anatomy of the skull

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Anatomy of the skull By D: Mayia abdo

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The skull !- Function of the skull and . shape of the skull 2- Composition of the skull. 3- The joint of the skull. 4- Divided into 5 Cranial Cavity . 6- foramen of skull.

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: *The function of the skull 1\ Protects brain. 2\ Supports organs of special senses. 3\ Provides foundation for structures that take air, food , water into body.

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*The function of the skull shape: The unique human skull anatomy is, for the most part, determined by upright posture which: - increased blood flow to the brain - enabled the brain to become larger. - enhanced cooling system - Support the brain .

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: * composition of the skull The skull is composed of several separate bones, immobile joints and one mobile joint .

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*Joints of the skull: : The immobile suture : Major immobile suture Two Parietal b) – frontal b ) - Coronal suture - Lambdoidal suture( occipital b – two parietal b ) Temporal b –parietal b) ) - Sguamosal suture - Sagittal suture( two parietal b) : minor immobile suture ( maxillary - - Zygomaticomaxillary suture ( zygomatic two maxillary b) ) - Intermaxillary suture The mobile joint : Temporal b – mandibular b) ) - Which called TMJ

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*The bones of the skull can be divided into: 1- cranium bones. -vault (upper part of cranium and are made up of two layers of compact bone separated by a layer spongy bone [ diploë ] ) -base of the skull (lower part of the cranium). 2- face bones

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*the cranium consist of: - Temporal bones(2) - Occipital bone (1) - Frontal bone (1) - Parietal bone (2) - Sphenoid bone (1) - Ethmoid bone (1)

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*The facial bones consist of : 1) ) - Mandible 2) ) - Maxillae - Nasal bone (2) - Palatine Bone (2) - Inferior nasal Conchae (2) ( 1 ) - Vomer - Zygomatic Bone (2) - Lacrimal Bone (2)

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Cranial Cavity* Anterior cranial fossa frontal bone, frontal lobes, cribriform plate and crista galli of ethmoid bone, lesser wing of sphenoid b one Middle cranial fossa temporal bone. greater wing of sphenoid, temporal lobes,optic canal, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, sup. orbital fissure, foramen lacerum and carotid canal, sella turcica and hypophysis. Posterior cranial fossa squamous occipital and petrous temporal bones, cerebellum, pons and medulla, foramen magnum, jugular foramen, internal auditory canal,hypoglossal canal

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Foramen of the skull *

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*Structures transmitted *Bone of the skull *Name of the foramen Olfactory nerves Ethmoid 1\ Perforations in cribriform plate Optic nerve , ophthalmic artery Lesser wing of sphenoid 2\ optic canal Trochlear , oculomotor , abducent , nasociliary , Lacrimal ,frontal nerves Ophthalmic vein Between lesser and greater wings of sphenoid 3\ superior orbital fissure

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Maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve Greater wing of sphenoid 4\ foramen rotundum Mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve and lesser petrosal nerve Greater wing of sphenoid 5\ foramen oval Middle meningeal artery Greater wing of sphenoid 6\ foramen spinosum Internal carotid artery Between petrous part of temoral and sphenoid lacerum 7\ foramen

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Hypoglossal nerve Occipital 8\ hypoglossal canal Medulla oblongata , spinal part of accessory nerve ,L-R vertebral arteries Occipital 9\ foramen magnum Glossopharyneal , vagus , and accessory nerves Internal jugular vein Between petrous part of temporal and condylar part of occipital 10\ jugular foramen Vestibulocochlear and facial nerves Petrous of temporal 11\ internal acoustic meatus

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Sphenoid bone

Temporal bone:

Temporal bone

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Ethmoid bone

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Vomer bone