anesthesia machine 7.1.10

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THE ANESTHESIA MACHINE Presenter: Lokesh M B Moderator: Dr. G.A. Patil

Slide 2: 

The Boyle’s anesthesia machine is a continuous flow type of machine used for administration of inhalational anesthesia. first introduced by Henry Edmund Gaskin Boyle in 1917. included cylinders for medical oxygen, nitrous oxide and a flow meter. First marketed by BOC (British oxygen company)

Slide 3: 

Modifications: 1920: vaporizing bottle to flow meter added. 1926: second vaporizing bottle and by pass controls 1930: Plunger device in vaporizing bottle 1933: dry bobbin type flow meter 1937: rotameter

Anesthesia machine : 

Anesthesia machine Functions: Convert supply gases from high pressure to low pressure Convert liquid agent to gas Deliver in a controlled manner Provide positive pressure for ventilation Alert the provider to malfunction Prevent delivery of a hypoxic mixture

Safety Standards : 

Safety Standards 1979 -- Standards set for all machines sold in the U.S. ANSI -- (American National Standards Institute) –Released 1979 standards ASTM -- (American Society for Testing and Materials) –Upgraded standards in 1988

Anesthesia workstation : 

Anesthesia workstation Components: anesthesia machine, vaporizers ventilator breathing system scavenging system Monitors suction equipment data management system.

Advantages: : 

Advantages: Monitoring and control functions as well as alarms can be integrated and data displayed on a single or multiple screens. Reduced external connections A certain amount of the preuse checking procedure can be performed automatically. These workstations have built-in safeguards in case of machine failure.

Disadvantages : 

Disadvantages potential disruption of mechanical ventilation and gas delivery, display failure, electrical failure, fires, and liquid spills. They may malfunction or act in a way that the anesthesia provider does not recognize.

System Components : 

System Components Electrical Components Many components of modern anesthesia machines are powered by electricity. Turning the machine ON enables these devices. This overcomes the problem of the operator forgetting to turn ON individual devices.

Master Switch : 

Master Switch On most anesthesia machines, a master (main power) switch activates both the pneumatic and electrical functions Usually, when the master switch is in the OFF position, the only electrical components that are active are the battery charger and the electrical outlets

Slide 12: 

Power Failure Indicator Reserve Power Electrical Outlets intended to power monitors and other devices. only to be used for anesthesia monitors. Other appliances should be connected directly to mains power. cannot supply electricity in the case of a power failure.

Slide 13: 

Circuit Breakers When a circuit breaker is activated, the electrical load should be reduced and the circuit breaker reset Data Communication Ports Most modern anesthesia machines have data communications ports. These are used to communicate between the anesthesia machine, monitors, and the data management system.

Slide 14: 

Pneumatic System

Slide 15: 

High pressure system: Hanger yoke Cylinder pressure indicator Pressure regulators

Slide 16: 

Intermediate pressure system Master switch Pipeline inlet connections Pipeline pressure indicators Piping Gas power outlet Oxygen pressure failure devices Gas selector switch Second stage pressure regulator Oxygen flush Flow adjustment control

Slide 17: 

Low pressure system Flow meters Hypoxia prevention safety devices Unidirectional (check) valve Pressure relief device Low pressure piping Fresh gas outlet Alternative oxygen control

The High-pressure System : 

The High-pressure System Receives gases from cylinders at high, variable pressures and reduces it to lower, more constant pressure suitable for use in the machine.

Hanger Yoke : 

Hanger Yoke orients and supports the cylinder provides a gas-tight seal ensures a unidirectional gas flow. At least one yoke for oxygen and nitrous oxide.

Body : 

Body Threaded into the frame of the machine. Provides support for the cylinder. On the swinging gate (toggle handle, swivel gate)–type yoke ,the distal part is hinged. When a cylinder is being mounted onto or removed from a yoke, the hinged part can be swung to the side.

Retaining Screw : 

Retaining Screw = Clamping device, Retaining bar threaded into the distal end of the yoke . Tightening the screw presses the cylinder valve outlet against the washer and nipple so that a gas-tight seal is achieved. Conical point on the retaining screw fits into the conical depression on the cylinder valve .

Slide 22: 

Nipple The nipple is the part of the yoke through which the gas enters the machine. Projects from the yoke and fits into the port on the cylinder valve. If the nipple is damaged, it may be impossible to obtain a tight seal with the cylinder valve.

Slide 23: 

Index Pins Present below the nipple . The holes must be of a specific depth. If they extend too far into the body of the yoke, it may be possible to insert an incorrect cylinder into the yoke.

Slide 26: 

Washer Placed around the nipple to produce a seal between the cylinder valve and the yoke. A washer is usually supplied with each full cylinder. A broken or curled washer should not be used. An extra washer should be kept in case one becomes damaged. No more than one washer should be used, because multiple washers may prevent a tight seal from being established or may override the Pin Index Safety System. Filter installed between the cylinder and pressure regulator or flow control valve to prevent particulate matter from entering the machine

Slide 27: 

Check Valve Assembly Allows gas from a cylinder to enter the machine but prevents gas from exiting the machine when there is no cylinder in the yoke. This allows an empty cylinder to be replaced with a full one without losing gas. Also prevents gas from being transferred from a cylinder with a higher pressure to another one with lower pressure when both are connected to a double yoke and turned ON at the same time.

Slide 28: 

It consists of a plunger that slides away from the side where the pressure is greater. When cylinder pressure exceeds the pressure on the machine side, the plunger is pushed to the right, and gas passes around it and into the machine. When machine pressure exceeds cylinder pressure, the plunger moves to the left, blocking the gas flow

Slide 29: 

Not a permanent seal. Yoke plug to be used. Only one cylinder of a gas to be open at a time. Placing a Cylinder in a Yoke

Cylinder pressure indicator : 

Cylinder pressure indicator Bourdon pressure relief valve. Gauze should be 33% greater than maximum filling pressure.

LED display : 

LED display Cylinder valve – open, pressure – adequate; LED: green. valve – open, pressure – inadequate; LED: red. Dark if the cylinder valve is not open.

Pressure regulator : 

Pressure regulator Converts high pressure from cylinders to low pressure compatible to anesthesia machine.

Slide 33: 

Pressure regulators used in anesthesia machines are preset at the factory. The anesthesia workstation standard requires that the flow from the cylinder not exceed 10 mL/minute when pressure in the gas pipeline system is 345 kPa (50 psig) A defective pressure regulator may block the gas flow from a cylinder or cause widely fluctuating flows.

Thank you : 

Thank you

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