Slavery

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Created for Bilston Community Association

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A Commemoration ofThe Abolitionof Slavery1807 to 2007 : 

A Commemoration ofThe Abolitionof Slavery1807 to 2007 Presented by Bilston Community Association

A Trans Atlantic Time Line : 

A Trans Atlantic Time Line 1562 First English slaving expedition by Sir John Hawkins 1619 First record of Africans landing in Virginia 1625 First English settlement on Barbados 1626 First boatload of African slaves to St Kitts 1838 1 August – enslaved men, women and children in the Caribbean finally become free after a period of forced apprenticeship, following the passage of the Slavery Abolition Act in 1833 1842 Britain and United States signed Webster-Ashburton Treaty, banning slave trade on high seas 1848 Emancipation by the French of their slaves 1865 Slavery finally abolished in the United States territories 1888 Slavery abolished in Brazil

A General Timeline of Slavery : 

A General Timeline of Slavery 1500 – 1730 1535 – 1774 1785 – 1796 1783 – 1788 1802 – 1820 1820 – 1838 2007

Slide 4: 

1562 John Hawkins makes his first voyage to Sierra Leone and becomes in the first Englishman known to have traded in Africans, transporting 1,200 people against their will into slavery in Hispaniola and St Domingue (Dominican Republic and Haiti). 1625 Barbados becomes an English colony. 1655 England seizes Jamaica from Spain. 1672 The Royal African Company is formed by Charles II and London Merchants, transporting around 100,000 Africans into slavery in the Caribbean between 1672 and 1689. The gold they provided to the English mint was named the guinea, after the West African country from which the gold was taken. 1698 The Royal African Company’s monopoly ends, opening the trade to private traders – Liverpool, Bristol and London benefit enormously, as do other ports around the coast 1713 England gains the island of St Kitts, and the Asiento – the right to import enslaved Africans to Spanish America. 1729 Ignatius Sancho, African writer and businessman is born on board a slave ship. 1730 First Maroon War in Jamaica, lasting almost nine years and resulting in the British authorities signing a treaty with the Maroons (see glossary for definition). Account of a shooting excursion on the mountains near Dromilly Estate in the parish of Trelawny, and island of Jamaica in the month of October 1824!!! (London 1825 – gives insight into the Maroons existence and their battles with the authorities) Continued

Slide 5: 

1735-6 Tacky’s Rebellion in Antigua. 1745 Olaudah Equiano, author, abolitionist, sailor, and former slave is born in Nigeria. 1756-63 Britain fights the Seven Years War against France, gaining Dominica, Grenada, St Vincent and Tobago. Equiano served in this war. 1759 William Wilberforce, MP and anti slavery campaigner is born in Hull. A letter on the abolition of the slave trade, addressed to the freeholders and other inhabitants of Yorkshire, by W. Wilberforce Esq. London 1807 – one of the many letters Wilberforce wrote on the slave trade – this one is useful for the appendix 1760 Tackey’s Rebellion in Jamaica; Thomas Clarkson, anti slavery campaigner and abolitionist is born in Wisbech, Cambridge. 1765 Granville Sharp begins to challenge the legality of slavery on English soil with the case of Jonathan Strong. Granville Sharp. The Law of Passive Obedience, or Christian Submission to Personal Injuries: Wherein is shown, that the several texts of scripture, which command the entire submission of servants or slaves to their masters, cannot authorize the latter to exact an involuntary servitude nor, in the least degree, justify the claims of modern Slaveholders. 1772 Lord Mansfield rules in the Somerset case that an enslaved person cannot be taken from this country against their will – this was mistakenly interpreted as meaning all Africans living in Britain were free. Considerations on the Negroe Cause commonly so called, addressed to the Right Honourable Lord Mansfield, lord chief justice of the court of the king’s bench, by Samuel Estwick, A.M. assistant agent for the Island of Barbados. 2nd edition (London 1773) Thoughts Upon Slavery, by John Wesley (1774) continued

Slide 6: 

1783 The Zong case comes to light in England – in 1781, 133 enslaved Africans were thrown overboard by the ship’s crew in order to claim the insurance money from the ships owners. The case makes people aware of the cruelty and brutality of the slave trade. British Quakers form a committee against the slave trade and present the first petition to parliament 1786 Thomas Clarkson’s Essay on the slavery and commerce of Human Species makes an immediate impact. Olaudah Equiano resigns from his job as Commissary for the scheme to repatriate the Black Poor to Sierra Leone, saying that the scheme is corrupt. T. Clarkson. An Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species, Particularly the African; Translated from a Latin Dissertation, which Was Honoured with the First Prize in the University of Cambridge, for the Year 1785. The Second Edition, Revised and Considerably Enlarged. (London 1788). 1787 Ottobah Cuguano publishes Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil and Wicked Traffic of the Commerce of the Human Species, the first directly abolitionist publication in English by an African. The Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is founded by the petitioning Quakers, Granville Sharp and Thomas Clarkson. At a committee of the society instituted for the purpose of effecting the abolition of the slave trade, by Granville Sharp, January 1788 1788 Dolben Act passed to ‘improve’ conditions on slave ships. An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa, by Alexander Falconbridge, (1788) An essay on the impolicy of the African slave trade, in two parts, by the Rev. Thomas Clarkson (1788) A sermon on the slave trade preached at Maze Pond, Southwark, Lord’s day afternoon, November 30th 1788

Slide 7: 

1789 Olaudah Equiano publishes his book, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavas Vassa, the African. The book is extremely well received and goes through nine editions during his lifetime. The French Revolution begins. Commercial reasons for the non abolition of the slave trade in the West India islands by a planter, and a merchant of many years residence in the West Indies (1789) 1790 Wilberforce presents the first abolition bill in Parliament, which is rejected. Abridgement of the minutes of the evidence, taken before a committee of the whole house, to whom it was referred to consider of the Slave Trade, 1790 (Part 2) 1791 A slave led rebellion begins in St Domingue, which develops into the Haitian Revolution A particular account of the commencement and progress of the insurrection of the Negroes in St Domingo, which began August 1791, being a translation of the speech made to the national assembly 3rd November 1791 by the deputies from the General Assembly of the French part of St Domingo, 2nd edition, with notes and an appendix containing extracts from other authentic papers (London 1792) 1792 The House of Commons votes in favour of abolition of the slave trade, but the bill is rejected by the House of Lords. 1793-1802 War between England and France. Abstract of an act for better regulating the manner of carrying slaves in British vessels from the coast of Africa, passed July 12th, 1799 (1799) 1794 France abolishes slavery in her colonies 1795-6 Second Maroon War; Fedon’s Rebellion in Grenada

Slide 8: 

1802 First West India Dock opened dealing in goods connected with the slave trade. A memoir of transactions that took place in St. Domingo in the spring of 1799; affording an idea of the present state of that country the real character of its black governor Toussaint L’Ouverture, and the safety of out West India Islands from attack or revolt, including the rescue of a British officer under sentence of death, by Captain Rainsford (1802) 1804 St Domingue declared the Republic of Haiti, the first independent black state outside Africa 1807 Britain’s slave trade abolished 1808 British West African Squadron established in Sierra Leone to suppress slave trading by British citizens. The trails of the slave traders: Samuel Samo, Joseph Peters and William Tufft, tried in April and June 1812 before the Hon Robert Thorpe LLD Chief Justice of Sierra Leone, with two letters on the slave trade (1813) 1816 Bussa Rebellion in Barbados 1817 Slave Registration Act Speech by James Stephen Esq. at the annual meeting of the African Institution at Freemasons Hall on the Slave Registry Bill (1817) A review of the slave registration Acts, in a report of the Committee of the board of directors of the African Institution made on the 22nd February 1820

Slide 9: 

1823 Slave Uprising in Demerara (Guyana); Anti Slavery Committee formed. Immediate not gradual abolition; or an inquiry into the shortest safest, and most effectual means of getting rid of West Indian slavery, by Elizabeth Heyrick (London 1824) Case of the Vigilante, a ship employed in the slave trade, with some reflections on that traffic (1823) 1831 Baptist Rebellion in Jamaica; History of Mary Prince, a West Indian Slave published in London Report of the agency committee of the Anti Slavery Society, established in June 1831 for the purpose of disseminating information by lectures on colonial slavery (1832) Death Struggles of Slavery: Being a Narrative of Facts and Incidents, which occurred in a British Colony, During the Two Years Immediately Preceding Negro Emancipation, by Henry Bleby (London, 1853) 1833 Abolition of Slavery Act passed with a period of apprenticeship 1838 Emancipation of enslaved people in British territories

Slavery Today : 

Slavery Today Despite slavery having been officially abolished 200 years ago many people are still treated as slaves. The organisations listed below are amongst those seeking to stamp out Slavery today click on any of the images for more information.

More Facts : 

More Facts One of the crucial events that would play a role in the development of America was the arrival of Africans to Jamestown. A Dutch slave trader exchanged his cargo of Africans for food in 1619. The Africans became indentured servants, similar in legal position to many poor Englishmen who traded several years labor in exchange for passage to America. The popular conception of a racial based slave system did not develop until the 1680's. Although the number of African American slaves grew slowly at first, by the 1680s they had become essential to the economy of Virginia. During the 17th and 18th centuries, African American slaves lived in all of England’s North American colonies. Before Great Britain prohibited its subjects from participating in the slave trade, between 600,000 and 650,000 Africans had been forcibly transported to North America.

Did You know? : 

Did You know? The word slave comes from Slav, the name of a group of Eastern European peoples. In antiquity, Germanic tribes captured Slavs and sold them to the Romans as slaves. It has existed in every culture in the world from the beginning to just recently Slavery exists in the world today, in one form or another. African slave trade to the Americas was started by black Kings (Benin) to have money to buy European trade goods, and gather gold. In the pre-civil war American South, there were really blacks who owned other blacks as slaves and they didn't treat their slaves any better than white slave owners. In the USA, only about 10 - 12% of all Southern folk could even afford a slave. In the north U.S. Grant refused to free his slaves until it was made illegal by constitutional amendment.

A Quick Quiz : 

A Quick Quiz Q1 Which William was a leading Anti Slavery campaigner ? Shakespeare Whitelaw Wilberforce Gladstone

Sorry Wrong Answer : 

Sorry Wrong Answer Would you like to try again? Or Got to Q2?

Wilberforce was the Correct Answer to Q1 : 

Wilberforce was the Correct Answer to Q1 Q2 Where was he Born? A) Bilston B) Dudley C) Hull D) Stratford Upon Avon

Sorry Wrong Answer : 

Sorry Wrong Answer What would you like to do? Try Againor Go to Q3

Correct he was born in Hull : 

Correct he was born in Hull Q3 In which year was Slavery Abolished in Britain ? 1215 1918 C) 1807 D) 1708

Sorry wrong answer : 

Sorry wrong answer What would you like to do? Try Againor Go to Q4

1807 was the Correct answer : 

1807 was the Correct answer Q4 The American Civil War was partly an Anti Slavery Campaign which of the following were anti Slavery ? The Unionists The Confederates The Red Indians The Cowboys

Sorry Wrong Answer : 

Sorry Wrong Answer What would you like to do? Try Againor Go to Q5

Correct The Unionists were Anti Slavery : 

Correct The Unionists were Anti Slavery Q5 Which is the correct spelling? Abolishun Abbolishon Abolition Abbollitthun

Sorry Wrong Answer : 

Sorry Wrong Answer What would you like to do? Try Againor Go to Q6

Abolition is the Correct Answer : 

Abolition is the Correct Answer Q6 From which Continent did most Slaves originate?A) Australia B) America C) Africa D) Antarctica

Sorry Wrong Answer : 

Sorry Wrong Answer What would you like to do? Try Againor Exit the Quiz

Where to find out more(Internet Connection is required) : 

Where to find out more(Internet Connection is required) Direct Gov Wilberforce 2007 BBC British Empire BBC Abolition Page BBC History Homepage Life Aboard a Slaveship A Slave’s Life (The story of Elizabeth Keckley) To find out even more go to a search engine such as Ask, Google, Windows Live Search, Yahoo! Type in Slavery or Abolition and you will get a large selection of links. If you’re not online at home try your Local Library!

Acknowledgements : 

Acknowledgements Thanks to Dave Ward for researching the project. The numerous people who have patiently researched the subject and published it on web sites. All the people past and Present who have opposed Slavery.