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TISSUES A group of similar cells united into a mass or structure. Simplest of the organizational units. It is classified into four basic categories: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve tissue.





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Epithelial tissues covers the surface of the body, and lines the body cavities. These tissues include the skin and the inner surfaces of the body, such as those of the lungs, stomach, intestines, and blood vessels. Because its primary function is to protect the body from injury and infection, epithelium is made up of tightly packed cells with little intercellular substance between them.


TYPES OF EPITHELIAL TISSUES These tissues may be classified according to their embryological origin, such as mesothelium , which spreads over the walls of the thoracic and abdominal cavities; endothelium , lines the blood vessels and heart; and ectothelium , covers the surface of the body. However, it is commonly classified according to the shape and arrangement of their cells.

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Simple – where the cells are arranged in a single layer. Stratified –when there is more than one layer. Squamous –the simple squamous type contains flat cells arranged like tiles. It is also found in the lens of the eye and inner ear. Stratified squamous epithelium - forms the external layer of the skin and lines the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, vagina and anal canal.

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Cuboidal Epithelium -consist of cube shaped cells arranged in a very regular pattern. It is mostly found lining small ducts and tubules of the kidney and the glands. Columnar Epithelium -possess hairlike projections known as cilia which cause the surface secretions to flow as it waves. Simple Columnar Epithelial - found in the trachea and bronchi and is widely distributed in the digestive tract where it functions to secrete fluids and absorb digested foodstuffs .


FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIAL TISSUES The protective function of epithelial tissue can be seen in the way in which it normally prevents bacteria from crossing any of the body surfaces. It performs the function of absorption, secretion, and filtration. The epithelial tissue lining the capillaries acts to filter the fluid that moves between the blood vessels and the intercellular spaces.

Glands :

Glands Masses of epithelial cells which have become specialized into secreting organs. There are two types of glands: endocrine and the exocrine. Endocrine Glands -it elaborates a specific substance directly into the blood stream for transportation to the other parts of the body. Exocrine Glands -conveys the secretion from the secreting cells to the specific parts of the body.



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Connective tissues serves as a binding substance. Provides the framework that support epithelial and other tissue. Have an essential role in transport, protection and repair. Shows that intercellular material dominates the entire structure. Fibroblasts –the cells which make up connective tissue with the exception of cartilage and bone.


TYPES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES Adipose tissue -consists largely of fat cells. Each cell becomes filled with fat which pushes the cytoplasm to one side. Areolar Connective Tissue - it is the most common type. The term areolar means “space”. It is found widely distributed around the organs. Edema , when the accumulation of fluid becomes abnormal.

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Cartilage – a smooth mass of intercellular substance in which the connective tissue cells are embedded. They appear as continuous, fused, homogenous material. It is found in many structures throughout the body, and plays an important supporting role. It also appear between bones to set as cushion. Fibrous Tissue - The fibers are very dense, wide and strong. The cells are aligned between the appearance attributed to the character of the fibers.

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Bone or Osseous Tissue- Bone is a connective tissue in which the intercellular substance is rendered hard by being impregnated with mineral salts, chiefly calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. Decalcified is the bone freed from inorganic matter. Bone freed from organic matter is white and brittle that can be crushed from the fingers.

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Bone is a living tissue, though at first inspection one may doubt this fact. It has the property of metabolism. Medullary Canal -the center of the canal is yellow while the end of the bone is red. Red Marrow - an important factory for many of the blood cells. Periosteum - fibrous membrane.

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Throughout life there is a constant “turnover”of bone, which means new bone is deposited and old bone is reabsorbed constantly. The osteoblasts and osteoclasts are the types of cells associated with this process. Osteoblasts – responsible for the formation of new bone. Osteoclasts – bring about reabsorption .


MUSCLE TISSUES There are three types of muscle tissue: striated, involuntary and cardiac. Striated or Voluntary Muscle - has cross-striations and can be controlled at will. Involuntary Muscle - is without striation and is under the control of the autonomic nervous system. Cardiac Muscle - although striated, is found exclusively in the heart and is not under voluntary control.



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Nervous tissue is divided into: nervous tissue proper and interstitial tissue(neuroglia). It is formed from the primitive neural plate of the ectoderm. The most highly specialized tissue in the body. It has a function of initiating, controlling, and coordinating the body’s ability to adapt to its environment. Nervous Tissue Proper - the specialized conducting cells are neurons, linked together to form pathways. Interstitial Tissue - supports the neuron.



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The plant’s equivalent to the epithelium is the epidermal tissue located at the surface of the plant. The photosynthetic tissues are abundant in the leaves and green stems. These are the chlorenchyma cells which contains the chloroplasts . Meristematic tissues - the simplest plant tissues. Parenchyma Cells - do not only serve as support and packaging tissues of young stems and leaves but also serve as storage tissues for fruits and stems.

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Supportive mechanical tissues consist mainly of tightly packed collenchyma cells and schlerenchyma fibers. Vascular tissues - concerned with the transport of materials and are the equivalent of the circulatory system of the animals. It is made up of xylem and phloem vessels . Xylem - conducts water and mineral salts from the roots to the leaves. Phloem - conducts food materials from the leaves to the outer parts of the plants .

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THE END Prepared by: Maritoni Monserrat(1-S) and Joy Anne Mendoza(1-S) (^_^)

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