medulla oblongata the pons

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MEDULLA OBLONGATA THE PONS

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MEDULLA OBLONGATA THE PONS:

MEDULLA OBLONGATA THE PONS by VYSAKH.J.C 32nd batch

MEDULLA OBLOGATA:

MEDULLA OBLOGATA MEDULL IS THE LOWEST PART OF THE BRAINSTEM EXTENDING FROM PONS TO THE 1 st CERVICAL NERVE LIES IN POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA RELATION;ANTERIORLY-CLIVUS&MENINGES POSTERIORLY-VLLECULA OF CEREBELLUM

EXTERNAL FEATURES:

EXTERNAL FEATURES IT IS DIVIDED IN TO RIGHT&LEFT HALVES BY ANTERIOR&POSTERIOR MEDIAN FISSURES EACH HALF AGAIN IN TO ANT,POS,LAT REGION BY ANTEROLATERAL&POSTEROLATERAL SULCI THE ANT REGION IN THE FORM OF ALONGITUDINAL ELEEATION CALLED PYRAMID ANTERIOR EXTERNAL ARCUATE FIBRES RUN TRANSVERSELY ACROSS UPPER PART OF THE PYRAMID LATERAL REGION SHOWS AN OVAL ELEVATION,THE OLIVE.IT IS PRODUCED BY A MASS OF GREYMATER-INFERIOR OLIVARY NUCLEUS

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ROOTLETS OF THE HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE FROM THE ANT-LAT SULCUS B/W PYRAMID&OLIVE ROOTLETS OF CRANIAL NERVES IX,X&ACCESSORY NERVE ORIGIN THROUGH POS-LAT FISSURE BEHIND OLIVE IN LOWER PART AN ELEVATION THE TUBERCINERIUN THE MEDULLA IS DIVIDED IN TWO PARTS-LOWER CLOSED AND UPPER OPEN PART.HERE A CENTRAL CANAL OPENS OUT TO FORM THE FOUTH VENTRICLE

INTERNAL STRUCTURE :

INTERNAL STRUCTURE FOR STUDY PURPOSE EXAMINING TRANSVERSE SECTIONS THROUGH IT AT THREE LEVEL TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH THE LOWER PART OF THE MEDULLA PASSING THROUGH THE PYRAMIDAL DECUSSATION TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH THE MIDDLE OF THE MEDULLA THROUGH THE SENSORY DECUSSATION TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH THE UPPER PART OF THE MEDULLA PASSING THROUGH THE FLOOR OF THE FOURTH VENTRICLE

TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH THE LOWER PART OF THE MEDULLA PASSING THROUGH THE PYRAMIDAL DECUSSATION:

TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH THE LOWER PART OF THE MEDULLA PASSING THROUGH THE PYRAMIDAL DECUSSATION GREY MATTER 1.THE NUCLEUS GRACILIS&CUNEATUS ARE MUCH LARGER AND SEPARATE FROM THE CENTRAL GREY MATTER 2. LATERAL TO THE CUNEATUS NUCLEUS SEE THE ACCESSORY CUNEATUS NUCLEUS 3. NUCLEUS OF TRIGEMINAN NEVRE SEPARATE FROM GREY MATTER 4.LOWER PART-IFERIOR OLIVARY NUCLEUS 5.CENTRAL GREY MATTER CONTAIN a) HYPOGLOSSAL NUCLEUS b) DORSAL NUCLEUS OF VAGUS c) NUCLEUS OF TRACTUS SOLITARIUS

WHITE MATTER:

WHITE MATTER 1.THE NUCLEUS GRACILIS&CUNEATUS GIVE RISE TO THE INTERNAL ARCUATE FIBRES 2.PYRAMIDAL TRACTS LIE ANTERIORLY 3.THE MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL BUNDLE LIE POSTERIOR TO THE MEDIAL LEMNISCUS 4.THE SPINOCEREBELLAR AND LATERAL SPINOTHALAMIC TRACTS LIE IN THE ANTIROLATERAL AREA

TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH THE UPPER PART OF THE MEDULLA PASSING THROUGH THE FLOOR OF THE FOURTH VENTRICLE :

TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH THE UPPER PART OF THE MEDULLA PASSING THROUGH THE FLOOR OF THE FOURTH VENTRICLE GREY MATTER 1.SEVERAL CRANIAL NERVES NUCLEI ARE SEEN IN THE FLOOR OF FOURTH VENTRICLE (a) HYPOGLOSSAL NUCLEUS (b) DORSAL NUCLEUS OF VAGUS (c) NUCLEUS OF THE TRACTUS SOLITARIUS (d) INFERIOR AND MEDIAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS 2. THE NUCLEUS OF TRIGEMINAL NERVE LIE IN DORSOLATERAL PART 3. INFERIOR OLIVARY NUCLEUS SEEN AT THIS LEVEL 4. ARCUATE NUCLEUS LIE ANT-MED TO THE PYRAMIDAL TRACT VISCERAL CENTRES ARE (a) RESPIRATORY CENTRES (b) CARDIAC CENTERS (c) VASOMOTOR CENTRES

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WHITE MATTER INFERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE OCCUPIES POS-LAT PART THE OLIVOCEREBELLAR FIBRES ARE SEEN PROMINENTLY IN ACTUAL SECTION STRIAE MEDULLARES ARE SEEN IN THE FLOOR OF FOURTH VENTRICLE

CLINICAL ANATOMY:

CLINICAL ANATOMY AN INJURY TO THE MEDULLA IS USUALLY FATAL BULBAR PARALYSIS MAY BE ACUTE .IT CAUSE PARALYSIS OF MUSCLES SUPPLIED BY LAST FOR CRANIAL NERVE PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY DUE TO CEREBRAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS COMMON VASCULAR LESION INVOLVING THE MEDULLA ARE (a) thrombosis of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (b) thrombosis of the vertebral artery

PONS:

PONS IT IS THE MIDDLE PART OF THE BRAINSTEM CONECTING MIDBRAIN WITH MEDULLA LITERARLY PONS-”BRIDGE”

EXTERNAL FEATURES:

EXTERNAL FEATURES PONS HAS TWO SURFACE-VENTRAL&DORSAL VENTRAL SURFACE VENTRAL OR ANTERIOR SURFACE CONVEX IN BOTH DIRECTION& TRASVERSALY STRIATED MEDIAN PLANE HAS A VERTICAL BASILAR SULCUS-LODGING BASILAR ARTERY TRIGEMINAL NERVE ATTACHED TO LATERAL SURFACE THE ABDUCENT,FACIAL&VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE IS ATTACHED TO THE LOWER BORDER OF THE VENTRAL SURFACE DORSAL SURFACE OR POSTERFR SURFACE-HIDDEN BY THE CEREBELLUM FORMS UPPER HALF OF THE FLOOR OF THE FOURTHE VENTRICLE

INTERNAL STRUCTUR:

INTERNAL STRUCTUR IN TRANSVERSE SECTION IT SEEN TO BE VENTRAL&DORSAL PARTS VENTRAL OR BASILAR PART CONTINUOUS WITH PYRAMIDS OF MEDULLA-INFERIORLY,MIDDLE CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE-ON EACH SIDE DORSAL OR TEGMENTAL PART IS DIRECT UPWARD,CONTINUOUATION OF MEDULLA

BASILAR PART:

BASILAR PART IT IS UNIFORM STRUTCTURE THROUGH OUT ITS LENGTH GREY MATTER IT IS REPRSENTED BY THE PONTINE NULEI-IT IS AN IMPORTANT PART OF CORTICOPONTONUCLCEREBELLAR PATH WAY SOME OF THE NCLEI FORM ARCUATE NUCLEUS&PONTOBULBARBODY WHITE MATTER CONSIST LONGITUDINAL&TRANSVERSE FIBERS

TEGMENTUM IN THE LOWER PART OF THE PONS:

TEGMENTUM IN THE LOWER PART OF THE PONS GREY MATTER 6 TH NERVE NUCLEUS LIE BENEATH THE FASCIAL COLLICULUS 7 TH NERVE NUCLEUS LIE IN RETICULAR FORMATION OF PONS THE VESTIBULAR AND COCHLEAR NUCLEI LIE IN RELATION TO THE INFERIOR CERIBELLAR PEDUNCLE THE SPINAL NUCLEUS OF TRIGEMINAL NERVE LIE IN LATERAL PART OTHER NUCLEI PRESENTS ARE SALIVATORY AND LACRIMATORY

WHITE MATTER:

WHITE MATTER TRAPEZOID BODY LYING BEHIND VENTRAL PART OF PONS JUST BEHIND THE TRAPEZOID BODY MEDIAL LEMNISCUS PRESENT LATERAL SPINOTHALAMIC TRACT LIES LATERAL TO MEDIAL LEMNISCUS INFERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE LIES LATERAL TO FOURTH VENTRICLE

TEGMENTUM IN THE UPPER PART OF PONS :

TEGMENTUM IN THE UPPER PART OF PONS GREY MATTER PRESENT MOTOR AND SUPERIOR SENSORY NUCLEI OF TRIGEMINAL NERVE WHITE MATTER IMMEDIATELY BEHIND TRANSVERSE BAND OF FIBERES SUPERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLES LIE DORSOLATERAL TO THE FOURTH VENTRICLE THE MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL BUNDLE MADE OF FIBRES THAT INTERCONNECT NULEI OF CRANIAL NERVE 3,4,5&8 AND SPINAL PART OF ACCESSORY NERVE

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