & Target of M Bustaman PDP: Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM KRA, Objectives, KPI & Target of M Bustaman PDP 280 KRA (Financial) Objectives KPI Target Financial health More earnings Reliable future earnings Curbing spending Salary increase Employment contract Pension Disability insurance Ratio of income to spending At least 5 % per year From temporary ( as acting manager ) to permanent employment contract ( for unlimited time ) within two years 13% of gross salary 5% of gross salary Increase of at least 5% within tow years KRA (External) Being appreciated by family, friends, colleagues, and employer Being appreciate by life companion Being appreciated by own children Being appreciated by friends Number of times being together in a charming atmosphere Being cared for own children Number of real friends At least once a week Every time there is an occasion for it Increase depending on the circumstancesKRA, Objectives, KPI & Target of M Bustaman PDP: Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM KRA, Objectives, KPI & Target of M Bustaman PDP 281 KRA (External) Objectives KPI Target Deliver high- quality work Being appreciated by employer Improved level of satisfaction of employees Greater trust of my employer in fulfillment of my job Level of reward Number of authorities Degree of satisfaction of employees Level of satisfaction of employer Increase at least 5% per year Increase of 25% within two years At least 80% within 1,5 years At least 80% within 1.5 years KRA (Internal) Working together harmoniously, helping each other, inspiring each other and sharing knowledge with each other Strive for physical and mental health Improvement level of satisfaction from others with respect to teamwork and personal contact Satisfaction Physically healthy and mentally strong More time off Enjoying the good things in life Perception score from others with regard to teamwork and personal contacts Helping others Percent of sick leave Level of tension Level of immunity to stress Number of paid vacation days a year enjoyment At least 80% within 2 years To be determined Less than 2 % in 1 year Decrease by at least 50% in 2 years Decrease by at least 50% in 2 years At least 17 days To be determinedSlide 282: Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM 282Step 7: Step 7 Cascading KPISlide 285: 285 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMAlignment: Alignment by Soichiro Honda-Honda Motors: 1. Craft a vision: what we will be 2. Create goals and performance measures: What 4 or 5 things we must do to get there 3. Alignment: Translate the work of each person into alignment with the goals. hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM 286Slide 287: 287 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 288: 288 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMCascading KPI: Cascading KPI 289 Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 114 Keys to Cascading organisation KPIs to Individuals : 4 Keys to Cascading organisation KPIs to Individuals Key #1: Don't cascade by duplicating the measure, cascade by building the cause-effect chain. If a corporate goal is customers satisfaction, then ask "what makes customers satisfied?" to determine the first level of cascading. You might end up with things like attracting more answers. Cascade to the next level (say, teams), ask "what makes it possible to improve customers satisfaction?". Keep this line of questioning until you reach individuals and their contribution to the cause-effect chain hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM 290Key #2: Key #2 Only cascade to where it counts, to where there is highest leverage to achieve the corporate goal. . Keep asking "where is the greatest leverage?" hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM 291Key #3: Key #3 : Document the cascading cause-effect links, to build a map or story of the organisation's strategy. It will make it easier to test the logic of cause-effect, and to communicate throughout the organisation what matters and why. Maps bring everything together, so you can see the whole, not just the parts. And you can start seeing something more than the cascading - you can see the collaboration! hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM 292Key #4: : Key #4: Involve people in the process of determing their "line of sight" to corporate goals. We find the most meaning in things we take part in discovering and creating. People throughout your organisation will not only have the best idea of how they contribute to organisation goals, but they will also have many times better buy-in if they take part in the cascading process hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM 293PELAN TAKTIKAL BAGI STRATEGI 1: 294 PELAN TAKTIKAL BAGI STRATEGI 1 NAMA STRATEGI Menggunakan hubungan baik dengan ibu bapa bagi meningkatkan keberkesanan aktiviti kemahiran belajar murid. BIL PROGRAM/ PROJEK T/JAWAB TEMPOH/TARIKH KOS/ SUMBER OUT- PUT KPI PELAN KONTIGENSI 1 Program Maju Diri GPK HEM 3 hari Januari Setiap tahun RM500.00 PIBG Murid lebih berkeyakinan Bilangan murid yang berubah sikap dan minat belajar Ceramah 2 Bengkel Kemahiran belajar GBSM 2 hari Mac Setiap tahun RM300.00 KAUNSELING Murid menguasai kemahiran belajar % pencapaian dalam ujian bulanan Edaran bahan bengkel Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Slide 295: 295 Nama Projek : Program Kita Sekata Sejiwa antara Pihak sekolah, ibu bapa dan masyarakat setempat LANGKAH PROSES KERJA T/JAWAB KPI Sasaran Prestasi 1 Mesyuarat staf dan AJK PIBG 1.1 Ucapan GB 1.2 Bentang kertas konsep 1.3 Lantik AJK 1.4 Agih tugas 1.5 Tetap tarikh 1.6 Bincang kos 1.7 Jemputan 1.8 Hal-hal lain GB GPK HEM YDP PIBG Bilangan hari 1 hari 2 Surat mesyuarat Jemputan kepada ibu bapa dan guru Kaunselor Profesional PPD ( Perasmian) AJK Setiausaha Bilangan hari 7 hari 3 Publisiti JK publisiti Bilangan hari 7 hari 4 Aturcara majlis urusetia Bilangan hari 1 hari CONTOH PELAN OPERASI & KPI Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Slide 296: Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 296 ANGGOTA ALIRAN KERJA MASA SEBENAR(MINIT) CONTOH KPI DAN SASARAN PRESTASI UNTUK PERKHIDMATAN PENGELUARAN PASPORT MALAYSIA Terima dan semak permohonan 5 Sah dokumen dan lulus 3 Terima bayaran 2 Tangkap imej 1 Cetak muka surat utama 2 Laminate 1 Kepastian cip dan cetak muka surat pemerhatian 2 Encoding 1 Sah keluar 2 Serahan 11 JUMLAH SEBENAR: 30 minit 9 PI 5 PIT 9 PI 3 PI 3 PI 3 PI 3 PI 1 PI 4 PI 3 PISlide 297: 297 Perkhidmatan KPI Sasaran Perkhidmatan Pengeluaran Pasport Malaysia Untuk mengukur Kecekapan Proses Tempoh masa menunggu untuk mendapat perkhidmatan di kaunter penerimaan 1 jam Tempoh layanan semasa menerima perkhidmatan di kaunter - Penerimaan borang permohonan - Penerimaan Bayaran & resit 8 minit 2 minit Tempoh kitaran mengeluar dan menyerahkan paport 24 jam Peratus kesilapan pasport yang dikeluarkan 0% kesilapan Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Slide 298: 298 Perkhidmatan KPI Sasaran Perkhidmatan Pengeluaran Pasport Malaysia Untuk Mengukur Keberkesanan Proses Bilangan pengeluaran pasport sehari Masa produktif: 34 orang X 7 jam X 60 minit =14,280 minit Masa sebenar bagi 1 permohonan = 30 minit ( rujuk carta aliran ) Bilangan pasport yang boleh dikeluarkan: 14,280 = 476 30 476 passport /hari Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Slide 299: Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 299Contoh cascading KPI: Contoh cascading KPI Dari pelan strategik hingga ke SKT individu Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 300Slide 301: 301 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 302: 302 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMStep 8: The step eight is implementing the strategic plan: mbam@copyright Step 8: The step eight is implementing the strategic plan (a) deploy or communicate the plan, (b) put the plan into operation. Issues : 1. Leadership. 2. Communication 3. Managing change 4. Teambuilding Future Plans for Performance Management: Future Plans for Performance ManagementEXECUTION PREMIUM: EXECUTION PREMIUM Marff Resources Sdn Bhd@2009 305 Source: Palladium GroupSummary : The IIUM’s EXECUTION PREMIUM: Summary : The IIUM’s EXECUTION PREMIUM Pre-BSC (2003) Post BSC (2008) Static approach Mission & Vision not clear Strategic Planning – once a year activity Strategy not easily understood Multiple strategic initiatives - objectives unclear - implementation success variable - departmental focus Dynamic approach Mission & vision sustainable Strategy management – quarterly review Strategic themes clear Programs of initiatives by theme Initiatives managed and monitored by CSQA - Issues resolved proactivelySlide 307: 307 Tracking of KPIs and exploring tracking mechanisms What performance measures won’t tell you? Cultural obstacles/barriers to performance management of public sector Dealing with resistance to performance measurement Major pitfalls of measurement systems Implementation tips Implementation Issues hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMTen Commandments in BSC Implementation: 308 Ten Commandments in BSC Implementation Do: - Know what you hope to achieve. - Use the scorecard for implementation of strategic goals. - Ensure goals are in place before the scorecard is implemented. - Ensure that at least one top-level non-financial sponsor and line manager back the project. - Implement a pilot before introduction. - Carry out a pilot for each business unit before implementation Don't: - Use the scorecard for top-down control. - Standardize the project with ready-made scorecards. - Ignore training and communication. - Overcomplicate the process or strive for perfection. - Underestimate the extra administrative workload and cost. - Leave the process to accountants or without top-down support. hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 309: 309 Make a commitment to measure performance and get started. Although several participants emphasized this, one stated it best, "You just need to start and don't expect it to be perfect." Treat performance measurement as an ongoing process. Performance measurement is an iterative process that progresses but has no end. An organization's commitment to performance measurement is a tacit agreement to continually build, change, and improve. Tailor the process to your organization. An organization must develop performance measures that complement its culture size, mission, vision, organizational level, and management structure as well as its goals and objectives. Implementation Tips hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 310: 310 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMStep 9: The step nine is monitoring and controlling the implementation of plan: mbam@copyright Step 9: The step nine is monitoring and controlling the implementation of plan (a) control the process (b) arrange an internal audit, to determine how closely the performance matches the plan, (c) arrange a management review meeting, (d) take corrective action where needed, align the plan and undertake a continuous improvement process. (e) arrange an audit of external environmental development, (f) maintain as quality records the results of process control measures, to provide evidence of effective operation and monitoring of the process.Kesimpulan: Kesimpulan mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 312REPORTING: 313 REPORTING hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 314: 314 KAEDAH BALANCE SCORECARD PERSPEKTIF Pencapaian Sebenar Target Matlamat Strategik Objektif KPI Unit Pengukuran 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2006-2010 M1 M1-O1 M1-O2 M1-O3 M2 M2-O1 M2-O2 M2-O3 M2-O4 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 315: 315 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 316: 316 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 317: 317 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 318: 318 MISI VISI BORANG PENGUKURAN PRESTASI DAN MAKLUM BALAS Objektif KPI Tov Sasaran Prestasi Sebenar Ulasan MATLAMAT: hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 319: 319 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMTips: 320 Tips hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPM10 Reasons Why KPI Systems Do Not Succeed in Public Sectors: 321 10 Reasons Why KPI Systems Do Not Succeed in Public Sectors Staff believe top management imposes a system under political pressure or merely because it is the managerial fashion to have one. The real purpose of the organization escapes definition. The staff who have to contribute indicators cannot see their relevance to their working life. Too many, too complicated, too incomprehensible. What is measured is not necessarily important, only measurable. Managers do not use the indicators to improve work, only compile them. Staff forget about them, until it is time for the annual returns. The available data is not reliable, or not sufficient, or too expensive to collect. The results are disappointing, and are suppressed. The KPI system is treated as an end in itself, not as means to an end. hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 322: 322 hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMTypical Balanced Scorecard Project Schedule: Task 1: Define Strategic Architecture Project Kickoff Task 2: Draft the Balanced Scorecard Workshop I Task 3: Develop Measures, High Level Targets & Initiatives Workshop II Task 4: Develop Implementation Plan Workshop III Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 2 Wks 4 Wks 4 Wks 2 Wks Typical Balanced Scorecard Project ScheduleHow are Organizations Doing on the Journey? : How are Organizations Doing on the Journey? A survey of online members of the BSCol: 500 responses; 250 reported, “Yes, we have BSC.” 50% of these: too early to tell about impact. Of the 125 who had sufficient experience with the program: Achieved breakthrough results 15% (n = 19) Some progress 64% (n = 80) No or limited results 21% (n = 26)What Separates the Winners from the Losers?: What Separates the Winners from the Losers?For SPMS to success: For SPMS to success mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 326Slide 327: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 327Slide 328: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 328Slide 329: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 329Main References: mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 330 Main References 1. Allison and Kaye. (2003) Strategic Planning for Public and Non-profit Organizations . San Francisco: John Wiley & Son, Inc. 2. Bryson, J.M. (2004). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations: A guide to strengthening and sustaining organizational achievement 3 rd ed . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 3. Hairuddin.M.A. & Muhamad Bustaman.A.M. (2007) Perancangan Strategik Pembangunan Sekolah: Memperkasa dan Melonjakkan Kecemerlangan Institusi Pendidikan. Genting Highlands, Pahang: Institut Aminuddin Baki, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. 4. Kaplan & Norton. (1996) Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy Into Action. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. 5. Kaplan & Norton. (2004) Strategy Maps: Converting Intangible Assets Into Tangible Outcomes . Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. 6. Kaplan & Norton. (2006) Alignment: Using the Balanced Scorecard to Create Corporate Synergies. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. 7. Miller, B.A. (2007) Assessing Organizational Performance in Higher Education . San Francisco: John Wiley & Son, Inc. 8. Niven, P.R. (2003). Balanced Scorecard: Step-by-step for Government and Nonprofit Agencies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 9. Sevier, R. (2000). Strategic Planning for Higher Education Institution. Chicago, USA.Tahniah, bagi pihak Pengarah IAB, Tuan/Puan layak untuk mendapat sijil kehadiran kursus BSC: 331 Tahniah, bagi pihak Pengarah IAB, Tuan/Puan layak untuk mendapat sijil kehadiran kursus BSC hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMSlide 332: 332 THANK YOU From Muhd Bustaman Abdul Manaf Institute Aminuddin Baki Ministry of Education bustaman@ iab.edu.my 0199890524 Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Slide 333: 333 SEKIAN, TERIMA KASIH Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11Apakah yang dimaksudkan Key Performance Indicators (KPI)?: Apakah yang dimaksudkan Key Performance Indicators (KPI)? KPI adalah pengukuran kuantitatif , yang dipersetujui oleh organisasi dalam proses perancangan yang mencerminkan faktor-faktor penentu kejayaan organisasi . Alat untuk memberi maklumat bagi pihak pengurusan organisasi mengawal operasinya untuk mencapai sesuatu objektif yang telah ditetapkan . Hak Cipta mbustamanIAB 11 334 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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