Biofield Energy on Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella Oxytoca

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Research Interest Exploration and exploitation of Mahendra Trivedi in various research areas of agriculture, animal production, biotechnology, microbiology, material science, genetics, cancer, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals.

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Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Biofield Treated Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca Mahendra Kumar Trivedi 2 Alice Branton 2 Dahryn Trivedi 2 Gopal Nayak 2 Harish Shettigar 2 Mayank Gangwar 1 and Snehasis Jana 1 1 Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt Ltd Hall-A Chinar Mega Mall Chinar Fortune City Hoshangabad Road Bhopal Madhya Pradesh India 2 Trivedi Global Inc 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969 Henderson NV USA Corresponding Author: Jana S et al Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt Ltd Hall-A Chinar Mega Mall Chinar Fortune City Hoshangabad Rd Bhopal Madhya Pradesh India Tel: +917556660006 Email id: publicationtrivedisrl.com Received date: August 01 2015 Accepted date: October 02 2015 Published date: October 06 2015 Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are credited Abstract Klebsiella are opportunistic pathogens that cause a wide spectrum of severe diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on multidrug resistant strain of K. oxytoca with respect to antibiogram pattern along with biochemical study and biotype number. Clinical lab isolate of K. oxytoca was divided into two groups i.e. control and treated. Control group remain untreated and treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment and compared with control group. Control and treated groups were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern minimum inhibitory concentration MIC biochemical reactions and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away ® automated system. Experimental results showed the impact of biofield treatment on K. oxytoca and found alteration in both antimicrobial sensitivity and MIC values as compared with untreated group. Antimicrobial sensitivity of about 26.67 tested antimicrobials out of thirty was altered with respect to control. MIC results showed about 12.50 alterations in tested antimicrobials as compared to control. Biochemical study showed 24.24 alteration in tested biochemical reactions after biofield treatment. A significant change in biotype number 7713 5272 was identified after biofield treatment as compared to control 7775 4332. In treated group a new species was identified as Kluyvera ascorbata as compared to control K. oxytoca. Study findings suggest that biofield treatment has a significant effect in altering the antimicrobial sensitivity MIC values biochemical reactions and biotype number of multidrug resistant strain of K. oxytoca. Biofield treatment could be applied to alter the antibiogram-resistogram pattern of antimicrobials. Keywords: Klebsiella oxytoca Multidrug resistant Antibiogram Biofeld treatment Biochemical reactions Biotyping Introduction Klebsiella oxytoca K. oxytoca is a Gram-negative pathogen cylindrical rod shaped non-motile in nature and belongs to Enterobacteriaceae family. Klebsiella spp. are ubiquitous in environment 1 but K. oxytoca can be cultured from intestines of healthy humans and animals oropharynx mucous membrane and skin. K. oxytoca initially named as Aerobacter aerogens which was identifed as Klebsiella pneumoniae but recent report classifed it as K. oxytoca on the basis of indole-positive test and ability to grow on melezitose not in 3-hydroxybutyrate 2. It is considered as an opportunistic pathogen as most of the cases K. oxytoca-infected persons remain asymptomatic. However K. oxytoca is now recognized as important clinical pathogen in hospitalized patients causing major nosocomial infections in children and neonates 3. It is reported in many etiological human infections such as urinary tract infection septic arthritis bacteremia septicemia cholecystitis sof tissue infections and most recently in colicky neonates 1 4-7. During last few years incidence of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing multi-drug-resistance MDR Klebsiella spp. had increased. Cases of MDR infections had been increased suddenly which resulted in inefective antimicrobials treatment. Clinicians prefer multiple combination bactericidal therapy against infection instead of single drug. Recently an alternate approach called biofeld treatment on pathogenic microorganism is reported to alter the antimicrobial susceptibility. Biofeld is a cumulative outcome of electric and magnetic feld energy exerted by the human body. However the energy can exist in several forms such as kinetic potential electrical magnetic and nuclear. Similarly the human nervous system consists of the energy and chemical information in the form of electrical signals. Tus human has the ability to harness the energy from environment or universe and can transmit into any living or nonliving objects around the Globe. Te objects always receive the energy and responding into useful way via biofeld energy. Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofeld treatment is also known as Te Trivedi Efect ® . In spite of countless study reports on biofeld therapies 89 there are very few well controlled and peer- reviewed experimental studies on pathogenic or MDR microbes. According to law of mass-energy inter-conversion 10 the conversion of mass into energy is well established but its inversion i.e. energy into mass has not yet proved scientifcally. Whenever these electrical signals fuctuate with time the magnetic feld generates as per the Ampere- Maxwell law and cumulatively known as electromagnetic feld. Mr. Trivedi’s biofeld treatment is well-known to change the various physicochemical characteristics of metals and ceramics 11-14. In addition his unique biofeld treatment has considerably altered the antimicrobials susceptibility and biochemical reactions of pathogenic microbes 15-17. In agricultural science biofeld treatment altered the growth characteristics and yield of important medicinal plants 18-21. On the basis of several reports on biofeld treatment present study was designed to study the impact of biofeld on MDR isolate of K. oxytoca for its antimicrobials susceptibility pattern minimum Applied Microbiology: Open Access Trivedi et al. Appli Micro Open Access 2015 1:1 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/amoa.1000101 Research Article Open Access Appli Micro Open Access ISSN:AMOA an Open Access Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000101

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inhibitory concentration MIC along with biotyping based on variation in biochemical reactions. Materials and Methods Experimental design and biofeld treatment MDR clinical strain of K. oxytoca was collected from stored stock cultures of clinical sample in Microbiology Lab Hinduja Hospital Mumbai. MDR strain was divided in two groups i.e. control and treatment. Treatment group in sealed pack was handed over to Mr. Trivedi for biofeld treatment under laboratory conditions. Mr. Trivedi provided the treatment through his energy transmission process to the treated groups without touching the samples. Te biofeld treated sample was returned in the similar sealed condition for further analysis on day 10 with respect to control using the standard protocols. Afer biofeld treatment treated sample was analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility biochemical reactions and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away ® Dade Behring Inc. USA and Negative Break Point Combo NBPC 30 panel with respect to control groups. Te antimicrobials and biochemicals were procured from Sigma Aldrich MA USA. Evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility assay Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of K. oxytoca was studied using MicroScan Walk-Away ® NBPC 30 as per manufacturers instructions. Te antimicrobial susceptibility pattern S: Susceptible I: Intermediate and R: Resistant and MIC were determined by observing the lowest antimicrobial concentration showing growth inhibition 22. Biochemical reaction study Biochemical study of K. oxytoca was determined by MicroScan Walk-Away ® system in both control and treated groups 22. Identifcation by biotype number Te biotype number of K. oxytoca control and treated samples were determined by MicroScan Walk-Away ® processed panel data report with the help of biochemical reactions data 22. Results and Discussion Antimicrobial susceptibility test Results of antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and MIC of K. oxytoca isolate are summarized in Tables 1 and 2 respectively. S. No. Antimicrobial Control Treated 1 Amikacin S R 2 Amoxicillin/k-clavulanate I R 3 Ampicillin/sulbactam R R 4 Ampicillin R R 5 Aztreonam EBL R 6 Cefazolin R R 7 Cefepime R R 8 Cefotaxime EBL R 9 Cefotetan S R 10 Cefoxitin R R 11 Ceftazidime EBL R 12 Ceftriaxone EBL R 13 Cefuroxime R R 14 Cephalothin R R 15 Chloramphenicol R R 16 Ciprofloxacin R R 17 ESBL-a Scrn EBL - 18 ESBL-b Scrn EBL - 19 Gatifloxacin R R 20 Gentamicin R R 21 Imipenem S S 22 Levofloxacin R R 23 Meropenem S S 24 Moxifloxacin R R 25 Piperacillin/tazobactam S I 26 Piperacillin R R 27 Tetracycline R R 28 Ticarcillin/k-clavulanate R R 29 Tobramycin R R 30 Trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole R R R: Resistant I: Intermediate S: Susceptible ESBL-a b Srcn: Extended- spectrum-β-lactamase screen EBL: Suspected extended-spectrum β- lactamases -: Not tested Table 1: In-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility assay of multidrug resistant Klebsiella oxytoca. Te biofeld treatment on MDR strain of K. oxytoca showed a signifcant change in sensitivity pattern of diferent tested antimicrobials such as amikacin and cefotetan changed from sensitive S to resistance R while aztreonam cefotaxime cefazidime and cefriaxone sensitivity were changed from suspected extended- spectrum β-lactamases to resistance. Moreover amoxicillin/ clavulanate sensitivity changed from intermediate to resistant while piperacillin/tazobactam was changed from susceptible to intermediate as compared to control. Overall 26.67 alteration was reported out of thirty tested antimicrobials afer biofeld treatment. Rest of the twenty- two antimicrobials did not show any change in sensitivity afer biofeld treatment compared to control. MIC results showed 12.5 alteration in tested antimicrobials afer biofeld treatment on MDR strain of K. oxytoca. MIC value in four antimicrobials was increased out of thirty- two tested antimicrobials. Amikacin and cefotetan showed about two- folds increase in MIC value ≤ 16 to 32 µg/mL as compared to Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Shettigar H et al. 2015 Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Biofield Treated Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca . Appli Micro Open Access 1: 101. doi:10.4172/amoa.1000101 Page 2 of 6 Appli Micro Open Access ISSN:AMOA an Open Access Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000101

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control. Piperacillin/tazobactam showed four folds increase in MIC value 16 to 64 µg/mL as compared to control. Amoxicillin/k- clavulanate also showed increase MIC value with respect to control. Rest of the antimicrobials did not show any alteration in MIC values with respect to control Table 3. Tis study investigated the infuence of biofeld treatment on MDR strain of K. oxytoca with respect to antimicrobial sensitivity assay and results found that biofeld treatment has the potential to alter the sensitivity and MIC values of antimicrobials against biofeld treated pathogen. Te increased emergence of MDR strains of Klebsiella spp. in immunocompromised patients and increased infections lead to serious matter of concern worldwide. Extended spectrum β-lactamase ESBL producing species have still the serious problem worldwide which may be due to continuous new drug discovery 2. Results suggest the natural resistant pattern of MDR strain of K. oxytoca against most of the tested antimicrobials. Antimicrobial sensitivity of K. oxytoca is well supported with literature data 23. Biofeld treatment group showed signifcant efect on ESBL producing antimicrobials as sensitivity afer biofeld treatment changed to resistant in case of aztreonam cefotaxime cefazidime and cefriaxone. Most of the clinical strains of K. oxytoca produced chromosomal and plasmid mediated β-lactamase. Chromosomal mediated β-lactamases had the capacity to hydrolyze extended spectrum antimicrobials such as cephalosporin and aztreonam. Mutational hyper production of β-lactamase results in a characteristic antibiogram with resistant pattern against piperacillin cefuroxime and aztreonam 24. However most of the clinical isolates of K. oxytoca have been associated with low production of β-lactamase. Biofeld treatment might induce some enzymatic changes which result in signifcant alteration in antimicrobial sensitivity and MIC values. Resistant pattern in MDR is also associated with alteration in cell membrane which may causes decrease uptake of antimicrobial drug target enzyme overexpression or alteration in drug efux pump 25-27. Biofeld treatment in MDR K. oxytoca might alter the cell membrane permeability which results in alteration in sensitivity of tested antimicrobials. S. No. Antimicrobial Control Treated 1 Amikacin ≤ 16 32 2 Amoxicillin/k-clavulanate 16/8 16/8 3 Ampicillin/sulbactam 16/8 16/8 4 Ampicillin 16 16 5 Aztreonam 16 16 6 Cefazolin 16 16 7 Cefepime 16 16 8 Cefotaxime 32 32 9 Cefotetan ≤ 16 32 10 Cefoxitin 16 16 11 Ceftazidime 16 16 12 Ceftriaxone 32 32 13 Cefuroxime 16 16 14 Cephalothin 16 16 15 Chloramphenicol 16 16 16 Ciprofloxacin 2 2 17 ESBL-a Scrn 4 4 18 ESBL-b Scrn 1 1 19 Gatifloxacin 4 4 20 Gentamicin 8 8 21 Imipenem ≤ 4 ≤ 4 22 Levofloxacin 4 4 23 Meropenem ≤ 4 ≤ 4 24 Moxifloxacin 4 4 Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Shettigar H et al. 2015 Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Biofield Treated Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca . Appli Micro Open Access 1: 101. doi:10.4172/amoa.1000101 Page 3 of 6 Appli Micro Open Access ISSN:AMOA an Open Access Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000101

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25 Nitrofurantoin 64 64 26 Norfloxacin 8 8 27 Piperacillin/tazobactam ≤ 16 64 28 Piperacillin 64 64 29 Tetracycline 8 8 30 Ticarcillin/k-clavulanate 64 64 31 Tobramycin 8 8 32 Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 2/38 2/38 MIC values are presented in µg/mL ESBL-ab Srcn: Extended-spectrum-β-lactamase screen Table 2: Minimum inhibitory concentration MIC tested antimicrobials of multidrug resistant Klebsiella oxytoca. Identifcation of organism by biochemical reactions Several phenotypic identifcation tests are available to diferentiate the Klebsiella species. Experimental identifcation of K. oxytoca was performed using diferent standard biochemical reaction analysis. Adonitol inositol urea and Voges-Proskauer showed negative reaction i.e. positive to negative while cetrimide citrate hydrogen sulfde and ornithine showed positive reaction i.e. negative to positive afer biofeld treatment as compared to control. Rest of the biochemical reactions were not altered afer biofeld treatment with respect to control. Overall biochemical reactions showed the alteration of 24.24 afer biofeld treatment. Experimental control biochemical reaction data of K. oxytoca are well supported with literature data 2. Biofeld treatment showed a signifcant alteration in positive as well as negative reactions in tested biochemical which are the basic characteristics of K. oxytoca. Te standard positive biochemical reactions of K. oxytoca were reported in case of indole lysine decarboxylase L-sorbose malonate urea and Voges-Proskauer while negative reactions in ornithine decarboxylase gas production and citrate. S. No. Code Biochemical Control Treated 1 ACE Acetamide - - 2 ADO Adonitol + - 3 ARA Arabinose + + 4 ARG Arginine - - 5 CET Cetrimide - + 6 CF8 Cephalothin + + 7 CIT Citrate - + 8 CL4 Colistin - - 9 ESC Esculin hydrolysis + + 10 FD64 Nitrofurantoin + + 11 GLU Glucose + + 12 H2S Hydrogen sulfide - + 13 IND Indole + + 14 INO Inositol + - 15 K4 Kanamycin + + 16 LYS Lysine + + 17 MAL Malonate + + 18 MEL Melibiose + + Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Shettigar H et al. 2015 Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Biofield Treated Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca . Appli Micro Open Access 1: 101. doi:10.4172/amoa.1000101 Page 4 of 6 Appli Micro Open Access ISSN:AMOA an Open Access Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000101

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19 NIT Nitrate + + 20 OF/G Oxidation-fermentation/glucose + + 21 ONPG Galactosidase + + 22 ORN Ornithine - + 23 OXI Oxidase - - 24 P4 Penicillin + + 25 RAF Raffinose + + 26 RHA Rhamnose + + 27 SOR Sorbitol + + 28 SUC Sucrose + + 29 TAR Tartrate - - 30 TDA Tryptophan deaminase - - 31 TO4 Tobramycin + + 32 URE Urea + - 33 VP Voges-Proskauer + - - negative + positive ONPG: Ortho-nitrophenyl-β-galactoside Table 3: Biochemical identifcation of multidrug resistant Klebsiella oxytoca. Identifcation of organism by biotype number On the basis of above biochemical changes biotyping was performed to check the identity of microorganism afer biofeld treatment using an automated system. Results of biotyping found a signifcant changed in biotype number 7713 5272 in treated group on day 10 with respect to control 7775 4332. Te organism was identifed as Kluyvera ascorbata in treated group afer biofeld treatment as compared to control organism K. oxytoca Table 4. Biofeld treatment on pathogenic microorganism showed signifcant alteration in biochemical reactions followed by altered biotype number which are well supported with literature reports 15-17. Biofeld therapies in biomedical health care system are very popular and reported to improve human well-being with respect to several diseased conditions 28. Increased emergence of resistant microorganisms due to widespread uses of antibiotics contributed to the spread of multidrug resistant organisms 29. Biofeld treatment is practiced by many heath care professionals as it was accepted by National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine NCCAM in complementary and alternate medicine 30. Biofeld treatment in pathogenic microorganisms had been reported to alter the antimicrobial sensitivity phenotypic characteristics and growth of microorganism 1617. It results in altered sensitivity of antimicrobials which may involve cellular changes in biofeld treated K. oxytoca at molecular and/or genetic level 31. Results showed that biofeld treatment induced changes in susceptibility pattern of antimicrobials MIC values biochemical reactions and biotype number of MDR strain of K. oxytoca. Feature Control Treated Biotype 7775 4332 7713 5272 Organism Identification Klebsiella oxytoca Kluyvera ascorbata Table 4: Efect of biofeld treatment on multidrug resistant strain of Klebsiella oxytoca to its biotype number. Conclusion Altogether the biofeld treatment on MDR strain of K. oxytoca showed alteration of antimicrobial sensitivity pattern MIC biochemical reactions followed by biotype number. Altered biochemical reactions may be responsible for changed biotype number and a new species was identifed as Kluyvera ascorbata as compared to control. Alteration in above standard microbiological techniques afer biofeld treatment might involve the changes at enzymatic or genetic level of K. oxytoca which can be further studied at molecular level with respect to altered antimicrobial sensitivity and biotype number. Based on the study outcomes biofeld treatment could be applied to alter the sensitivity pattern of antimicrobials against multidrug resistance strain of K. oxytoca. Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Shettigar H et al. 2015 Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Biofield Treated Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca . Appli Micro Open Access 1: 101. doi:10.4172/amoa.1000101 Page 5 of 6 Appli Micro Open Access ISSN:AMOA an Open Access Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000101

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Acknowledgement Te authors would like to acknowledge the whole team of PD Hinduja National Hospital and MRC Mumbai Microbiology Lab for their support. We are very grateful for the support of Trivedi Science ™ Trivedi Master Wellness ™ and Trivedi Testimonials in this research work. Confict of interest Te authors declare that they have no competing interest. References 1. Gorkiewicz G 2009 Nosocomial and antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by organisms other than Clostridium difcile Int J Antimicrob Agents 33: S37-S41 2. Podschun R Ullmann U 1998 Klebsiella spp as nosocomial pathogens: Epidemiology taxonomy typing methods and pathogenicity factors Clin Microbiol Rev 11: 589-603 3. Savino F Cordisco L Tarasco V Calabrese R Palumeri E et al. 2009 Molecular identifcation of coliform bacteria from colicky breastfed infants Acta Paediatr 98: 1582-1588 4. Lin RD Hsueh PR Chang SC Chen YC Hsieh WC et al. 1997 Bacteremia due to Klebsiella oxytoca: Clinical features of patients and antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates Clin Infect Dis 24: 1217-1222 5. Menard A Harambat J Pereyre S Pontailler JR Megraud F et al. 2010 First report of septic arthritis caused by Klebsiella oxytoca J Clin Microbiol 48: 3021-3023 6. Zarate MS Gales AC Picao RC Pujol GS Lanza A et al. 2008 Outbreak of OXY-2-producing Klebsiella oxytoca in a renal transplant unit J Clin Microbiol 46: 2099-2101 7. Sorli L Miro E Segura C Navarro F Grau S et al. 2011 Intra- and interspecies spread of carbapenemase genes in a non-hospitalized patient Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 30: 1551-1555 8. Benor DJ 2002 Energy medicine for the internist Med Clin North Am 86: 105-125 9. Jonas WB Crawford CC 2003 Science and spiritual healing: a critical review of spiritual healing “energy” medicine and intentionality Altern Ter Health Med 9: 56-61 10. Einstein A 1905 Does the inertia of a body depend upon its energy- content Ann Phys 18: 639-641 11. Trivedi MK Tallapragada RM 2008 A transcendental to changing metal powder characteristics Met Powder Rep 63: 22-28 31 12. Dhabade VV Tallapragada RM Trivedi MK 2009 Efect of external energy on atomic crystalline and powder characteristics of antimony and bismuth powders Bull Mater Sci 32: 471-479 13. Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Efect of biofeld treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of silicon tin and lead powders J Material Sci Eng 2: 125 14. Trivedi MK Nayak G Patil S Tallapragada RM Latiyal O 2015 Studies of the atomic and crystalline characteristics of ceramic oxide nano powders afer bio feld treatment Ind Eng Manage 4: 161 15. Trivedi MK Patil S Shettigar H Bairwa K Jana S 2015 Phenotypic and biotypic characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca: An impact of biofeld treatment J Microb Biochem Technol 7: 203-206 16. Trivedi MK Patil S Shettigar H Gangwar M 2015 An efect of biofeld treatment on multidrug-resistant Burkholderia cepacia: A multihost pathogen J Trop Dis 3: 167 17. Trivedi MK Patil S Shettigar H Gangwar M Jana S 2015 Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of Pseudomonas fuorescens afer biofeld treatment J Infect Dis Ter 3: 222 18. Shinde V Sances F Patil S Spence A 2012 Impact of biofeld treatment on growth and yield of lettuce and tomato Aust J Basic Appl Sci 6: 100-105 19. Sances F Flora E Patil S Spence A Shinde V 2013 Impact of biofeld treatment on ginseng and organic blueberry yield Agrivita J Agric Sci 35: 22-29 20. Lenssen AW 2013 Biofeld and fungicide seed treatment infuences on soybean productivity seed quality and weed community Agricultural Journal 8: 138-143 21. Nayak G Altekar N 2015 Efect of biofeld treatment on plant growth and adaptation J Environ Health Sci 1: 1-9 22. Fader RC Weaver E Fossett R Toyras M Vanderlaan J et al. 2013 Multilaboratory study of the biomic automated well-reading instrument versus MicroScan WalkAway for reading MicroScan antimicrobial susceptibility and identifcation panels J Clin Microbiol 51: 1548-1554 23. Upadhyay AK Parajuli P 2013 Extended spectrum β-lactamase producing multidrug-resistant Klebsiella species isolated at national medical college and teaching hospital Nepal Asian J Pharm Clin Res 6: 161-164 24. Arakawa Y Ohta M Kido N Mori M Ito H et al. 1989 Chromosomal β-lactamase of Klebsiella oxytoca a new class A enzyme that hydrolyses broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics Antimicrob Agents Chemother 33: 63-70 25. Tenover FC 2006 Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria Am J Infect Control 119: S3-S10 26. He X Li S Kaminskyj SG 2013 Using Aspergillus nidulans to identify antifungal drug resistance mutations Eukaryot Cell 13: 288-294 27. Alekshun MN Levy SB 2007 Molecular mechanisms of antibacterial multidrug resistance Cell 128: 1037-1050 28. Turner JG Clark AJ Gauthier DK W illiams M 1998 Te efect of therapeutic touch on pain and anxiety in burn patients J Adv Nurs 28: 10-20 29. Okeke IN Laxminarayan R Bhutta ZA Duse AG Jenkins P et al. 2005 Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries Part I: Recent trends and current status Lancet Infect Dis 5: 481-493 30. Koithan M 2009 Introducing complementary and alternative therapies J Nurse Pract 5: 18-20 31. Lindstrom E Mild KH Lundgren E 1998 Analysis of the T cell activation signaling pathway during ELF magnetic feld exposure p56lck and Ca2+i-measurements Bioeletrochem Bioenerg 46: 129-137. Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Shettigar H et al. 2015 Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Biofield Treated Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca . Appli Micro Open Access 1: 101. doi:10.4172/amoa.1000101 Page 6 of 6 Appli Micro Open Access ISSN:AMOA an Open Access Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000101

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