Establishing Bivalve Culture in Hawaii: Final Report

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“Developing Bivalve Culture to Diversify and Position Hawaii as a Supplier of Safe, Premium, Edible Shellfish Products.”:

“Developing Bivalve Culture to Diversify and Position Hawaii as a Supplier of Safe, Premium, Edible Shellfish Products.” Robert Howerton University of Hawai`i Sea Grant College Program Maria Haws Pacific Aquaculture and Coastal Resources Center University of Hawai`i Hilo

Support and Cooperators:

Support and Cooperators Support- Maui County Office of Economic Development, CTSA, USDA, University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, NOAA, PACRC, University of Hawaii-Hilo Industry cooperators: Paepae `O He`eia, The Hawaiian Learning Center, Keawanui Farms, Kualoa Ranch

Overview:

Overview Constraints Opportunities Objectives Development of native species Growout trials Accomplishments

Constraints:

Constraints Hawai`i is only coastal state without a bivalve industry. Hawai`i shellfish sanitation plan does not include classification of growing grounds Hawai`i does not have a FDA-certified laboratory for E. coli analysis No native bivalve species have been developed for culture Many unknowns about suitability of grow-out conditions

Opportunities:

Opportunities DOH now committed to addressing gaps in state shellfish sanitation plan FDA-certification of laboratory Implement classification of shellfish growing grounds Clean waters Good locations Dozens of potential species Multi-cultural population/visitors with diverse tastes Several major bivalve hatcheries Problems in other regions, e.g. ocean acidification, pollution, diseases, recent oil spill

Objectives:

Objectives Establish a shellfish working group Conduct spawning trials on indigenous species Identify grow out sites (Moloka`i and Oahu) Work with state agencies responsible for shellfish sanitation Determine if permits can be obtained for non- native species Transfer bivalve culture technology

Accomplishments:

Accomplishments

Shellfish working group (convened by CTSA) :

Shellfish working group (convened by CTSA)

PACRC bivalve hatchery:

PACRC bivalve hatchery Bivalve greenhouse

Hatchery trials:

Hatchery trials Hawaiian Oyster ( Dendrostrea sandvicensis ) 25 spawns 10,000 to 50,000 larvae Successful settling of spat Hawaiian Clams ( Tellina palatum ) Conditioning trials Pearl oysters ( Pinctada margaritifera )

Multiple native species identified for culture :

Multiple native species identified for culture Criteria Size Taste Appearance Demand Ease of culture (hatchery and grow-out) Price

Indigenous Species:

Indigenous Species Dendostrea sandvicensis Spondylus sp. Pen shells -Atrina spp. and Pinna spp. Tellina palatum

Hawaiian Oysters (Dendrostrea sandvicensis):

Hawaiian Oysters (Dendrostrea sandvicensis )

Grow out trials at four sites:

Grow out trials at four sites Moloka`i Keawanui fishpond Keawanui Farms (marine shrimp) Oahu He`eia fishpond Moli`i fishpond

Slide 15:

Island of Moloka`i

Keawanui Fishpond:

Keawanui Fishpond

Keawanui Farms:

Keawanui Farms

Heei`a Fishpond O`ahu:

Heei`a Fishpond O`ahu

Moli`i pond at Kualoa Ranch:

Moli`i pond at Kualoa Ranch

Grow-out trials:

Grow-out trials Non-native, established species used for pilot Permits obtained Native species trials to start in Year 2 Spat provided by Taylor Shellfish Hatchery Pacific Oyster ( Crassostrea gigas ) Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum )

Grow out trials:

Grow out trials

Grow out trial results-oysters :

Grow out trial results-oysters DVM (mm) Width (mm) % survival Months grow-out time He`eia N/A 0 5 Moli`i 35.8 ± 2.3 23.9 ± 1.1 ~90% 2 Keawanui pond 80.5 + 0.2 51.2 + 0.9 2 7 Keawanui shrimp farm 61.8 ± 0.8 39.1 ± 0.7 ~75% 7

C. gigas after 4 months grow-out at Moli`i Fishpond:

C. gigas after 4 months grow-out at Moli`i Fishpond

Grow out trial results-clams :

Grow out trial results-clams DVM (mm) Width (mm) % survival Months grow-out time He`eia 10.4 + 0.1 18.3 + 0.1 85 5 Moli`i 13.1 ± 0.3 24.3 ± 6.3 ~90% 2 Keawanui pond 15.0 + 0.3 26.3 + 4.5 57 7 Keawanui shrimp farm NA NA NA 7

Issues:

Issues Growth appears related to nutrient levels Stocking densities may have been too high Crab predation Some loss due to wave action

Second Growth Trial:

Second Growth Trial Repeated trials with new grow-out containers (aquapurses) Lowered stocking densities Stocked new areas in ponds that may be more nutrient rich

Oyster growth at Keawanui Pond using aquapurses:

Oyster growth at Keawanui Pond using aquapurses

Second Grow-out Trial of oysters at Keawanui Fishpond using aquapurses:

Second Grow-out Trial of oysters at Keawanui Fishpond using aquapurses Food

Acknowledgments:

Acknowledgments Supporters and cooperators: Paepae `O He`eia , The Hawaiian Learning Center, Keawanui Farms, Kualoa Ranch, Hawaiian Shellfish LLC, Taylor United, DOH, DLNR Walter Ritte, Kalaniua Ritte, Hano Naehu , Hi`ilei Kawelo, Keli`i Kotubetey, John Austin, Bruce Anderson, Lauren Carter-Roth Venu , Greg Jakob , Roberto Quintana, Kevin Hopkins, Sharon Ziegler-Chong

Acknowledgments:

Acknowledgments USDA-CTSA Maui County Office of Economic Development University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program University of Hawaii-Maui College Pacific Aquaculture and Coastal Resources Center/UHH Hawaii County Office of Research and Development

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