FederalismA Panacea for Political Turmoil? : FederalismA Panacea for Political Turmoil? Ernesto Tomas Jr.
August 28, 2008 What is Federalism? : What is Federalism? From the Latin foedus, meaning covenant.
Federalism is essentially a system of voluntary self-rule and shared rule.
A covenant signifies a binding partnership among co-equals in which the parties retain their individual identity and integrity while creating a new entity, such as a body politic, that has its own identity and integrity as well. Federalism (continued) : Federalism (continued) Federalism is both a structure and a process of governance that establishes unity on the basis of consent while preserving diversity by constitutionally uniting separate political communities into a limited, but encompassing, polity.
In a federal system, division of powers is combined with authoritative capacity to carry out responsibilities on behalf of the people of the federal polity. Federalism (continued) : Federalism (continued) The constituent governments also have broad local responsibilities and sufficiently autonomous self-government to carry out their responsibilities on behalf of their own people in concert with the whole people of the federal polity.
A democratic federation is, in effect, a republic of republics, which emphasizes partnership and cooperation for the common good, while also allowing diversity and competition to foster liberty and efficiency. Federalism (continued) : Federalism (continued) There are 25 countries (out of 180) with federal form of government at the moment, around 2 billion people representing 40% of the global population.
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, Comoros, Ethiopia, Germany, India, Iraq
Malaysia, Mexico, Micronesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, St. Kitts and Nevis, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United States of America, and Venezuela The Federalist Papers (and debates in the Philippines) : The Federalist Papers (and debates in the Philippines) Unlike the US, we don’t have the Federalist Papers, i.e. series of 85 articles advocating (convincing the citizens of the State of New York and the rest of the founding states) for the ratification of a Federal Union, contained in the proposed US Constitution.
But history will show that the nation’s leaders have contemplated a federal system for the Philippines as early as in the late 19th century. Brief History : Brief History 1890s- Jose P. Rizal advocated a federal form of government (when he foresaw conflict between Filipinos).
October 1896- Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the establishment of a federal republic, instructed the Malolos leaders/framers for such, and asked/ tried to convince the Muslims in the south to join the revolution.
1899- drafted Constitution was for a unitary government, thus Aguinaldo gave it back to the revolutionary Congress. But because of the impending war with the US, the Malolos Constitution was proclaimed. Footnote in History : Footnote in History January 19, 1899, Gen. Aguinaldo wrote the Sultan of Sulu:
Addressing him as My Great and Powerful Brother extending to him the assurances and greetings of the Filipinos of the Republic to their brothers in Jolo (Corpuz, 1991 The Forgotten Options). Brief History (continued) : Brief History (continued) Under the Americans, Pardo de Tavera and Cayetano Arellano were the advocates.
In 1972, constitutional framers’ Mastura, de las Alas, Alonto, Araneta, Canoy, and Cabangbang tried but never listened to.
In 1986, Osmena and Ople spearheaded the provisions n local and regional autonomy.
Since 1986, only GMA openly advocated a federal form of government. Brief History (continued) : Brief History (continued) January 8, 2004- Arroyo commenting on policy gridlocks expressed support to cha-cha for shift to federalism and parliamentary form of government.
March 16,2004- in Davao, for lasting peace and development in Mindanao pushed for a federal form of government.
Sept 2004 (Beijing)- to gear towards a wider distribution of economic zones. GMA SONA : GMA SONA (2005)-The economic progress and social stability of the provinces, along with the increasing self-reliance and efficiency of political developments and public services there, make a compelling case for federalism. Perhaps it's time to take the power from the center to the countryside that feeds it.
(2006)-Sa kasalukuyang sistema, napakabagal ng proseso, at bukas sa labis na pagtutunggali, at sikil ang lalawigan at mamamayan sa paghahari ng Imperial Manila. Panahon nang ibalik ang kapangyarihan sa taumbayan at lalawigan. What illness are we trying to cure? : What illness are we trying to cure? Poverty (societal illness)
Ethnic conflicts (societal illness)
Overcentralization (governmental-bureaucratic structure)
Policy Gridlocks (governmental-bureaucratic structure)
Lopsided sharing of resources (governmental-bureaucratic structure)
Graft and Corruption (societal but also governmental-bureaucratic structure) Is federalism the answer? : Is federalism the answer? Leaders/ Experts row
Yes: Abueva (and CMFP), Pimentel, Osmena, Abad, Mastura, PdeVera, ...
No: RPdeGuzman, DannyReyes …
Onofre Corpuz (Historian): Federalism is a way of life… proponents must now address how to establish a federal state… how to dissolve the present unitary state… how to reorganize the state (and its instruments) in adopting a federal system of government. 3 Points To Ponder? : 3 Points To Ponder? Isn’t the present Local Government Code and autonomy provisions in the Constitution enough to quell some (if not all) of the mentioned problems?
What guarantee do the people have that Federalism and its structures will work for them?
It’s not the governance structure, it’s the stupid politicians! Thank you. : Thank you.