CORAL REEFS : THE RAIN FOREST OF THE OCEAN(A teaching Module) : CORAL REEFS : THE RAIN FOREST OF THE OCEAN(A teaching Module) Ecology and Environmental Issues for Teachers
Presented by: Ruby D. Tuvilla
MBIED 2007 Slide 2: CORAL REEF:
The Rainforest of the Ocean Description : Description Provide basic concepts on coral reefs
Students will develop the skills in constructing models, concept mapping, creativity, and value cooperative learning, through techniques applied as games, simulations and group discussions. GOAL: : GOAL: to enrich students with the knowledge about the marine life specially the coral reefs.
This is intended for second year high school students, who have background knowledge on ecosystem ecology.
Time allotment: 320 minutes GENERAL OBJECTIVES : GENERAL OBJECTIVES Enrich students’ ideas of the concepts on Coral Reefs;
Bring out students’ creativity and talents;
Develop awareness on the countries top resources – the coral reef;
Inculcate to students’ mind their role in the sustainability of resources and their role as steward of the Earth. Lesson I. The Coral Reef : Lesson I. The Coral Reef SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:
Define coral reef;
Name and describe the components of the coral reef;
Identify the three kinds of reefs. Slide 7: Discuss the symbiotic relationships that exist in the coral reef;
Enumerate the factors which lead to the degradation of reefs and the conservation measures made; and
Appreciate and develop consciousness on preserving the coral reefs. KEY IDEAS : KEY IDEAS Coral Reefs are made up of vast amounts of Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), limestone that is deposited by living things.
Coral is a general term for several different groups of cnidarians, only some of which help build reefs. Slide 9: Scleractinian corals are the most important reef builders sometimes called stony corals or “true corals”.
Zooxanthellae help corals make their calcium carbonate skeletons at the same time nourish them. Slide 10: Coralline algae, sponges, and bryozoans also help in reef building.
Light , temperature, salinity, sediments and pollution are the conditions considered for reef growth.
There are three kinds of reefs: fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls. Slide 11: Coral reefs are very productive even though the surrounding ocean water lacks nutrients because nutrients are recycled extensively, nitrogen is fixed on the reef, and the zooplankton and nutrients that occur in the water are used efficiently. Slide 12: Interactions in the coral reef include: competition, predation in corals, grazing and living together (mutualism).
Human activities create a great impact on the coral reefs. Activities such as trawling, pollution, eutrophication, and sewage.
Conservation measures are done to prevent the reef from total destruction: Restoration of habitats, artificial reef construction and establishment of marine protected areas. MOTIVATIONAL ACTIVITY : The Philippine Coral Reef:Resource at Risk (Film showing) : MOTIVATIONAL ACTIVITY : The Philippine Coral Reef:Resource at Risk (Film showing) Objective
To be able to take a look at the real view of the coral reef ecosystem and its importance. Guide Questions : Guide Questions What are coral reefs?
Are they beneficial to humans? How?
What is the status of the Apo Island coral reef - Philippine coral reef before? At present?
What are the effects of coral reef destruction to the residents?
Is there something done to prevent the reef from total destruction? LECTURE 1.1. The Organisms that Build Reefs : LECTURE 1.1. The Organisms that Build Reefs The Architects of the coral reefs Coral Polyp : Coral Polyp Coral Nutrition : Coral Nutrition Other Reef Builders : Other Reef Builders algae
encrusting coralline algae
calcareous green alga called Halimeda
shells of forams, snails, clams and other mollusks
Sea urchins, bryozoans, crustaceans, Activity 1. 1. Connections in the Ecosystem. : Activity 1. 1. Connections in the Ecosystem. Procedure
1. Observe an aquarium, or other small ecosystem provided.
2. Use your observations to construct a diagram (similar to a concept map) showing all the relationships that exist among the parts of the ecosystem.
3. Indicate on your diagram which relationships involve nonliving parts of the ecosystem. Guide Questions : Guide Questions What types of relationships did you find among the organisms? What types of relationships did you find between the organisms and the nonliving parts of their environment?
How might your diagram change if the ecosystem were in the dark for a week? LECTURE 1.2. Conditions for Reef Growth : LECTURE 1.2. Conditions for Reef Growth Light and Temperature
Salinity, Sediments, and Pollution ACTIVITY 1.2. Reef Building : ACTIVITY 1.2. Reef Building Objectives
To be able to identify and describe the three kinds of reef. PROCEDURE : PROCEDURE For the teacher
1. Students should be given the assignment on the different kinds of coral reefs before the activity.
2. Group students into five. Slide 25: For the student
1. With the materials you have brought, construct the different types of coral reefs.
2. Describe each type during the presentation.
3. One member should be assigned to act as the reporter. Guide Questions : Guide Questions 1. What is a fringing reef? Barrier
Reef? An atoll?
2. What are the importance of
reefs ? LECTURE 1.3. Kinds of Coral Reefs : LECTURE 1.3. Kinds of Coral Reefs Fringing reefs Slide 28: Barrier Reefs Slide 31: Atolls LECTURE 1.4. ECOLOGY OF CORALS : LECTURE 1.4. ECOLOGY OF CORALS The Trophic Structure in the Coral Reef
How can such rich community grow when the surrounding sea is unproductive? CORAL REEF COMMUNITIES : CORAL REEF COMMUNITIES Coral Reef Communities : Coral Reef Communities Interactions
2. Predation on Corals
4. Living Together Competition : Competition Predation on Corals : Predation on Corals : Grazing Living Together : Living Together ACTIVITY 1.5. The Undersea Wonders : ACTIVITY 1.5. The Undersea Wonders Objective
To be able to identify organisms in the coral reef ecosystem based on the picture/film shown and create a trophic relationships that exist between them. Slide 43: Procedure
1. With your laboratory group, make a diagram or concept
map showing the trophic relationships among organisms
in the picture. Activity 1.6. The Reefs in Peril : Activity 1.6. The Reefs in Peril Procedure : Procedure 1. Try to note the differences of the two pictures.
2. Discuss it with your members.
3. Note of the possible problems confronting with these changes. Guide Questions : Guide Questions 1. Compare the two pictures.
2. How do they differ from each other?
3. What could be the effects of these to other organisms? LECTURE 1.5. THE IMPACTS OF HUMANS ON THE CORAL REEF : LECTURE 1.5. THE IMPACTS OF HUMANS ON THE CORAL REEF Modification and Destruction of Habitats Trawling : Trawling ACTIVITY 1.7. Coral Vanishing Act : ACTIVITY 1.7. Coral Vanishing Act QUESTIONS
1. Place the four categories of risk in order from the greatest high threat to least high threat.
2. Approximately how much greater is the high threat of overexploitation than the high threat of coastal development?
3. Based on the graph, Write a generalization about the effect of human activities on the destruction of coral reefs. Threats to coral Reefs : Threats to coral Reefs 40
0 Exploitation Coastal Dev’t. Inland Pollution Marine
Of marine resources Pollution Percentage
Threatened LECTURE 1.6. CONSERVING AND ENHANCING THE ENVIRONMENT : LECTURE 1.6. CONSERVING AND ENHANCING THE ENVIRONMENT CONSERVATION
Establishment of exclusive economic zones or EEZs
Governments established marine protected areas for the protection and management of areas with ecological significance.
However, only tiny fraction of the ocean, 0.5%, is protected. Enrichment Activity : Enrichment Activity Students who enjoy art or creative writing can work together to create a “Coral Reef Underwater Fantasy”. Have students include animals, corals, and algae, and rocks. For a storyline, students can personify the organisms, having them talk, think and act like humans, or they can describe animals from human perspective of scuba divers or people in a submarine. Students’ fantasies should reflect on the interactions on coral reefs and destructive human activities. Slide 54: BIOTECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY 1.8. The miracle under the sea : ACTIVITY 1.8. The miracle under the sea Objectives
To be able to give the importance/uses of coral
reefs in other fields of science and to humans as well. Procedure : Procedure 1. Students should go to their group
and discuss the article provided by the
Article:Take Two sponges and Call Me in the Morning Guide Questions : Guide Questions 1. What are the benefits we can derive from the coral reefs? Enumerate.
2. Let one member of the group do the reporting. BIOMEDICAL PRODUCTS : BIOMEDICAL PRODUCTS Antibiotics
Bryozoans – source of Bryostatin for cancer
Caribean sea squirt –Didemnin B- antibiotic and antifungal effect
Corals and algae – sunscreen
Red sea weeds for weight loss and lowering cholesterol
Gel from sea weeds investigated to prevent HIV Slide 59: A Loving Embrace VALUES INTERGRATION EVALUATION : EVALUATION TEST I. Exploring the Deep.
Directions: The Pictures below has the corresponding questions. Each picture will be taken from the frame to reveal what’s the hidden one. If all the questions are answered you could see the figure behind the frame but if not all answers are correct, only part of the picture will be unveiled. TEST II. DRAWING : TEST II. DRAWING Directions: Make a diagram or draw a concept map of the following:
1. Trophic structure in coral refs.
2.Human Activities that destroy coralreefs. Slide 63: Have a wonderful Summer Ahead