3-D PASSWORD

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Presentation Description

3d password is a multiple authentication scheme. It is a highly secured system.

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Presentation Transcript

3-D PASSWORD : 

3-D PASSWORD

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Identification Passwords Passphrase Biometrics 3-d password AGENDA

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Three Basic Identification Methods of password Possession (“something I have”) Knowledge (“something I know”) Biometrics (“something I am”) Keys Passport Smart Card Password PIN Face Fingerprint Iris

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It is basically an encryption algorithms. Usually it is 8-15 character or slightly more than that. Mostly textual passwords nowadays, are kept very simple say a word from the dictionary or their pet names, friends etc. PASSWORD

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Ten years back Klein performed such tests and he could crack 10-15 passwords per day. Now with the technology change, fast processors and many tools on the Internet this has become a Child's Play.

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It’s nothing but the enhance version of password. Usually it is a combination of words or simply collection of password in proper sequence is passphrase. It contains any well known thought also. Length of passphrase is about 30-50 character or more than that also. But it has also some limitations because 30-50 character creates ambiguity to remember if there is no any proper sequence. PASSPHRASE

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Refer to a broad range of technologies Automate the identification or verification of an individual Based on human characteristics or body organs Physiological: Face, fingerprint, iris Behavioral: Hand-written signature, voice BIOMETRICS 011001010010101… 011010100100110… 001100010010010... Characteristics Templates

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But biometrics has also some drawbacks. Suppose you select your fingerprint as a biometrics.. But what to do when you have crack or wound in your finger. In this situation you might be in trouble. And now a days some hackers even implement exact copy of your biometrics also…. After seeing all the different security scheme now it is time to do something advance in this security system. Here, the 3d password come into the picture.

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The 3D password is a multi factor authentication scheme. The 3D password presents a 3D virtual environment containing various virtual objects. The user navigates through this environment and interacts with the objects. The 3D password is simply the combination and the sequence of user interactions that occur in the 3D virtual environment. The 3D password can combine recognition, recall, token, and biometrics based systems into one authentication scheme. This can be done by designing a 3D virtual environment that contains objects that request information to be recalled, information to be recognized, tokens to be presented, and biometric data to be verified. 3-D PASSWORD

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For example, the user can enter the virtual environment and type something on a computer that exists in (x1 , y1 , z1 ) position, then enter a room that has a fingerprint recognition device that exists in a position (x2 , y2 , z2 ) and provide his/her fingerprint. Then, the user can go to the virtual garage, open the car door, and turn on the radio to a specific channel. The combination and the sequence of the previous actions toward the specific objects construct the user’s 3D password.

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Virtual objects can be any object that we encounter in real life. Any obvious actions and interactions toward the real life objects can be done in the virtual 3D environment toward the virtual objects. Moreover, any user input (such as speaking in a specific location) in the virtual 3D environment can be considered as a part of the 3D password. We can have the following objects: 1) A computer with which the user can type; 2) A fingerprint reader that requires the user’s fingerprint; 3) A biometric recognition device; 4) A paper or a white board that a user can write, sign, or draw on; 5) An automated teller machine (ATM) that requests a token; 6) A light that can be switched on/off; 7) A television or radio where channels can be selected; 8) A staple that can be punched; 9) A car that can be driven; 10) A book that can be moved from one place to another; 11) Any graphical password scheme; 12) Any real life object; 13) Any upcoming authentication scheme

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Snapshot of a proof-of-concept virtual art gallery, which contains 36pictures and six computers.

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1) Real-life similarity : The prospective 3D virtual environment should reflect what people are used to seeing in real life. Objects used in virtual environments should be relatively similar in size to real objects (sized to scale). Possible actions and interactions toward virtual objects should reflect real life situations. Object responses should be realistic. The target should have a 3D virtual environment that users can interact. 3-D VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT DESIGN GUIDELINES

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2) Object uniqueness and distinction : Every virtual object or item in the 3D virtual environment is different from any other virtual object. The uniqueness comes from the fact that every virtual object has its own attributes such as position. Thus, the prospective interaction with object 1 is not equal to the interaction with object 2. However , having similar objects such as 20 computers in one place might confuse the user. Therefore, the design of the 3D virtual environment should consider that every object should be distinguishable from other objects. Similarly, in designing a 3D virtual environment, it should be easy for users to navigate through and to distinguish between objects. The distinguishing factor increases the user’s recognition of objects. Therefore, it improves the system usability.

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3) Three Dimensional Virtual Environment Size: A 3D virtual environment can depict a city or even the world. On the other hand, it can depict a space as focused as a single room or office. A large 3D virtual environment will increase the time required by the user to perform a 3D password. Moreover, a large 3D virtual environment can contain a large number of virtual objects. Therefore, the probable 3D password space broadens. However, a small 3D virtual environment usually contains only a few objects, and thus, performing a 3D password will take less time.

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4) Number of objects and their types : Part of designing a 3D virtual environment is determining the types of objects and how many objects should be placed in the environment. The types of objects reflect what kind of responses the object will have. For simplicity, we can consider requesting a textual password or a fingerprint as an object response type. Selecting the right object response types and the number of objects affects the probable password space of a 3D password. 5) System Importance : The 3D virtual environment should consider what systems will be protected by a 3D password The number of objects and the types of objects that Have been used in the 3D virtual environment should reflect the importance of the protected system.

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The 3D password can have a password space that is very large compared to other authentication schemes, so the 3D password’s main application domains are protecting critical systems and resources. Critical server : Many large organizations have critical servers that are usually protected by a textual password. A 3D password authentication proposes a sound replacement for a textual password. Nuclear and military facilities : Such facilities should be protected by the most powerful authentication systems. The 3D password has a very large probable password space, and since it can contain token, biometrics, recognition and knowledge based authentications in a single authentication system, it is a sound choice for high level security locations. Airplanes and jet fighters: Because of the possible threat of misusing airplanes and jet fighters for religion, political agendas, usage of such airplanes should be protected by a powerful authentication system. 3-D PASSWORD APPLICATIONS

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In addition, 3D passwords can be used in less critical systems because the 3D virtual environment can be designed to fit to any system needs. A small virtual environment can be used in the following systems like ATM Personal Digital Assistance Desktop Computers & laptop logins Web Authentication Security Analysis

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STATE DIAGRAM OF A 3-D PASSWORD APPLICATION

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To realize and understand how far an authentication scheme is secure, we have to consider all possible attack methods. We have to study whether the authentication scheme proposed is immune against such attacks or not. Moreover, if the proposed authentication scheme is not immune, we then have to find the countermeasures that prevent such attacks. In this section, we try to cover most possible attacks and whether the attack is valid or not. Moreover, we try to propose countermeasures for such attacks. ATTACKS AND COUNTERMEASURES

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1)Brute Force Attack : The attacker has to try all possible 3D passwords. This kind of attack is very difficult for the following reasons. Time required to login: The total time needed for a legitimate user to login may vary depending on the number of interactions and actions, the size of the 3D virtual environment, and the type of actions and interactions. Therefore, a brute force attack on a 3D password is very difficult and time consuming Cost of attacks: The 3D virtual environment contains biometric recognition objects and token based objects. The attacker has to forge all possible biometric information and forge all the required tokens. The cost of forging such information is very high, therefore cracking the 3D password is more challenging. The high number of possible 3D password spaces leaves the attacker with almost no chance of breaking the 3D password.

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2)Well-Studied Attack : The attacker tries to find the highest probable distribution of 3D passwords. In order to launch such an attack, the attacker has to acquire knowledge of the most probable 3D password distributions. This is very difficult because the attacker has to study all the existing authentication schemes that are used in the 3D environment. It requires a study of the user’s selection of objects for the 3D password. Moreover, a well studied attack is very hard to accomplish since the attacker has to perform a customized attack for every different 3D virtual environment design. This environment has a number of objects and types of object responses that differ from any other 3D virtual environment. Therefore, a carefully customized study is required to initialize an effective attack. .

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3)Shoulder Surfing Attack :An attacker uses a camera to record the user’s 3D password or tries to watch the legitimate user while the 3D password is being performed. This attack is the most successful type of attack against 3D passwords and some other graphical passwords. However, the user’s 3D password may contain biometric data or textual passwords that cannot be seen from behind. Therefore, we assume that the 3D password should be performed in a secure place where a shoulder surfing attack cannot be performed. 4)Timing Attack : In this attack, the attacker observes how long it takes the legitimate user to perform a correct sign in using the 3D password. This observation gives the attacker an indication of the legitimate user’s 3D password length. However, this kind of attack alone cannot be very successful since it gives the attacker mere hints. Therefore, it would probably be launched as part of a well studied or brute force attack. Timing attacks can be very effective if the 3D virtual environment is poorly designed.

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The 3D password is a multi factor authentication scheme that combines the various authentication schemes into a single 3D virtual environment. The virtual environment can contain any existing authentication scheme or even any upcoming authentication scheme or even any upcoming authentication schemes by adding it as a response to actions performed on an object. Therefore the resulting password space becomes very large compared to any existing authentication schemes. The design of the 3D virtual environment the selection of objects inside the environment and the object's type reflect the resulted password space. It is the task of the system administrator to design the environment and to select the appropriate object that reflects the protected system requirements. Designing a simple and easy to use 3D virtual environment is a factor that leads to a higher user acceptability of a 3D password system. The choice of what authentication scheme will be part of user's 3D password reflects the user's preferences and requirements. CONCLUSION