Improving Hatchery Output of Pink Snapper, Opakapaka: Final Report

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Improving the Hatchery Output of the Hawaiian Pink Snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus to Meet Stock Enhancement and Open Ocean Aquaculture Expectations – Year 1 and Year 2:

Improving the Hatchery Output of the Hawaiian Pink Snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus to Meet Stock Enhancement and Open Ocean Aquaculture Expectations – Year 1 and Year 2 Dr. Clyde S. Tamaru, HIMB/CTAHR Dr. Petra Lenz. Pacific Biomedical Research Center (PBRC) Karen Brittain, Benjamin Alexander HIMB James Jackson, Dept. of Zoology.

Project at a Glance:

Project at a Glance Project Period Year 1: October 1, 2008 – March 31, 2010 Year 2: April 1, 2010 – March 30, 2011 Funding Level Year 1: $24,000 Year 2: $ 24,000 Participants Clyde S. Tamaru, Principal Investigator , (CTAHR) Petra Lenz, Co-PI, (PBRC). Michael J. Cooney (SOEST) Karen Brittain : (HIMB) Benjamin Alexander (HIMB) James Jackson, Department of Zoology.

Slide 3:

Commercial Landings in 2009 for the “Big Seven” Source: Division of Aquatic Resources Total Landings for Bottom Fishery: 512,284 lbs From Big 7 = 335,396 lbs 65.5%

Slide 4:

Notification of the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council (WPRFC) of the “over fishing” status: (June 15, 2005, 70 FR34452) Despite the management efforts the bottomfish fishery in the main Hawaiian islands is given an “Overfishing Status” Secretary of Commerce issues #70 FR34452 Under federal mandate the WPRFC has one year to develop measures to end overfishing Reauthorization Act 2006

Slide 5:

Deep 7 bottomfish fishery closes March 12, 2011 The Deep 7 bottomfish fishery will close March 12, 2011 and bottomfish cannot be caught, retained, or sold from March 12 through August 31, 2011. Source: http://hawaii.gov/dlnr/dar/fishing_bottom.html

One of the benefits of the previous projects is a captive spawning broodstock that has been spawning since 2001:

One of the benefits of the previous projects is a captive spawning broodstock that has been spawning since 2001

Slide 7:

CTSA Project Objectives Year 1 and Year 2 Objective 1: Improve survivorship and growth of opakapaka larvae through improvements in live feeds through controlled feeding trials, and complementary observations on foraging behavior Objective 2: Increase hatchery output by improving other tank conditions. Objective 3: Transfer developed technology to appropriate end users.

Slide 8:

80 hours = 3.3 days posthatching Temporal changes in total length between fed and unfed first feeding larvae.

Slide 9:

Larval mouth gape according to the formula: _________ S G = √(L UJ 2 + L LJ 2 ) as presented in Shirota (1970) and later modified by Guma’a (1978). 102 hours = 4.25 days posthatch 80 hours = 3.3 days posthatch Temporal changes In gape size of fed or unfed opakapaka larvae.

Slide 10:

Impact of copepod nauplii on first feeding larval survival

Slide 11:

Principal Accomplishments: Demonstrated impact of copepod nauplii on growth

Slide 12:

Principal Accomplishments: Demonstrated impact of copepod nauplii on gape size

Small Temporal & Spatial Scale Feeding Rate Trials:

Small Temporal & Spatial Scale Feeding Rate Trials 100ml seawater in beaker 10 P. filamentosus larvae (1/10ml) 100 copepod nauplii (1/ml) 3 hrs Count Remaining Naupli i light & dark treatments w/ 3 replicates each Larvae: 5 days post-hatch = 2 nd day of feeding

Slide 14:

Treatments Light Dark Principal Accomplishments: Demonstrated impact of light on copepod nauplii consumed

Methods: Feeding Experiments:

Methods: Feeding Experiments P. crassirostris sorted into 3 developmental classes or “types” Nauplius (NI-NIII) 60-110 µm Copepodite (CI-CIII) 200-290 µm Adult (CVI) 300-400 µm Presented to 10 larvae in 18x18x10 cm container Filmed for 60 min

P. crassirostris Prey Characteristics:

P. crassirostris Prey Characteristics Increase in size: 60 - 400 µm Increase in escape jump speed: 35 mm s -1 - 150 mm s -1 Increase in sensory capability: reactive distance  2.4 - 3.1 mm response time  4 - 3 ms 150µm Nauplius Copepodite Adult

Video Clip showing successful and unsuccessful feeding by opakapaka larvae:

Video Clip showing successful and unsuccessful feeding by opakapaka larvae

Slide 18:

Video footage used to characterize effect of age on capture success of opakapaka larvae fed copepod nauplii only.

Slide 19:

Effect of age on rate of capture success when fed nauplii and copepodites.

Slide 20:

Effect of age on capture success when fed nauplii or rotifers in single-prey type assemblages

Nutritional value of feeds versus opakapaka eggs:

Nutritional value of feeds versus opakapaka eggs Copepod nauplii Adult copepod Rotifer Opakapaka Egg

Technology Transfer:

Technology Transfer Publications: Tamaru , C.S., J. Jackson, P. Lentz. 2010. Update on the hatchery production of the opakapaka , Pritipomoides filamentosus . Aquatips , Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture. Volume 2: Issue 6. June 2010. Presentations: Jackson, J., P. Lenz, C. S. Tamaru and J. Brock. 2010. Paracalanid copepod ( Parvocalanus crassirostris ) as a first feed for the rearing of larval Hawaiian pink snapper ( Pristipomoides filamentosus ). Tester’s Symposium. March 17-19, 2010. Tamaru, C.S., P. Lenz, J. Jackson and K. Brittain . 2010. Improving the Hatchery Output of the Hawaiian Pink Snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus to Meet Stock Enhancement and Open Ocean Aquaculture Expectations – Year 1. Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture Annual Progress Report to the Public, May 28, 2010, Oceanic Institute Learning Center. Jackson J. 2011. Larval Clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris Predatory Success and Selectivity when Preying on the Calanoid Copepod Parvocalanus crassirostris . Master of Science Thesis Defense. Department of Zoology, May 18, 2011.

First Feeding of Opakapaka Larvae has been successfully achieved.:

First Feeding of Opakapaka Larvae has been successfully achieved. Transitioning to a second (bridge) live food organism(s) remains a challenge…..

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