INTERNATIONAL REGULATION FOR PREVENTING COLLISION AT SEA 1972 (COLREG) : INTERNATIONAL REGULATION FOR PREVENTING COLLISION AT SEA 1972 (COLREG) Importance : Safety of the following:
a. Life Importance Importance (cont.) : b. Property Importance (cont.) Importance (cont.) : c. Nature Importance (cont.) History : Author – IMCO (Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization)
October 20, 1972 – adopted and formalized
July 15, 1977 – effectivity
May 1982 – IMCO renamed into IMO (International Maritime Organization)
Subsequently revised year 1981, 1987, 1993 & 2001 History Summary of the rules : Part A. General
Part B. Steering and Sailing
Section I (for any visibility)
Section II (for vessels in sight of one another)
Section III (for restricted visibility)
Part C. Lights and Shapes
Part D. Sound and Light Signals
Part E. Exemption
Annexes Summary of the rules Contents of the Regulations : Part A. General
3. General Definitions
Part B. Steering & Sailing Rules
Section I. Conduct of vessels in any condition of visibility
6. Safe speed
7. Risk of collision
8. Action to avoid collision
9. Narrow channels
10. Traffic separation schemes Contents of the Regulations Contents of the Regulations (cont.) : Section II. Conduct of vessels in sight of one another
12. Sailing vessels
14. Head-on situation
15. Crossing situation
16. Action by give-way vessel
17. Action by stand-on vessel
18. Responsibilities between vessels
Section III. Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility
19. Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility Contents of the Regulations (cont.) Contents of the Regulations (cont.) : Part C. Lights and Shapes
22. Visibility of lights
23. Power-driven vessels underway
24. Towing and Pushing
25. Sailing vessels underway and vessels under oars
26. Fishing vessels
27. Vessels no under command or restricted in their ability to
28. Vessels constrained by their draught
29. Pilot Vessels
30. Anchored vessels and vessels a ground
31. Seaplanes Contents of the Regulations (cont.) Contents of the Regulations (cont.) : Part D. Sound and Light Signals
33. Equipment for sound signals
34. Maneuvering and warning signals
35. Sound signals in restricted visibility
36. Signals to attract attention
37. Distress signals
Part E. Exemptions
Annex I. Positioning and technical details of lights and shapes
Annex II. Additional signals for fishing vessels fishing in close proximity
Annex III. Technical details of sound signal appliances
Annex IV. Distress signals Contents of the Regulations (cont.) Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES : Section I. Conduct of vessel in any condition of visibility (Rule 4-10)
Rule 4. Application
> Apply in any condition of visibility
a. in sight (visible to naked eye and visual aids)
b. in restricted visibility( not visible to naked eye & visual aids) Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES (cont.) : Rule 5. Look-out
> Definition: means to watch at all times.
> Every vessel must at all times keep a proper look-out by:
a. sight ( day shape or lights by eyes or visual aids)
b. hearing (sound signal or marine VHF radio)
c. all available means ( RADAR, ARPA, AIS, GMDSS) Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES (cont.) Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES (cont.) : Rule 6. Safe Speed
> Definition: It is a speed obliged to all vessel on which she can take action to avoid collision & be stop within a distance for the prevailing condition.
> What is prevailing condition?
- refers to visibility, weather condition, traffic condition, background lights, her maneuverability and draft in relation with the available depth of water.
- When radar is in use, also consider the following:
a) limitations of the equipment
b) range scale in use
c) weather & other interference
d) weak targets
e) targets density and movement
f) use radar to judge the visibility is much accurate for objects nearby Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES (cont.) Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES (cont.) : Rule 7. Risk of Collision
> Definition: It is a situation in which vessel is about to collide with the other vessel.
> How to determine if risk of collision exist?
- by all available means including the use of radar, by radar plotting or equivalent systematic observation of detected objects. (ARPA, AIS, visually)
- if the distance of any vessel is reduced & compass bearing does not change or change at small angle.
- large & towing vessel passing at close distance. Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES (cont.) Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES (cont.) : Rule 8 . Action to Avoid Collision
> Action taken to avoid collision should be:
b. made in good time
c. due regard to the observance of good seamanship Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES (cont.) Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES (cont.) : Rule 9. Narrow Channels
> Definition: It is like a fairway that a vessel pass in opposing stream.
> Obligatory law:
1. Vessel proceeding a narrow channel must keep to starboard.
2. Small vessels & sailing vessels must not impede (larger) vessel which can navigate only within a narrow channel.
3. Ships must not cross a channel if to do so would impede another vessel which can navigate only within that channel. Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES (cont.) Ex. Narrow Channel : Ex. Narrow Channel Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES (cont.) : Rule 10. Traffic Separation Schemes (TSS)
> Definition: A routing measures aimed at the separation of opposing streams of traffic by appropriate means and by the establishment of traffic lanes.
> Vessel using TSS:
1. Proceed in the traffic lane in the general direction of traffic flow.
2. Keep clear of the traffic separation line or separation zone.
3. Join or leave a traffic lane at the termination of the lane.
4. Cross the traffic lanes as nearly as practicable at right angles to the direction of traffic.
5. Only vessel >20m in length and sailing vessel may under all circumstances used in shore traffic zone.
6. Avoid anchoring Part B: STEERING AND SAILING RULES (cont.) Slide 20: Thank You!