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POLICE PUBLIC RELATION BHIMASHANKAR.Y.HADAGAL STUDENT OF CRIMINOLOGY AND FORENSIC SCIENCE KARNATAKA UNIVERSITY’S KARNATAKA SCIENCE COLLEGE DHARWAD   ABSTRACT In day to day life people perceive the police as Intruders, Exploiters, cynical, prejudiced, and suspicious and parasitical. It is well known that the crime detection is the first stage of criminal administration. Although the crime detection and investigation are the primary functions of police but rather difficult for the police men to perform these duties efficiently without the public co-operation. The national police commission has recently pointed out that the internal discipline and moral of police is considerably weakened because of political interference. One accusation against the police is that it is not only brutal but also corrupt. People think that if the police officer sleeps on duty or fabricates the evidences or avoiding the assigned responsibilities are form of corruption but it is not corruption, it is a ‘misconduct’ of the police. The police men are very ordinary people who happen to be extraordinarily possible. This paper is an attempt to understand the relation between police and public i.e. how the police should treat the public and what role should be played by public with the police in controlling the crimes.   KEYWORDS: Judicial leniency, illegal gratification,     INTRODUCTION   Police is the principle law enforcing agency in the country. Their duty is to promote order and tranquility in the society. But unfortunately public police relation are strained not only in this state but in entire India the police is suppose to be friend of the people and while performing their duties police men have to uphold the rule of law on one hand and respect public sentiment on other hand. Once this balance is lost the causality is “Administration of criminal justice”. Police functions are complex and the extent and co-operation of public is also responsible for this poor relation between the two. People have a feeling that police is not loyal to general public but is loyal to their political bosses. In securing the co-operation of the public there are certain codes of conduct which every police officer should observe with intensive care. The officer should be straight forward both in their official carrier and in private life. If not so, naturally the public would hesitate to entrust their life. Lawrence Sherman in his book “police corruption” in 1974 has described the corruption as “It is accepting money’s worth for doing something that a police men is under a duty to do or that he is under a duty not to do, or to exercise a legitimate discretion for improper reasons”. Corruption it is nothing but ‘taking bribes’. Roebuck and Barker (A ‘typology of police corruption’, in social problems number 3,1974) have provided a typology of forms of police corruption they are misuse of authority, opportunist theft, protection of illegal activities, involvement in direct criminal activities, internal payoffs etc. Lawrence Sherman has talked of three forms of police corruption in his book they are One form of corruption is that in which only a few isolated police men accept bribes. The second form of corruption is pervasive organised corruption. The third form of corruption is that in which a large number of officers (lower rank or higher rank) take bribes but they are not join together to form networks of corruption. People who fall in the clutches of the police generally complain of brutal behaviour of the police towards them either at the time of arrest, during interrogation or while in the police lockup. Some of the common practices of the police men reportedly are use of abusive language, compelling suspect to obey all the orders, asking embarrassing questions, holding out threats of violence if not obeyed etc. People consider these practices degrading to their status and violation of their rights. Police men need proper education on legal and ethical norms to secure the public co-operation.   THE STUDY   The police is “reactive rather than proactive”. Because the criminals fall into the hands of the police while a large number remain undetected .it is only because victims are afraid of harassment by the police. There was time when a police officer who testified with assurance helped the prosecutor in presenting his case. But now even the prosecutor wants him to manipulate his evidence. The defendant shows respect to the judge and the lawyer but he looks at the police men with scorn. The police men today feel that like public, the judge also supports the accused. The police now talk of ‘judicial leniency’ in the disposal of cases. They hold that they take lots of pain in collecting evidences but the judges dismiss the evidence as unreliable. It is the police system not the personality of candidates which made the police men to become authoritarian. That is the more powerful determinant of behavior and ideology. There may be number of factors, but the prime factor is that police does not function as per the mandate of law. On the contrary, they keep on changing their loyalties at the instance of the political parties. They are brutal to the general public and at times indulge in corrupt practices. People think it proper to avoid police involvement in many cases.           DISCUSSION The police are for the protection of public. The People in general have no good opinion regarding the public functioning in India. The main reason is the culture which police has developed of inhuman treatment to the suspect and offenders and some time even to those who are law abiding citizens. The police should protect the society, then only they will be able to create good image in public mind, win public trust and attract public support towards them. The police have two main roles to play, crime investigation and crime prevention. The police men’s job is thus to enforce laws that protect people and their property. It is said that the police reacts after crime is committed but plays no part in the causes of criminality. NO wonder, Traditional criminologists did not pay much attention to the analysis of the role of law enforcement agencies. However, in recent years, the police organization is paid more attention. This is because the new role expected of the police, their increasing work load and the increasing corruption in the police system. Should the police be committed to law or political executive or to people? My opinion is that police should remain committed to none of these but only to the “role” it is expected to perform. Why is “commitment to role?” given top priority? The police act of 1861 requires the police to remain committed to the political executive. Senior and learned police officers like N.S.Saxena (former director general, CRPF, Delhi) expect police to remain committed to law. the national police commission suggested the police should be more concerned with protecting the interest of the people that is they should remain committed to society. To secure the co-operation of the public the police should make effort to strengthen the relationship between the police and public, by performing his duties very promptly. Some of the duties are given below to perform and to secure the public co-operation, they are The police should have co-ordination with the senior citizens of the area where he works. In relation with verification of the passports, pan cards, ID cards etc it must be done in their houses. They are not supposed to call the public to the police station or to their private places. They should visit to educational institutions so as to control ragging and other illegal activities. They should give more priority to the grievance of women, to overcome the problems of women certain steps to be taken by the police. some of them are Monthly meeting of women committee must be done. Workshop must be conducted to know the problems of themselves and how to get rid of their problems. Useful programs must be done for children so as to make them aware of society. In public places teasing of women must be concentrated much by the police. The police should conduct meeting of different religions for ‘communal hormonal’. It must include the heads of all the religions, lecturers, doctors, engineers, lawyers and other reputed personalities of that area. The police should give more concentration on preventive measures in relation with terrorist activities and other anti-social elements. The police must be very careful in handling the custodial deaths. Public co-operation and participation is more essential to the police to perform his duties promptly in the detection of crimes and controlling the crimes. How the public should help the police? There are some possibilities that can help the police. They are A private individual can arrest a person and to hand over such arrested person to the police without unnecessary delay, i.e. under the section 43(1)of Cr.P.C. The law enjoins a duty upon every person to assist police officer in preventing the escape of person whom they want to arrest, i.e. under the section 37 of Cr.P.C. People can inform the police officer about the commission of an offence or about intension of a person to commit certain offence, i.e. under the section 39 of Cr.P.C. In some or the other way public may help the police to control the crime rates. One question that arises in our is why our Indian police being corrupted? What factors encourage corruption? Many people do not agree that low salary of police men is main cause. A police constable in India begins his career by getting 8000 to 10000 rupees salary per month, while the sub inspector gets rupees 10000 to 18000 salaries per month. In no case it can be described a good salary but it is not so low as to compel a man to accept illegal gratification. The important factors which encourage the corruption in police department are Discretionary power of the police in deciding whether to arrest someone or not. Low visibility of police work and the ‘secret society’ character of police organization that is the violation of Official Secret Act. Solidarity among the police men which provides them immunity from high risk of being detected, apprehended and punished. The police men willfully do not involve in the corruption but the situation made him to act according to the situation. Certain situation made him to involve in corruption activities. The police even face criticism of the media, the wrath of citizens, unwarranted outbursts of politicians and irritation of higher police officers. Police cannot punish a husband who beats his wife. He cannot show his emotions when he arrives at the scene of an accident and finds people crying, he faces lack of public acceptance.   CONCLUSION   There is need to create a healthy atmosphere of trust, confidence and mutual understanding between police and public. This is also a fact that police could not function actively without the will and co-0operation of the public. This co-operation is possible when the relation between the two is cordial. Once this relation is cordial, the crime and violence will be much controlled. Attempts should be made for improving the police public relation this can be made possible in a number of ways: Good work done by the police must be given prominence in the media. Occasional meeting of police men and citizens be organized in police station/colleges/universities and in public places in which the citizens and police give each other ‘feedback’ and mutual problems may be discussed openly. Rural police system should be strengthened. Laws should be changed. Much crime is created by legislatures that insist on making certain types of social behaviour criminal. While dealing or attempting to handle the public/people prestigious cases (like rape, honor killing etc) police has to give the positive support and a positive confidence to the victim and their family members. One view is that all police men are not corrupt. It is only a few “rotten apples” who bring bad name to the whole department. The other view is that the majority of them are “bad apples” and only a few are clean and honest                               REFERENCES.   Prof. N.V.Paranjape, Criminology And Penology, Central Law Publication, Allahabad.   Ram Ahuja, (1999) Criminology, Rawat Publications, Jaipur.   T.Ramanujam, Prevention And Detection of crime.   S.S.Srivastava, Criminology And Criminal administration   http://www./A police-public relation.com   .             :

POLICE PUBLIC RELATION BHIMASHANKAR.Y.HADAGAL STUDENT OF CRIMINOLOGY AND FORENSIC SCIENCE KARNATAKA UNIVERSITY’S KARNATAKA SCIENCE COLLEGE DHARWAD ABSTRACT In day to day life people perceive the police as Intruders, Exploiters, cynical, prejudiced, and suspicious and parasitical. It is well known that the crime detection is the first stage of criminal administration. Although the crime detection and investigation are the primary functions of police but rather difficult for the police men to perform these duties efficiently without the public co-operation. The national police commission has recently pointed out that the internal discipline and moral of police is considerably weakened because of political interference. One accusation against the police is that it is not only brutal but also corrupt. People think that if the police officer sleeps on duty or fabricates the evidences or avoiding the assigned responsibilities are form of corruption but it is not corruption, it is a ‘misconduct’ of the police. The police men are very ordinary people who happen to be extraordinarily possible. This paper is an attempt to understand the relation between police and public i.e. how the police should treat the public and what role should be played by public with the police in controlling the crimes. KEYWORDS: Judicial leniency, illegal gratification, INTRODUCTION Police is the principle law enforcing agency in the country. Their duty is to promote order and tranquility in the society. But unfortunately public police relation are strained not only in this state but in entire India the police is suppose to be friend of the people and while performing their duties police men have to uphold the rule of law on one hand and respect public sentiment on other hand. Once this balance is lost the causality is “Administration of criminal justice”. Police functions are complex and the extent and co-operation of public is also responsible for this poor relation between the two. People have a feeling that police is not loyal to general public but is loyal to their political bosses. In securing the co-operation of the public there are certain codes of conduct which every police officer should observe with intensive care. The officer should be straight forward both in their official carrier and in private life. If not so, naturally the public would hesitate to entrust their life. Lawrence Sherman in his book “police corruption” in 1974 has described the corruption as “It is accepting money’s worth for doing something that a police men is under a duty to do or that he is under a duty not to do, or to exercise a legitimate discretion for improper reasons”. Corruption it is nothing but ‘taking bribes’. Roebuck and Barker (A ‘typology of police corruption’, in social problems number 3,1974) have provided a typology of forms of police corruption they are misuse of authority, opportunist theft, protection of illegal activities, involvement in direct criminal activities, internal payoffs etc. Lawrence Sherman has talked of three forms of police corruption in his book they are One form of corruption is that in which only a few isolated police men accept bribes. The second form of corruption is pervasive organised corruption. The third form of corruption is that in which a large number of officers (lower rank or higher rank) take bribes but they are not join together to form networks of corruption. People who fall in the clutches of the police generally complain of brutal behaviour of the police towards them either at the time of arrest, during interrogation or while in the police lockup. Some of the common practices of the police men reportedly are use of abusive language, compelling suspect to obey all the orders, asking embarrassing questions, holding out threats of violence if not obeyed etc. People consider these practices degrading to their status and violation of their rights. Police men need proper education on legal and ethical norms to secure the public co-operation. THE STUDY The police is “reactive rather than proactive”. Because the criminals fall into the hands of the police while a large number remain undetected .it is only because victims are afraid of harassment by the police. There was time when a police officer who testified with assurance helped the prosecutor in presenting his case. But now even the prosecutor wants him to manipulate his evidence. The defendant shows respect to the judge and the lawyer but he looks at the police men with scorn. The police men today feel that like public, the judge also supports the accused. The police now talk of ‘judicial leniency’ in the disposal of cases. They hold that they take lots of pain in collecting evidences but the judges dismiss the evidence as unreliable. It is the police system not the personality of candidates which made the police men to become authoritarian. That is the more powerful determinant of behavior and ideology. There may be number of factors, but the prime factor is that police does not function as per the mandate of law. On the contrary, they keep on changing their loyalties at the instance of the political parties. They are brutal to the general public and at times indulge in corrupt practices. People think it proper to avoid police involvement in many cases. DISCUSSION The police are for the protection of public. The People in general have no good opinion regarding the public functioning in India. The main reason is the culture which police has developed of inhuman treatment to the suspect and offenders and some time even to those who are law abiding citizens. The police should protect the society, then only they will be able to create good image in public mind, win public trust and attract public support towards them. The police have two main roles to play, crime investigation and crime prevention. The police men’s job is thus to enforce laws that protect people and their property. It is said that the police reacts after crime is committed but plays no part in the causes of criminality. NO wonder, Traditional criminologists did not pay much attention to the analysis of the role of law enforcement agencies. However, in recent years, the police organization is paid more attention. This is because the new role expected of the police, their increasing work load and the increasing corruption in the police system. Should the police be committed to law or political executive or to people? My opinion is that police should remain committed to none of these but only to the “role” it is expected to perform. Why is “commitment to role?” given top priority? The police act of 1861 requires the police to remain committed to the political executive. Senior and learned police officers like N.S.Saxena (former director general, CRPF, Delhi) expect police to remain committed to law. the national police commission suggested the police should be more concerned with protecting the interest of the people that is they should remain committed to society. To secure the co-operation of the public the police should make effort to strengthen the relationship between the police and public, by performing his duties very promptly. Some of the duties are given below to perform and to secure the public co-operation, they are The police should have co-ordination with the senior citizens of the area where he works. In relation with verification of the passports, pan cards, ID cards etc it must be done in their houses. They are not supposed to call the public to the police station or to their private places. They should visit to educational institutions so as to control ragging and other illegal activities. They should give more priority to the grievance of women, to overcome the problems of women certain steps to be taken by the police. some of them are Monthly meeting of women committee must be done. Workshop must be conducted to know the problems of themselves and how to get rid of their problems. Useful programs must be done for children so as to make them aware of society. In public places teasing of women must be concentrated much by the police. The police should conduct meeting of different religions for ‘communal hormonal’. It must include the heads of all the religions, lecturers, doctors, engineers, lawyers and other reputed personalities of that area. The police should give more concentration on preventive measures in relation with terrorist activities and other anti-social elements. The police must be very careful in handling the custodial deaths. Public co-operation and participation is more essential to the police to perform his duties promptly in the detection of crimes and controlling the crimes. How the public should help the police? There are some possibilities that can help the police. They are A private individual can arrest a person and to hand over such arrested person to the police without unnecessary delay, i.e. under the section 43(1)of Cr.P.C . The law enjoins a duty upon every person to assist police officer in preventing the escape of person whom they want to arrest, i.e. under the section 37 of Cr.P.C . People can inform the police officer about the commission of an offence or about intension of a person to commit certain offence, i.e. under the section 39 of Cr.P.C . In some or the other way public may help the police to control the crime rates. One question that arises in our is why our Indian police being corrupted? What factors encourage corruption? Many people do not agree that low salary of police men is main cause. A police constable in India begins his career by getting 8000 to 10000 rupees salary per month, while the sub inspector gets rupees 10000 to 18000 salaries per month. In no case it can be described a good salary but it is not so low as to compel a man to accept illegal gratification. The important factors which encourage the corruption in police department are Discretionary power of the police in deciding whether to arrest someone or not. Low visibility of police work and the ‘secret society’ character of police organization that is the violation of Official Secret Act . Solidarity among the police men which provides them immunity from high risk of being detected, apprehended and punished. The police men willfully do not involve in the corruption but the situation made him to act according to the situation. Certain situation made him to involve in corruption activities. The police even face criticism of the media, the wrath of citizens, unwarranted outbursts of politicians and irritation of higher police officers. Police cannot punish a husband who beats his wife. He cannot show his emotions when he arrives at the scene of an accident and finds people crying, he faces lack of public acceptance. CONCLUSION There is need to create a healthy atmosphere of trust, confidence and mutual understanding between police and public. This is also a fact that police could not function actively without the will and co-0operation of the public. This co-operation is possible when the relation between the two is cordial. Once this relation is cordial, the crime and violence will be much controlled. Attempts should be made for improving the police public relation this can be made possible in a number of ways: Good work done by the police must be given prominence in the media. Occasional meeting of police men and citizens be organized in police station/colleges/universities and in public places in which the citizens and police give each other ‘feedback’ and mutual problems may be discussed openly. Rural police system should be strengthened. Laws should be changed. Much crime is created by legislatures that insist on making certain types of social behaviour criminal. While dealing or attempting to handle the public/people prestigious cases (like rape, honor killing etc) police has to give the positive support and a positive confidence to the victim and their family members. One view is that all police men are not corrupt. It is only a few “rotten apples ” who bring bad name to the whole department. The other view is that the majority of them are “bad apples ” and only a few are clean and honest REFERENCES. Prof. N.V.Paranjape , Criminology And Penology, Central Law Publication, Allahabad. Ram Ahuja , (1999) Criminology, Rawat Publications, Jaipur . T.Ramanujam , Prevention And Detection of crime. S.S.Srivastava , Criminology And Criminal administration http://www./A police-public relation.com .

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