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Culture? Culture: A dominant symbolic meaning system (e.g. worldview) sustained and transmitted over generations by members of a given society, which then shape the member’s psychological processes.

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Cultural Variations in Socio-Cognitive Processes

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Culture and Attention:The Self-Report Task (Masuda & Nisbett, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2001) The Michigan Fish Test North Americans basically referred to the attributes of the target fish, whereas East Asians referred to the background and contextual information as well as the target fish attributes.

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Worldview: Things exist by themselves and can be defined by their attributes (context independent, object-oriented). Worldview: Things are inter-related. Various factors are involved in an event (context dependent, context-sensitive). Westerner's Attention East Asians’ Attention (Nisbett, 2003; Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & Norenzayan, 2001) Attention?

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Chinese eye-tracking map. Green denotes the start of eye movements and red the end. Holistic Thinking Eye Chart Ying Dong and Kun-Pyo Lee (2008)

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American eye-tracking map. Green denotes the start of eye movements and red the end. Analytical Thinker Eye Chart Ying Dong and Kun-Pyo Lee (2008)

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THE MOST IMPORTANT QUESTION: What does this really mean for design?

Slide 8:, a popular portal in China Based on their findings, Dong and Lee propose that when designing web pages for holistic thinkers, UX designers should pay attention to the harmony between the foreground and background as well as the relationship between the different content areas.

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When designing for analytical thinkers (such as Americans), Dong and Lee suggest to emphasize on independent content areas., a popular American portal

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But I’m sure you’re wondering... Can we change the way people respond?

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Survey soliciting explanations for mass murder Manipulation: Letterhead read “Institute for Personality Research” OR “Institute for Social Research” Experiment Noranzayan & Schwarz (1999)

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Useful in HCI? Captcha’s as primers... Sukumaran, Vezich, McHugh, and Nass, 2011

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