Yellow Tang: Year 2 Final Report

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Development of captive culture technology for the yellow tang CTSA Progress Report to the Public May 28, 2011:

Development of captive culture technology for the yellow tang CTSA Progress Report to the Public May 28, 2011 Charles W. Laidley Finfish Department Oceanic Institute Waimanalo, Hawaii

Background:

Background Development of captive culture technology for yellow tang and other high-value reef species is imperative to protect our increasingly threatened coral reef ecosystems Captive production technologies will also provide new economic opportunities associated with the world-wide trade in marine ornamental species

Slide 3:

Project Objectives Year 1: 1) Establish appropriate holding system/conditions for maintaining spawning stocks of yellow tang. 2) Develop appropriate diet to maintain broodstock condition and produce high quality eggs. 3) Establish early larval rearing system to maximize larval hatch and early (pre-feeding) survival. Year 2: 4) Identify suitable first feed for yellow tang larvae. 5) Scale-up culture of identified first feed to level required for conducting replicated larviculture trials. 6) Develop larviculture feeding regimen suitable for rearing yellow tang larvae through metamorphosis. Year 3: 7) Develop suitable methods to transition yellow tang into juvenile settlement phase. 8) Establish suitable feeds and holding system to ensure juvenile quality suitable for marine ornamental wholesale market. 9) Transfer technology to industry through workshops, conference presentations, and publication in CTSA Regional Notes.

Objective No. 1: Establish appropriate holding system and conditions for maintaining spawning stocks of yellow tang :

Objective No. 1: Establish appropriate holding system and conditions for maintaining spawning stocks of yellow tang Broodstock recruited through commercial collectors Broodstock condition was improved when maintained in ocean water RAS compared with flow through well water Water treatment systems include vacuum degassing, particulate filter with glass media, sumps, pumps, biofilter , protein skimmer, UV sterilizer and heat pump (see photos)

Objective No. 2: Develop appropriate diet to maintain broodstock condition and produce high quality eggs :

Objective No. 2: Develop appropriate diet to maintain broodstock condition and produce high quality eggs Yellow tang are fed a range of ingredients including ornamental pellet diet, Nori and raw squid and shrimp Broodstock spawn in a cyclical fashion with increased egg production centered on each full moon Stocks have yielded increasing egg production and much improved egg viability over the project period

Objective No. 3: Establish early larval rearing system to maximize hatch and early (pre-feeding) survival:

Objective No. 3: Establish early larval rearing system to maximize hatch and early (pre-feeding) survival Yellow tang eggs undergo a typical development sequence for pelagic spawning marine fish Larvae hatch in 18-24hrs, yielding very small (~1.4mm length) larvae Larvae spend the 1 st day on the surface where they are sensitive to physical stressors. This led to the adoption of an upwelling water inflow system w/o aeration Larvae move into the water column on the 2 nd day. By the 3 rd day yolk reserves are exhausted and larvae must begin feeding

Objective No. 4: Identify suitable first feed for yellow tang larvae :

Objective No. 4: Identify suitable first feed for yellow tang larvae Initial efforts using Parvocalanus copepod nauplii did not appear to work for the yellow tang … with fish failing to feed on available nauplii Subsequent efforts focused on provision of eggs and smaller stage nauplii , yielding excellent feeding responses

Objective No. 5: Scale-up culture of identified first feed to level required for conducting replicated larviculture trials :

Objective No. 5: Scale-up culture of identified first feed to level required for conducting replicated larviculture trials Chaetoceros and Isochrysis microalgae are used to feed copepods and as background algae in the larval rearing tanks 2L flasks → 20L carboys → 280L bioreactors (continuous culture) Copepod Production: 1000L tanks are used to mature nauplii into egg producing adults over a period of a week to ten days Adults are maintained in 1,500L production tanks with the daily harvest of eggs and nauplii (~10M/tank/day)

Objective No. 6: Develop larviculture feeding regimen suitable for rearing yellow tang larvae through metamorphosis :

Objective No. 6: Develop larviculture feeding regimen suitable for rearing yellow tang larvae through metamorphosis Over first two weeks of development, larvae show dramatic changes in appearance with the growth of long pectoral and dorsal spines and deepening of body as they become active feeding pelagic larvae Current efforts are focused on improving survival which remains poor through this early period and getting larvae through to metamorphosis

Objective No. 7: Develop suitable methods to transition yellow tang into juvenile settlement phase. Objective No. 8: Establish suitable feeds and holding system to ensure juvenile quality suitable for marine ornamental wholesale market. :

Objective No. 7: Develop suitable methods to transition yellow tang into juvenile settlement phase. Objective No. 8: Establish suitable feeds and holding system to ensure juvenile quality suitable for marine ornamental wholesale market. Studies on post-larval transition into juvenile settlement phase along with juvenile feed and holding studies will be initiated upon culturing suitable numbers of yellow tang larvae to the appropriate stages, targeted for year three of the project.

Objective No. 9:Transfer technology to industry through workshops, conference presentations, and publication in CTSA Regional Notes. :

Objective No. 9:Transfer technology to industry through workshops, conference presentations, and publication in CTSA Regional Notes. . Laidley, Callan, Rietfors, Kline, Martinson. Development of captive culture technology for the yellow tang ( Zebrasoma flavescens ). CTSA eNotes Vol. 3, Issue 3. Laidley. Saving the Reefs: Trials and tribulations in developing captive culture technology for coral reef fishes. Rising Tide Workshop, Orlando, Florida, November 18, 2010. Laidley, Callan, Carr, Martinson, Pinkerton, Kline. Development of copepod culture and its application to the culture of marine ornamental species. Aquaculture 2010, San Diego, CA, March 4, 2010. Laidley, Bradley, Callan, Martinson, Kline. Development of copepod-based hatchery technology for marine fishes with extremely small-mouthed larvae. World Aquaculture Society Meetings, Veracruz, Mexico, September 26, 2009. Callan and Laidley. Opportunities for culturing coral reef species for the marine ornamental industry and food-fish production in the Pacific Islands. Saipan Workshop on Aquaculture Opportunities. Saipan College, July 17, 2008. Laidley, Saving the Reefs: Aquaculture of coral reef species as an alternative to wild collection. Hawaii Sea Grant Program, Hanauma Bay Seminar Series, June 12, 2008. Laidley, Callan, Liu.. Saving the Reefs: Aquaculture of coral reef species as an alternative to wild collection. International Symposium in Honor of Professor Yoshitaka Nagahama Sex Determination and Gametogenesis in Fish: Current Status and Future Directions. University of Hawaii at Manoa, June 1, 2008. Laidley, Saving the Reef: Culturing coral reef species, Ocean Networks Celebration of the Year of the Reef, Waikiki Aquarium, April 12, 2008. Laidley. Copepod-based hatchery technology development, Marine Finfish culture symposium, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, March 20, 2008. Laidley, Saving the Reef … Development of aquaculture technology as an alternative to wild-collection of coral reef species, Hawaii Pacific University, February 13, 2008.

Summary: :

Summary: Yellow tang obtained from local collectors adapt relatively easily to captive holding environments Once spawning is initiated, yellow tang broodstock can be maintained in reproductive condition year-round, with a cyclical pattern in egg production coinciding with each full moon. Eggs typically hatch in just under 24 hours, yielding extremely small and delicate larvae. Pre-feeding larvae float on the surface for the first day, then move into the water column where they utilize remaining yolk stores and begin feeding on day three First-feeding larvae actively consume copepod eggs and early stage nauplii One feeding is initiated, they begin a rapid transformation into pelagic feeding larvae with rapid growth of pectoral and dorsal spines and a deepening of the body Current research is focused on improving the survival of larvae once they begin feeding in efforts to get larvae to metamorphosis

Finfish Research Team:

Finfish Research Team Administration: Charles Laidley (director) Holly Boughton (administrative assistant) Broodstock: Eric Martinson (research associate) Joe Aipa (broodstock technician) Don DeLaPena (broodstock technician) Live Feeds: Gwen Wedow (algae technician) Ben Pries (algae technician) Dean Kline (copepod technician) Jacob Conroy (copepod technician) Larval Rearing: Chad Callan, Ph.D. (Research Scientist) Melissa Rietfors (larviculture assistant) John Ginoza (larviculture technician)

Project funded by NOAA and the USDA:

Project funded by NOAA and the USDA

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